Fred T. Mackenzie

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Frederick T. "Fred" Mackenzie
Fred T. Mackenzie.JPG
Fred Mackenzie in 2010
Born (1934-03-17) March 17, 1934 (age 84)
Nationality American
Education Upsala College
Lehigh University
Known for Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks
Awards See awards section
Scientific career
Fields Sedimentary and global geochemistry
Institutions University of Hawaii
Northwestern University
Thesis  (1959 & 1962)
Website Fred T. Mackenzie

Frederick T. Mackenzie (born March 17, 1934) is an American sedimentary and global biogeochemist.[1] Mackenzie applies experimental and field data coupled to a sound theoretical framework to the solution of geological, geochemical, and oceanographic problems at various time and space scales.[2]

He is identified closely with the book Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks co-authored in 1971 by Mackenzie with Robert M. Garrels, which reawakened and revitalized the scientific community to the ideas of the British geologist James Hutton that lay fallow for more than 150 years.[3] Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks expanded on the theory of reverse weathering proposed by Mackenzie and Garrels in 1966.[4][5]

Life and career[edit]

Mackenzie earned a bachelor's degree in physics and geology from Upsala College in 1955. He went on to earn an M.S. degree in 1959 and his Ph.D. in 1962 in geological sciences and biogeochemistry from Lehigh University.[2] His Ph.D. dissertation research dealt with a paleocurrent and environmental analysis of the ~ 140 Ma Cretaceous Lakota and equivalent rock units of the Western Interior of the United States.[6]

Following completion of his Ph.D., Mackenzie went to work full-time for Shell Oil Company as an Exploration and Research Geologist.[2] Two of his assignments at the time involved studies of the stratigraphy and structure of Ordovician carbonates in the Appalachian Mountains as targets for oil exploration and of the Devonian Marcellus Shale, which in recent years has become a horizon for gas production by fracking and a subject of strong environmental concern. Then in 1963, Mackenzie accepted a position as Staff Geochemist and Assistant Director at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR, now the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences).[2][7] One of his tasks at BBSR was to manage Hydrostation S, the longest continuously occupied hydrostation in the world.

In 1967 Mackenzie joined the faculty at Northwestern University becoming Full Professor and department Chair in 1971.[2][8] Here between 1967 and 1981, he in association with colleagues Robert Garrels, Hal Helgeson, Abraham Lerman and his many graduate students and national and international colleagues published a number of classic papers involving an interdisciplinary range of scientific topics including early diagenetic processes of reverse weathering and controls on seawater composition, pore water geochemistry, kinetics and thermodynamics of mineral-water reactions, and modeling of Earth's surface environmental system over geological time.[9]

In 1981 Mackenzie left Northwestern and accepted an appointment in 1982 at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where he continues doing research and teaching until today, although in 2008, he became a Professor Emeritus of Oceanography and Geology & Geophysics.[2] At the University of Hawaii, Mackenzie broadened his research and teaching program even more into the field of marine biogeochemistry, particularly into the biogeochemical interactions involving carbon and oxygen and the nutrient elements of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon between the land and coastal waters.[10] He also investigated CO2 exchange in coastal marine waters, and the biogeochemistry and consequences of ocean acidification for reefs and other carbonate ecosystems.[11] In 1997, Mackenzie founded the Bachelor of Science degree program in Global Environmental Science at the University of Hawaii in the Oceanography Department.[2]

Mackenzie is the author or co-author of nearly 300 scholarly works, and has written works with more than 200 co-authors.[2][10][12] Mackenzie is also an ardent athlete, lifetime traveler, and mountaineer having climbed in many ranges of the world.[2]

Fellowships, awards and honors[edit]

Mackenzie is a Fellow of the Mineralogical Society of America, the Geological Society of America, the Geochemical Society, the European Association of Geochemistry, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is a Life Trustee of the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences.[13] He has received innumerable awards and honors including:[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

