Garlic production in China

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Garlic output in 2005 shown as a percentage of the top producer, China.

Garlic production in China is significant to the Garlic industry as China is the leading producer and leading exporter in the world.[1] After China, other garlic producers include South Korea (2nd), India (3rd), the United States (4th), Egypt (5th), and Spain (6th).[2] As of 2012, China produces 59 million metric tons annually, about 66 percent of total world production.

History[edit]

Garlic in China is mentioned in the Calendar of the Hsia, dating to 2000 BCE. It is theorized that its cultivation in China occurred at the same time as it did in ancient Mesopotamia.[3] The ancient Chinese recognized the powerful antibiotic effects of garlic and used it in Chinese traditional medicine, using it to cure stomach upset and diarrhea, among other ailments.[4]

Between 1992 and 2000, Chinese garlic exports increased from 128,239 tonnes to 383,860 tonnes, and it became the world's largest producer.[5]

China has been involved in numerous disputes with its rivals including South Korea, Japan and the United States, and the country has been investigated for dumping. In 1994, the US introduced a 376.67 percent antidumping tax on Chinese garlic for a 5-year period, and when Chinese garlic merchants failed to meet with US official to review the situation in 1999, the duty has since been kept on permanent basis.[6] In 1994, China too introduced regulations on export of garlic to 12 countries, and under the new regulations only 16 firms were permitted to export and a fixed quota was fixed for each firm and a fee collected on that basis. The total quota allotted was mentioned by the Chinese Chamber of Commerce as 100,000 metric tons in 1994 with increasing amounts in the following four years.

In February 2001, the nations agreed to settle the long-running dispute related to China's interest in three EU nations through a seven-year agreement. In 2004, an antidumping duty was imposed by Canada on garlic as the assessment at that time was China's exports met 75 percent of the world production of garlic. The review committee had also observed that the production of garlic in China amounted to a 60 percent increase over the 2000 level. In spite of this high production recorded till 2004, the FAO reported that there was a shortage of production in 2005 which resulted in increase of garlic price in the export market to US $13 per box in 2005. Mexico,[7] Brazil, Chile, Thailand, Venezuela and South Africa joined the US and Canada in imposing an antidumping duty. However, China's export of garlic to the European Union was duty provided with an exemption up to a limit of 29.1 million pounds of garlic every year, with duty imposed on rising scale on any quantify exceeding this amount. [8]

China has also faced problems with Korea, the most important market for Chinese garlic. In 1999, Korean garlic prices fell by 30 percent, blamed on less costly imported Chinese garlic. As a result, on 1 June 2000 the Korean government introduced a 315 percent levy on imported garlic and restrictions on quantity of imports permitted.[9] The Chinese saw this as a direct attack on their garlic industry and retaliated a week later on 7 June 2000 by suspending the import of Korean-made mobile phones and polyethylene.[9] Six weeks later they lifted the suspension and Korean diplomats reached an agreement over the garlic industry with the Chinese, under which Korea could import 32,000 tonnes annually at low tariffs and would be permitted to grow by 5.25% per annum over a 3-year period.[9] The Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MOFTEC) established the "Provisional Rules on Management of Export of Garlic to South Korea" to specifically manage and regulate it.[9]

In January 2013 it was reported that two British men had made millions of euros smuggling Chinese garlic from Norway into Sweden; illegal as the EU imposes a 9.6 percent duty on garlic which is imported from overseas.[10]

Production[edit]

Chinese garlic production increased from 2,412,477 tonnes (2,374,376 long tons; 2,659,301 short tons) in 1978 to 8,153,409 tonnes (8,024,638 long tons; 8,987,595 short tons) in 2001, while exports increased from 11,283 tonnes (11,105 long tons; 12,437 short tons) in 1978 to 1,115,890 tonnes (1,098,270 long tons; 1,230,060 short tons) in 2005.[11] As of 2012, China is the largest producer of garlic in the world, currently producing 59 million metric tons annually, about 66 percent of total world production.[6] Most of China's garlic is produced in Shandong, an eastern coastal province,[2] located to the southwest of Beijing.[12]

