Hematocolpos

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Hematocolpos
SpecialtyGynaecology Edit this on Wikidata

'Hematocolpos' is a medical condition in which the vagina is pooled with menstrual blood due to multiple factors leading to the blockage of menstrual blood flow. The medical definition of Hematocolpos is 'an accumulation of blood within the vagina'. It is often caused by the combination of menstruation with an imperforate hymen.[1][2] It is sometimes seen in Robinow syndrome, uterus didelphys, or other vaginal anomalies.

A related disorder is hematometra, where the uterus fills with menstrual blood.[3] It presents after puberty as primary amenorrhoea, recurrent pelvic pain with a pelvic mass. This can be caused by a congenital stenosis of the cervix, or by a complication of a surgical treatment.[4] Mucometrocolpos is the accumulation of mucous secretions behind an imperforate hymen.[5][6] Mucometrocolpos can sometimes cause abdominal distention.[7][8][9][10]

Symptoms[edit]

Causes[edit]

There can be four possible causes of hematocolpos[12]

  • Imperforate hymen: An imperforate hymen is a medical condition where the girls are born with a hymen which covers the whole opening of the vagina. An imperforate hymen may be diagnosed at any age. However, when a girl hits puberty, this type of hymen blocks the blood from flowing out and the bloods pools in the vagina. this condition is called Hematocolpos. As the blood backs up in the vagina, it causes:

-Mass or fullness in the lower abdomen

-Stomach ache

-Back pain

-Problems in urinating and bowel movements,[13]

  • Cervical atresia: Cervical Atresia is a relatively rare Mullerian duct anomaly of the female reproductive tract.It is associated with acute or chronic pain in the abdomen or pelvic pain along with other reproductive problems. A significant share of the women with cervical atresia have it since birth, that is, they congenital cervical atresia. However, Cervical Atresia is distinct from other Mullerian duct anomalies.[14]
  • Vaginal atresia: Vaginal atresia is another congenital defect which results in the uterovaginal outflow tract obstruction. it occurs when the caudal portion of the vagina fails to form and is rather replaced with fibrous tissues only. Vaginal Atresia has three basic categories of anomalies- Vaginal Agenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and imperforate anus and urogenital sinus variants. The different features associated with an ambiguous genitalia which might eventually lead to a blockage of menstrual blood flow are: i) Rugal folds over the labia ii) Mass in an apparent labium iii) Excess clitoral tissue. [15] Due to these anomalies, there are chances that the menstrual blood would not be able to flow out of the vagina, eventually leading to Hematocolpos.
  • Transverse vaginal septum: A transverse vaginal septum is another medical condition whereby an extra horizontal wall of tissue that has formed during embryological development creates a blockage in the vagina. Transverse vaginal septa are relatively rare anomalies, occurring in about 1 in 70,000 girls. The diagnosis can be made at various ages, from neonates presenting with hydrocolpos to young women presenting with primary amenorrhea and pelvic pain due to the development of hematocolpos. Often, women might have a normal hymeneal opening but this wall of tissue might be blocking the access to the vaginal canal. A small opening in the septum called the fenestration allows the menstrual blood to flow out of the vagina. However, it takes longer than the usual menstrual cycle. For the women who do not have a fenestration, blood will pool in the upper vagina and this would lead to serious abdominal pain. This also results in infertility.[16]

Treatment[edit]

As the causes for Hematocolpos are diverse, there are different surgical treatments which needs to be undertaken to cure it. Surgical interventions for congenital cervical atresia range from complete hysterectomy with canalization to conservative options, such as uterine cavity catheterization.[17]