Selected publications[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks with R. M. Garrels (1971) ISBN 0-393-09959-8[21]
  • Chemical Cycles and the Global Environment – Assessing Human Influences with R. M. Garrels, C. Hunt (1973, 1974, 1975) ISBN 0-913232-29-7[22]
  • Chemical Cycles in the Evolution of Earth with C. B. Gregor, R. M. Garrels, and J. B. Maynard (1988) ISBN 978-0-471-08911-7[23]
  • Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonates with R. W. Morse (1990) ISBN 978-0-444-88781-8[24]
  • Interactions of C, N, P and S Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change with R. Wollast and L. Chou (1993) ISBN 978-3-642-76064-8[25]
  • Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climatic System: Will the Warming Feed the Warming? with G. Woodwell (1995) ISBN 978-0-19-508640-9[26]
  • Carbon in the Geobiosphere—Earth's Outer Shell with A. Lerman (2006) ISBN 9048170222[27]
  • "Biological and geochemical forcings to Phanerozoic change in seawater, atmosphere, and carbonate precipitate composition." in Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea with M. W. Guidry and R. S. Arvidson (2007) ISBN 978-0-12-370518-1[28]
  • Our Changing Planet: An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change (2011) ISBN 978-0-321-66772-4[29]

Journal articles[edit]

