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Four-minute mile

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This article is about the running of a mile in less than four minutes. For the album by The Get Up Kids, see Four Minute Mile. For the 2014 film, see 4 Minute Mile.
Blue plaque recording the first ever sub-four-minute mile run by Roger Bannister on 6 May 1954 at Oxford University's Iffley Road Track.

In the sport of athletics, the four-minute mile is the act of completing the mile run (1,760 yards, or 1,609.344 metres) in less than four minutes. It was first achieved in 1954 by Roger Bannister in 3:59.4.[1] The "four-minute barrier" has since been broken by many male athletes, and is now the standard of all male professional middle distance runners. In the last 50 years the mile record has been lowered by almost 17 seconds.[2] Running a mile in four minutes translates to a speed of 15 miles per hour (24.14 km/h, or 2:29.13 per kilometre, or 14.91 seconds per 100 metres).

Record holders[edit]

Breaking the four-minute barrier was first achieved on 6 May 1954, by Englishman Roger Bannister,[3] with the help of fellow-runners as pacemakers.[4] Two months later, during the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games hosted in Vancouver, B.C., two competing runners, Australia's John Landy and Bannister, ran the distance of one mile in under four minutes. The race's end is memorialised in a statue of the two (with Landy glancing over his shoulder, thus losing the race) placed in front of the Pacific National Exhibition entrance plaza.

Roger Bannister and John Landy statues outside the Pacific National Exhibition.
Current mile world record holder Hicham El Guerrouj (left) at the start of a race

New Zealand's John Walker, the first man to run the mile under 3:50, managed to run 135 sub-four-minute miles during his career (during which he was the first person to run over 100 sub-four-minute miles), and American Steve Scott has run the most sub-four-minute miles, with 136. Algeria's Noureddine Morceli was the first under 3:45. Currently, the mile record is held by Morocco's Hicham El Guerrouj, who ran a time of 3:43.13 in Rome in 1999.

In 1964, America's Jim Ryun became the first high-school runner to break four minutes for the mile, running 3:59.0 as a junior and a then American record 3:55.3 as a senior in 1965.[5] Tim Danielson (1966) and Marty Liquori (1967) also came in under four minutes, but Ryun's high-school record stood until Alan Webb ran 3:53.43 in 2001.[6] Ten years later, in 2011, Lukas Verzbicas became the fifth high-schooler under four minutes.[7] In 2015, Matthew Maton and Grant Fisher became the sixth and seventh high-schoolers to break four minutes, both running 3:59.38 about a month apart.[8]

Another illustration of the progression of performance in the men's mile is that, in 1994, forty years after Bannister's breaking of the barrier, the Irish runner Eamonn Coghlan became the first man over the age of 40 to run a sub-four-minute mile.[9] Because Coghlan surpassed the mark indoors and before the IAAF validated indoor performances as being eligible for outdoor records, World Masters Athletics still had not recognised a sub-4-minute-mile performance as a record in the M40 division. Many elite athletes made the attempts to extend their careers beyond age 40 to challenge that mark. Over 18 years after Coghlan, that was finally achieved by UK's Anthony Whiteman, running 3:58.79 on 2 June 2012.[10]

No woman has yet run a four-minute mile. As of 2015, the women's world record is held by retired Russian Svetlana Masterkova, with a time of 4:12.56 in 1996.[11]

In 1997, Daniel Komen of Kenya ran two miles in less than eight minutes, doubling up on Bannister's accomplishment.[12] He did it again in February 1998, falling just .3 behind his previous performance, still the only individual to accomplish the feat.[13]

Possible other claims[edit]

James Parrott[edit]

Some sources (including Olympic medalist Peter Radford[14]) contend the first successful four-minute mile was run in London by James Parrott on 9 May 1770.[15][16] Parrott's route began on Goswell Road, before turning down Old Street, finishing at St Leonard's, Shoreditch. Although timing methods at this time were – following the invention of the chronometer by John Harrison – accurate enough to measure the four minutes correctly the record is not recognised by modern sporting bodies.[17] Neal Bascomb notes in The Perfect Mile that "even nineteenth-century historians cast a skeptical eye on the account."[18]

Glenn Cunningham[edit]

It is also reputed that Glenn Cunningham achieved a four-minute mile in a workout in the 1920s. In addition to being unsubstantiated, a workout run would not count as a record.[19]

Popular culture[edit]

In 1988, the ABC and the BBC co-produced The Four Minute Mile, a miniseries dramatisation of the race to the four-minute mile, featuring Richard Huw as Bannister and Nique Needles as John Landy (who was simultaneously pursuing the milestone). It was written by David Williamson and directed by Jim Goddard.

In 2004, Neal Bascomb wrote a book entitled The Perfect Mile about Roger Bannister, John Landy, and Wes Santee portraying their individual attempts to break the four-minute mile and the context of the sport of mile racing. A second film version (entitled Four Minutes) was made in 2005, starring Jamie Maclachlan as Bannister.

In June 2011 the watch used to time the original event was donated by Jeffrey Archer to a charity auction for Oxford University Athletics Club and sold for £97,250.[20]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Sports: Bannister stuns world with 4-minute mile". 17 December 1999. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "Most Popular". CNN. 8 May 2000. 
  3. ^ "1954: Bannister breaks four-minute mile". BBC Online. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  4. ^ Beard, Mary (25 April 2014). "How running has changed since the four-minute mile". A Point of View. BBC. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "Ryun's mile record is history; high schooler Alan Webb hits 3:53.43". 15 March 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  6. ^ "High School Records – Boys". Track & Field News. 
  7. ^ Bill Carey (11 June 2011). "Verzbicas breaks four-minute mile". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 
  8. ^
  9. ^ Dan Giesen (20 April 1996). "Scott Sets New Goals As He Turns 40". San Francisco Chronicle. 
  10. ^ "Music City Distance Carnival – Complete Results – Tennessee Runner". Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "All-time women's best mile race". Peter Larsson: Track and Field All-Time Performances. 
  12. ^ "World Records and Best Performances: Men's Track & Field". Athletics Weekly. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 
  13. ^
  14. ^ Radford, Peter (2 May 2004). "The Time a Land Forgot". The Guardian (London). 
  15. ^ "The first four-minute mile". East London History. 2004. Archived from the original on 8 April 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. 
  16. ^ James Fletcher (9 May 2014). "The 18th Century four-minute mile". BBC News. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  17. ^ Radford, Pete (6 May 2004). "Runners of Old are Hard to Beat". Edinburgh Evening News. 
  18. ^ Bascomb, Neal (2004). The Perfect Mile: Three Athletes, One Goal, and Less Than Four Minutes to Achieve It (1st Mariner Books ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 60. ISBN 9780547525068. 
  19. ^ Kiell, Paul (2006). American Miler: The Life and Times of Glenn Cunningham. Breakaway Books. pp. 93–94. ISBN 1-891369-59-8. 
  20. ^ White, Belinda (28 June 2011). "Margaret Thatcher's handbag sells for £25,000". Retrieved 4 March 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Bannister, Roger (1955). The First Four Minutes. Putnam. 
  • Bascomb, Neil (2004). The Perfect Mile. Willow. ISBN 978-0-0071737-3-0. 
  • Bryant, John (2004). 3:59.4 The Quest To Break The Four Minute Mile. Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-0918003-3-8. 
  • Nelson, Cordner; Quercetani, Roberto (1985). The Milers. Tafnews Press. ISBN 0-911521-15-1. 
  • Phillips, Bob (2004). 3:59.4 The Quest For The Four-Minute Mile. Parrs Wood Press. ISBN 978-1-9031584-9-4. 

External links[edit]