Top 10 garlic producers in 2010
Country Production (tonnes) Footnote
 People's Republic of China 13,664,069 Im
 India 833,970
 South Korea 271,560
 Egypt 244,626
 Russia 213,480
 Myanmar 185,900 Im
 Ethiopia 180,300 Im
 United States 169,510
 Bangladesh 164,392
 Ukraine 157,400
World 17,674,893 A
* = Unofficial figure | [ ] = Official data | A = May include official, semi-official or estimated data
F = FAO estimate | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology | M = Data not available

Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[13]

Methods[edit]

While garlic (Allium sativum L) is produced primarily for food flavoring, its uses are also noted for qualities of furthering good health. Its cultivation in China dates back to a long period, believed to have been brought from Mongolia and the type grown is known as suan. Propagation of garlic is by vegetative methods by using segments of cloves (which are covered with protective sheath) formed within bulbs as they do not produce seeds; a garlic bulb has ten leaves which are attached to the central axis of the plant. The storage part of the garlic plant is the clove and not the leaves. The cloves are formed distinctly when the roots and the leaves die out. Its odour is the result of anicin, which is an organic sulphur compound.[14]

Garlic grows better in regions with temperature variation of 12 to 24 degrees Celsius. It is shallow rooted and hence good drainage condition is essential, particularly when grown in sandy soils. Use of pest control chemicals is done after field tests. The common garlic disease is blue mold rot, particularly noted when stored in sealed containers. The plant is harvested when the leaves die out. They are pulled out with machines and if dry stored after weeding out the rotted variety, and then subject to a curing process. It can preserved by suitable storage for up to 6 months, and the planting variety is stored in a temperature range of 5 to 10 degrees Celsius.[14]

Festivals and conferences[edit]

The third annual China Garlic conference was held in May 2013. It was organized by the China Chamber of Commerce of Foodstuffs, Native Produce and Animal By-products (CFNA) and its organization's sub-chamber of garlic, which comprises over 200 member companies within the garlic industry.[15] The Second China International Garlic Festival was organized by the China Vegetable Circulation Association, the Productivity Promotion Center and the Jining Municipal People's Government in 2010 in Jinxiang. The county was recognized in 2002 by Guinness World Records as having the largest garlic cultivation area.[16]

In popular culture[edit]

Young children in China have garlic oil rubbed on their foreheads as protection from vampires.[17] Another method would be to just "wet" a few cloves of garlic on the child's forehead.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. International Trade Commission. Fresh Garlic from China, Inv. 731-TA-683 (Second Review). DIANE Publishing. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4578-1874-5. 
  2. ^ a b Renoux, Victoria (October 2004). For the Love Of-- Garlic: The Complete Guide to Garlic Cuisine. Square One Publishers, Inc. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-7570-0087-4. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  3. ^ Block, Eric (2010). Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-0-85404-190-9. 
  4. ^ Ellis, George (1 November 1998). The Healing Cuisine of China: 300 Recipes for Vibrant Health and Longevity. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-89281-778-8. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  5. ^ Pritchard, Bill; Burch, David (1 January 2003). Agri-Food Globalization in Perspective: International Restructuring in the Processing Tomato Industry. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-7546-1508-8. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Bao, Shuming; Lin, Shuanglin; Zhao, Changwen (1 October 2012). The Chinese Economy After Wto Accession. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-4094-6279-8. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  7. ^ Commission 2000, pp. I 23–24.
  8. ^ Commission 2000, pp. I-25.
  9. ^ a b c d Zhang, Qi (2007). Consultation Within WTO Dispute Settlement: A Chinese Perspective. Peter Lang. pp. 188–9. ISBN 978-3-03911-239-5. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "Who, What, Why: Why do criminals smuggle garlic?". BBC. 12 January 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  11. ^ Brewster, James L. (1 January 2008). Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums. CABI. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-84593-622-8. 
  12. ^ Commission 2000, pp. I-24.
  13. ^ "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers – Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  14. ^ a b Ib Libner Nonnecke (1989). Vegetable Production. Springer. pp. 312–316. ISBN 978-0-442-26721-6. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  15. ^ "Welcome to China Garlic 2013". China Garlic. 
  16. ^ "The Second China International Garlic Festival open ceremoniously in Jingxiang 01/07/2010". Hong Chang Garlic. 
  17. ^ Vampires. Capstone. pp. 70–. ISBN 9781601523907. 
  18. ^ Guiley, Rosemary (2004). The Encyclopedia of Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Monsters. Infobase. pp. 133–. ISBN 9781438130019. 

Bibliography[edit]