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A flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim (lip), for strength, as the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc., or on the lens mount of a camera; or for a flange of a rail car or tram wheel. Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off the rails. The term "flange" is also used for a kind of tool used to form flanges. Pipes with flanges can be assembled and disassembled easily.
Plumbing or piping
A flange can also be a plate or ring to form a rim at the end of a pipe when fastened to the pipe (for example, a closet flange). A blind flange is a plate for covering or closing the end of a pipe. A flange joint is a connection of pipes, where the connecting pieces have flanges by which the parts are bolted together.
Although the word flange generally refers to the actual raised rim or lip of a fitting, many flanged plumbing fittings are themselves known as 'flanges':
Common flanges used in plumbing are the Surrey flange or Danzey flange, York flange, Sussex flange and Essex flange. Surrey and York flanges fit to the top of the hot water tank allowing all the water to be taken without disturbance to the tank. They are often used to ensure an even flow of water to showers. An Essex flange requires a hole to be drilled in the side of the tank.
There is also a Warix flange which is the same as a York flange but the shower output is on the top of the flange and the vent on the side. The York and Warix flange have female adapters so that they fit onto a male tank, whereas the Surrey flange connects to a female tank.
There are many different flange standards to be found worldwide. To allow easy functionality and inter-changeability, these are designed to have standardised dimensions. Common world standards include ASA/ANSI/ASME (USA), PN/DIN (European), BS10 (British/Australian), and JIS/KS (Japanese/Korean).
In most cases these are interchangeable as most local standards have been aligned to ISO standards, however some local standards still differ (e.g. an ANSI/ASME flange will not mate against an ISO flange). Further, many of the flanges in each standard are divided into "pressure classes", allowing flanges to be capable of taking different pressure ratings. Again these are not generally interchangeable (e.g. an ANSI/ASME 150 will not mate with an ANSI/ASME 300).
These pressure classes also have differing pressure and temperature ratings for different materials. Unique pressure classes for piping can also be developed for a process plant or power generating station; these may be specific to the corporation, engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contractor, or the process plant owner. The ANSI/ASME pressure classes for Flat-Face flanges are 125# and 250#. The classes for Ring-Joint, Tongue & Groove, and Raised-Face flanges are 150#, 300#, (400# - unusual), 600#, 900#, 1500#, and 2500#.
ASME standards (U.S.)
Pipe flanges that are made to standards called out by ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47 are typically made from forged materials and have machined surfaces. B16.5 refers to nominal pipe sizes (NPS) from ½" to 24". B16.47 covers NPSs from 26" to 60". Each specification further delineates flanges into pressure classes: 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500 for B16.5, and B16.47 delineates its flanges into pressure classes 75, 150, 300, 400, 600, 900. However these classes do not correspond to maximum pressures in psi. Instead, the maximum pressure depends on the material of the flange and the temperature. For example, the maximum pressure for a Class 150 flange is 285 psi, and for a Class 300 Flange it is 740 psi (both are for ASTM A105 Carbon Steel and temperatures below 100F).
The gasket type and bolt type are generally specified by the standard(s); however, sometimes the standards refer to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (B&PVC) for details (see ASME Code Section VIII Division 1 - Appendix 2). These flanges are recognized by ASME Pipe Codes such as ASME B31.1 Power Piping, and ASME B31.3 Process Piping.
Materials for flanges are usually under ASME designation: SA-105 (Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications), SA-266 (Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components), or SA-182 (Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service). In addition, there are many "industry standard" flanges that in some circumstance may be used on ASME work.
The product range includes SORF, SOFF, BLRF, BLFF, WNRF (XS, XXS, STD & Schedule 20, 40, 80), WNFF (XS, XXS, STD & Schedule 20, 40, 80), SWRF (XS & STD), SWFF (XS & STD), Threaded RF, Threaded FF & LJ, with sizes from 1/2" to 16". The bolting material used for flange connection is stud bolts mated with two nut (washer when required). In Petrochemical industries, ASTM A193 B7 STUD & ASTM A193 B16 Stud Bolts are used as these have high tensile strength.
As the Compact flange size increase it becomes relatively increasingly heavy and complex resulting in high procurement, installation and maintenance costs. Large flange diameters in particular are difficult to work with, and inevitably require more space and have a more challenging handling and installation procedure, particularly on remote installations such as oil rigs.
The principle design of the flange face includes two independent seals. The first seal is created by application of seal seating stress at the flange heel, but it is not straight forward to ensure the function of this seal.
Theoretically, the heel contact will be maintained for pressure values up to 1,8 times the flange rating at room temperature.
Theoretically, the flange also remains in contact along its outer circumference at the flange faces for all allowable load levels that it is designed for.
The main seal is the IX seal ring. The seal ring force is provided by the elastic stored energy in the stressed seal ring. Any heel leakage will give internal pressure acting on the seal ring inside intensifying the sealing action. This however requires the IX ring to be retained in the theoretical location in the ring groove which is difficult to ensure and verify during installation.
The design aims at preventing exposure to oxygen and other corrosive agents. Thus, this prevents corrosion of the flange faces, the stressed length of the bolts and the seal ring. This however depends on the outer dust rim to remain in satisfactory contact and that the inside fluid is not corrosive in case of leaking into the bolt circle void.
Applications of compact flanges
The initial cost of the theoretical higher performance compact flange is inevitably higher than a regular flange due to the closer tolerances and significantly more sophisticated design and installation requirements. By way of example, compact flanges are often used across the following applications: subsea oil and gas or riser, cold work and cryogenics, gas injection, high temperature, and nuclear applications.
Trains stay on their tracks primarily due to the conical geometry of their wheels. They also have a flange on one side to keep the wheels, and hence the train, running on the rails, when the limits of the geometry based alignment are reached, e.g. due to some emergency or defect.
A vacuum flange is a flange at the end of a tube used to connect vacuum chambers, tubing and vacuum pumps to each other.
Several different microwave RF flange types exist, such as CAR, CBR, OPC, PAR, PBJ, PBR, PDR, UAR, UBR, UDR, icp and UPX.
Ski boots use flanges at the toe or heel to connect to the binding of the ski. The size and shape for flanges on alpine skiing boots is standardized in ISO 5355. Traditional telemark and cross country boots use the 75mm Nordic Norm, but the toe flange is informally known as the "duckbill". New cross country bindings eliminate the flange entirely and use a steel bar embedded within the sole instead.
- ASME B16.5
- ASME B16.5 Standard Pipe Flanges up to and including 24 inches nominal
- ASME B16.47 Standard Pipe Flanges above 24 inches
- ASME Section II (Materials), Part A - Ferrous Material Specifications
- Nayyar, Mohinder (1999). Piping Handbook, Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-047106-1.
- ASME B16.47 Standard Pipe Flanges Yaang Pipe Industry