  • "Silicates: Reactivity with Sea Water" in Science, with R. M. Garrels (1965)[30]
  • "Chemical mass balance between rivers and oceans" in American Journal of Science with R. M. Garrels (1966)[31]
  • "The Pleistocene history of Bermuda" in Geological Society of America Bulletin with L. S. Land and S. J. Gould (1967)[32]
  • "A Quantitative Model for the Sedimentary Rock Cycle" in Journal of Marine Chemistry with R. M. Garrels (1972)[33]
  • "Time Variability of Pore Water Chemistry in Recent Carbonate Sediments" in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta with D. C. Thorstenson (1974)[34]
  • "Tectonic Controls of Phanerozoic Sedimentary Rock Cycling" in Journal of the Geological Society with J. Pigott (1981)[35]
  • "Stabilities of Synthetic Magnesian Calcites in Aqueous Solution: Comparison with Biogenic Materials" in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta with W. D. Bishoff and F. C. Bishop (1987)[36]
  • "Bank-derived Carbonate Sediment Transport and Dissolution in the Hawaiian Archipelago" in Aquatic Geochemistry with C. Sabine (1995)[37]
  • "The Dolomite Problem: Control of Precipitation Kinetics by Temperature and Saturation State" in American Journal of Science with R. S. Arvidson (1999)[38]
  • "Biogeochemical Responses of the Carbon Cycle to Natural and Human Perturbations: Past, Present, and Future" in American Journal of Science with A. Lerman and L. M. Ver (1999)[39]
  • "Shallow-water Oceans: a Source or Sink of Atmospheric CO2?" in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment with A. J. Andersson (2004)[40]
  • "Coastal Ocean and Carbonate Systems in the High CO2 World of the Anthropocene" in American Journal of Science with A .J. Andersson and A. Lerman (2005)[41]
  • "Initial Responses of Carbonate-rich Shelf Sediments to Rising Atmospheric pCO2 and 'Ocean Acidification': Role of High Mg-Calcites" in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta with J. W. Morse and A. J. Andersson (2006)[42]
  • "Coupled C, N, P, and O Biogeochemical Cycling at the Land-ocean Interface" in Treatise on Coastal and Estuarine Science with A. Lerman and E.H. DeCarlo (2011)[43]
  • "The Marine Carbon System and Ocean Acidification during Phanerozoic Time" in Geochemical Perspectives with A. J. Andersson (2013)[44]
  • "The sensitivity of the Phanerozoic inorganic carbon system to the onset of pelagic sedimentation" in Aquatic Geochemistry with R. S. Arvidson and R. A, Berner (2014)[45]
  • "Evolution of sedimentary rocks" in Treatise on Geochemistry with J. Veizer (2014)[46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fred Mackenzie". American Scientist. The Scientific Research Society. Retrieved March 28, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i De Carlo, Eric Heinen; Arvidson, Rolf S.; Chou, Lei; Sabine, Christopher; Luther, George W. (November 2013). "Fred T. Mackenzie: Gentleman, Scholar, Mountaineer and Model Colleague". Aquatic Geochemistry. 19 (5-6): 347–351. doi:10.1007/s10498-013-9221-8. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Berner, Robert A. "A Biographical Memoir: Robert Minard Garrels" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  4. ^ Emerson, Steven; Hedges, John (2008). Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-521-83313-4. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  5. ^ R. M. Garrels, F. T. Mackenzie, 1966, Chemical mass balance between rivers and oceans. American Journal of Science, 264, 507-525.
  6. ^ F. T. Mackenzie and J. D. Ryan, 1962, Cloverly-Lakota and Fall River paleocurrents in the Wyoming Rockies. Wyoming Geological Association Guidebook. Symposium on Early Cretaceous Rocks of Wyoming and Adjacent Areas, 44-61.
  7. ^ Andersson, Andreas J. (April 2013). "The Marine Carbon System and Ocean Acidification during Phanerozoic Time". Geochemical Perspectives. 2 (1): 1–227. doi:10.7185/geochempersp.2.1. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  8. ^ "Fred Mackenzie". Northwestern University. Helix Magazine. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  9. ^ School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. "Fred T. Mackenzie Scholarly Works". University of Hawaii. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  10. ^ a b "Coupled C, N, P, and O Biogeochemical Cycling at the Land–Ocean Interface". Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science. 5: 317–342. July 2012. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374711-2.00512-X. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  11. ^ Reyes-Nivea, C. "Interactive comment on Relative roles of endolithic algae and carbonate chemistry variability in the skeletal dissolution of crustose coralline algae" (PDF). Biogeosciences Discussion. European Geosciences Union. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  12. ^ Mackenzie, Fred; Andersson, Andreas (2013). Geochemical Perspectives. The Marine Carbon and Ocean Acidification during the Phaneozoic Time.
  13. ^ School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. "Fred T. Mackenzie Honors". University of Hawaii. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  14. ^ Annual Report of the SEPM (SOCIETY FOR SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY) for the year ending at the seventy-ninth annual meeting
  15. ^ IAGC. International Association of GeoChemistry. Retrieved 2007
  16. ^ "Regents' Medal for Excellence in Research". www.hawaii.edu. University of Hawaii. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  17. ^ "Regents' Medal for Excellence in Teaching 1965-2003". www.hawaii.edu. University of Hawaii. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  18. ^ "Scholars research and accolades". www.arcsfoundation.org. Achievement Rewards for College Scientists Foundation. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  19. ^ "Fred T. Mackenzie". www.wiko-berlin.de. Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  20. ^ "C.C. Patterson Award". www.geochemsoc.org. Geochemical Society. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  21. ^ Garrels, Robert M.; Mackenzie, Fred T. (1971). Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-09959-8. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  22. ^ Garrels, R.M.; Hunt, C.; Mackenze, F. T. (1975). Chemical Cycles and the Global Environment – Assessing Human Influences. Los Altos, California: W. Kaufman, Inc. ISBN 0-913232-29-7. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  23. ^ Gregor, C.B.; Garrels, R.M.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Maynard, J.B. (1988). Chemical Cycles in the Evolution of Earth (1 ed.). University of California: Wiley. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-471-08911-7. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  24. ^ Mackenzie, F.T.; Morse, R.W. (1990). Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonates. Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier. p. 707. ISBN 978-0-444-88781-8. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  25. ^ Wollast, R; Mackenzie, Fred T; Chou, Lei (1993). Interactions of C, N, P, and S biogeochemical cycles and global change. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-76064-8. 
