|Classification and external resources|
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a subtype of female urogenital fistula (UGF).
Vesicovaginal Fistula, or VVF, is an abnormal fistulous tract extending between the bladder (or vesico) and the vagina that allows the continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vaginal vault.
It is often caused by childbirth (in which case it is known as an obstetric fistula), when a prolonged labor presses the unborn child tightly against the pelvis, cutting off blood flow to the vesicovaginal wall. The affected tissue may necrotize (die), leaving a hole.
Vaginal fistulas can also result from particularly violent cases of rape, especially those involving multiple rapists and/or foreign objects. Some health centers in countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo have begun to specialize in the surgical repair of vaginal fistulas.
Repair of VVF
Vesicovaginal fistulae are typically repaired either transvaginally or laparoscopically, although patients who have had multiple transvaginal procedures sometimes attempt a final repair through a large abdominal incision, or laparotomy.
The laparoscopic (minimally invasive) approach to VVF repair has become more prevalent due to its greater visualization, higher success rate, and lower rate of complications.
Possible Complications of Surgical Treatment
- Recurrent formation of the fistula
- Injury to ureter, bowel, or intestines
- Vaginal shortening
- "Rape epidemic fuels fistula cases in the Democratic Republic of Congo". Conversations for a Better World. 8 Jan 2010.
- "Congo: More Vicious Than Rape". Newsweek. 12 Nov 2006.
- Kochakarn W, Pummangura W (October 2007). "A new dimension in vesicovaginal fistula management: an 8-year experience at Ramathibodi hospital". Asian J Surg. 30 (4): 267–71. doi:10.1016/S1015-9584(08)60037-8. PMID 17962130.
- Miklos, JR. (2010, October 20). Fistula Repair Overview. Fistularepair.com. Retrieved September 11, 2013, from http://www.fistularepair.com/overview.php
- Laparoscopic Management of Recurrent Vesicovaginal Fistula Archived August 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. - J.R. Miklos Archived October 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., C. Sobolewski and V. Lucente. Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA.
- Fistula Vesico Vaginal Information in Spanish about Fistula Vesico Vaginal. Caracas, Venezuela
- Worldwide Fistula Fund is a non-profit organization that provides free fistula surgeries and prevention outreach in Danja, Niger
- The International Organization for Women and Development is a non-profit organization that assists in Niger
- One By One - a nonprofit organization working to eliminate obstetric fistula.
- FORWARD - a charity that works to eliminate VVF/fistula and gender-based discriminatory practices such as FGM and child marriage which can cause VVF
- Fistula Foundation - supporting the work of the Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia.
- Women's Health and Education Center
- Urinary Fistula
- Bladder - Vaginal Fistula Surgeons
- "James Marion Sims (1813-1883)” by A. Andrei at the Embryo Project Encyclopedia