Legislative elections were held in France on 8 February 1871 to elect the first legislature of the French Third Republic, the unicameral National Assembly. The elections were held during an explosive situation in the country, as following the Franco-Prussian War, 43 departments were occupied. As a result, all public meetings were outlawed and Paris was the only city where an election campaign took place.
The electoral law allowed candidates to run in more than one seat at a time. As a result, several candidates were elected in more than one seat, with Adolphe Thiers elected in 86 constituencies. A series of by-elections were subsequently held on 2 July to elect the 114 vacant seats.