  26. ^ Woodwell, George M.; Mackenzie, Fred T. (1995). Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climatic System: Will the Warming Feed the Warming?. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-444-88781-8. 
  27. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T.; Lerman, Abraham (2010). Carbon in the Geobiosphere—Earth's Outer Shell. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. p. 402. ISBN 9048170222. 
  28. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T.; Guidry, M.W.; Arvidson, R.S. (2007). Falkowski, P.; Knoll, A., eds. Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea (PDF). Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 377–403. ISBN 978-0-12-370518-1. 
  29. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T. Our Changing Planet: An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change (4+1991 with Judith Mackenzie+1998+2003 ed.). Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice Hall. p. 579. ISBN 978-0-321-66772-4. 
  30. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T.; Garrels, Robert M. (1 October 1965). "Silicates: Reactivity with Sea Water". Science. 150 (3692): 57–58. doi:10.1126/science.150.3692.57. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  31. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T.; Garrels, Robert M. (1 September 1966). "Chemical mass balance between rivers and oceans". American Journal of Science. 264: 507–525. doi:10.2475/ajs.264.7.507. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  32. ^ Land, Lyton S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.; Gould, Stephen J. (24 June 1966). "Pleistocene History of Bermuda". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 78: 993–1006. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1967)78[993:phob]2.0.co;2. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  33. ^ Garrels, Robert M.; Mackenzie, Fred T. (1972). "A Quantitative Model for the Sedimentary Rock Cycle". Journal of Marine Chemistry. 1: 27–40. doi:10.1016/0304-4203(72)90004-7. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  34. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T; Thorstenson, D. C. (1974). "Time Variability of Pore Water Chemistry in Recent Carbonate Sediments". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 38: 1–19. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(74)90192-6. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  35. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T.; Pigott, J. (1981). "Tectonic Controls of Phanerozoic Sedimentary Rock Cycling". Journal of the Geological Society. 138: 183–196. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.138.2.0183. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  36. ^ Bishoff, William D; Bishop, Finley C.; Mackenzie, Fred T. (1987). "Stabilities of Synthetic Magnesian Calcites in Aqueous Solution: Comparison with Biogenic Materials". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 51: 1413–1423. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(87)90325-5. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  37. ^ Mackenzie, F.T.; Sabine, C. (1995). "Bank-derived Carbonate Sediment Transport and Dissolution in the Hawaiian Archipelago". Aquatic Geochemistry. 1: 189–230. doi:10.1007/BF00702891. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  38. ^ Arvidson, R.S.; Mackenzie, F.T. (1999). "The dolomite problem: Control of Precipitation Kinetics by Temperature and Saturation State". American Journal of Science. 299: 257–288. doi:10.2475/ajs.299.4.257. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  39. ^ Lerman, A.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Ver, L.M (1999). "Biogeochemical Responses of the Carbon Cycle to Natural and Human Perturbations: Past, Present, and Future". American Journal of Science. 299: 762–801. doi:10.2475/ajs.299.7-9.762. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  40. ^ Anderson, A.J.; Mackenzie, F.T. (2004). "Shallow-water Oceans: a Source or Sink of Atmospheric CO2?". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2: 348–353. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0348:SOASOS]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  41. ^ Anderson, A.J.; Lehman, A.; Mackenzie, F.T. (2005). "Coastal Ocean and Carbonate Systems in the High CO2 World of the Anthropocene". American Journal of Science. 305: 875–918. doi:10.2475/ajs.305.9.875. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  42. ^ Anderson, J.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Morse, J.W. (2006). "Initial Responses of Carbonate-rich Shelf Sediments to Rising Atmospheric pCO2 and 'Ocean Acidification': Role of High Mg-Calcites". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 70: 5814–5830. Bibcode:2006GeCoA..70.5814M. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.08.017. Retrieved 1 May 2015. 
  43. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T.; De Carlo, E.H.; Lerman, A. (30 July 2012). Middleburg, J; Laane, R, eds. "Coupled C, N, P, and O biogeochemical cycling at the land-ocean interface". Treatise on Coastal and Estuarine Science. ScienceDirect. 5 (10): 317–342. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374711-2.00512-X. 
  44. ^ Mackenzie, Fred T.; Andersson, Andreas J. "The Marine Carbon System and Ocean Acidification during Phanerozoic Time". Geochemical Perspectives. Wijnbouw 7, Netherlands: European Association of Geochemistry. 2 (1): 227. doi:10.7185/geochempersp.2.1. 
  45. ^ Arvidson, Rolf S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.; Berner, Robert A. (5 February 2014). "The Sensitivity of the Phanerozoic Inorganic Carbon System to the Onset of Pelagic Sedimentation". Aquatic Geochemistry. 20 (2-3): 343–362. doi:10.1007/s10498-013-9224-5. 
  46. ^ J., Veizer (19 October 2013). Holland, H. D.; Turekian, K. K.; Mackenzie, F.T., eds. "Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks". Treatise on Geochemistry (2 ed.). ScienceDirect. 9 Sediments, Diagenesis and Sedimentary Rocks: 399–435. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-095975-7.00715-4.