For the women who have an imperforate hymen, a minor surgery is required incising the extra hymen membrane. It is generally treated surgically, with a hymenotomy or other surgery to remove any tissue that blocks the menstrual flow. Also, post surgery, the patient is required to insert dilators into the vagina for a few minutes each day for a few days post the surgery to avoid the incision being closed on its own. Once the patient has recovered from the surgery- that is, there are no burning sensation around the vaginal, they can have regular periods, normal sexual intercourse. Unlike an imperforate hymen which can be easily corrected, surgical correction of a transverse septum can be difficult if the surgery is not carefully planned. Postoperative complications, such as vaginal stenosis and re-obstruction can occur, especially when the septum is thick. The thickness and location of the septum is most commonly evaluated by transperineal ultrasound or MRI before attempting its resection.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kloss, Brian T.; Nacca, Nicholas E.; Cantor, Richard M. (6 May 2010). "Hematocolpos secondary to imperforate hymen". International Journal of Emergency Medicine. 3 (4): 481–482. doi:10.1007/s12245-010-0171-2. PMC 3047835. PMID 21373333.
  2. ^ TOMPKINS, PENDLETON (2 September 1939). "The Treatment of Imperforate Hymen with Hematocolpos". Journal of the American Medical Association. 113 (10): 913–916. doi:10.1001/jama.1939.02800350023007.
  3. ^ Smith, Roger Perry (2008-01-01). Netter's Obstetrics and Gynecology. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-1416056829.
  4. ^ Verma, SK; Baltarowich, OH; Lev-Toaff, AS; Mitchell, DG; Verma, M; Batzer, F (Jul 2009). "Hematocolpos secondary to acquired vaginal scarring after radiation therapy for colorectal carcinoma" (PDF). Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 28 (7): 949–53. doi:10.7863/jum.2009.28.7.949. PMID 19546336.
  5. ^ Yapar, E. G.; Ekici, E.; Aydogdu, T.; Senses, E.; Gökmen, O. (1996-12-18). "Diagnostic problems in a case with mucometrocolpos, polydactyly, congenital heart disease, and skeletal dysplasia". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 66 (3): 343–346. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19961218)66:3<343::AID-AJMG19>3.0.CO;2-M. ISSN 0148-7299. PMID 8985498.
  6. ^ Babcock, Diane S. (January 1989). Neonatal and pediatric ultrasonography. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 9780443086069.
  7. ^ Saclarides, Theodore J.; Myers, Jonathan A.; Millikan, Keith W. (2015-01-02). Common Surgical Diseases: An Algorithmic Approach to Problem Solving. Springer. ISBN 9781493915651.
  8. ^ Kaiser, Georges L. (2012-12-13). Symptoms and Signs in Pediatric Surgery. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783642311611.
  9. ^ Stevenson, Roger E. (2015-10-27). Human Malformations and Related Anomalies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199386031.
  10. ^ Dosedla, Erik; Kacerovsky, Marian; Calda, Pavel (2011-03-01). "Prenatal diagnosis of hydrometrocolpos in a down syndrome fetus". Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 39 (3): 169–171. doi:10.1002/jcu.20785. ISSN 1097-0096. PMID 21387330.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Kotter, Haleigh; Weingrow, Daniel; Canders, Caleb (2017-07-28). "Hematometrocolpos in a Pubescent Girl with Abdominal Pain". Clinical Practice and Cases in Emergency Medicine. 1 (3): 218–220. doi:10.5811/cpcem.2017.3.33369. ISSN 2474-252X. PMC 5965174. PMID 29849312.
  12. ^ "Most common cause of hematocolpos (LQ)A cervical atresiaB vaginal atresiaC transverse vaginal septumD imperforate hymen - Flash cards Miscellaneous - Dr. Bhatia Medical Coaching Institute Pvt. Ltd. - Dr Bhatia Medical Coaching Institute". GradeStack Courses. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  13. ^ "Imperforate hymen: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  14. ^ Xie, Zhihong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jiandong; Zhang, Ningzhi; Xiao, Hong; Liu, Yongying; Li, Liang; Liu, Xiaoying (2014-02-21). "Clinical characteristics of congenital cervical atresia based on anatomy and ultrasound: a retrospective study of 32 cases". European Journal of Medical Research. 19 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/2047-783X-19-10. ISSN 0949-2321. PMC 3996070. PMID 24555664.
  15. ^ "Vaginal Atresia: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology". 2019-07-03. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ "Transverse Vaginal Septum | Boston Children's Hospital". www.childrenshospital.org. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  17. ^ Xie, Zhihong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jiandong; Zhang, Ningzhi; Xiao, Hong; Liu, Yongying; Li, Liang; Liu, Xiaoying (2014-02-21). "Clinical characteristics of congenital cervical atresia based on anatomy and ultrasound: a retrospective study of 32 cases". European Journal of Medical Research. 19 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/2047-783X-19-10. ISSN 0949-2321. PMC 3996070. PMID 24555664.

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