Vesicovaginal fistula

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Vesicovaginal fistula
Classification and external resources
Specialty urology
ICD-10 N82.0
ICD-9-CM 619.0
DiseasesDB 13837
eMedicine med/3321
MeSH D014719

Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a subtype of female urogenital fistula (UGF).


Vesicovaginal fistula, or VVF, is an abnormal fistulous tract extending between the bladder (or vesico) and the vagina that allows the continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vaginal vault.

In addition to the medical sequela from these fistulas, they often have a profound effect on the patient's emotional well-being.


It is often caused by childbirth (in which case it is known as an obstetric fistula), when a prolonged labor presses the unborn child tightly against the pelvis, cutting off blood flow to the vesicovaginal wall. The affected tissue may necrotize (die), leaving a hole.

Vaginal fistulas can also result from particularly violent cases of rape, especially those involving multiple rapists and/or foreign objects. Some health centers in countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo have begun to specialize in the surgical repair of vaginal fistulas.[1][2]

It can also be associated with hysterectomy,[3] cancer operations, radiation therapy and cone biopsy.


Vesicovaginal fistulae are typically repaired either transvaginally or laparoscopically, although patients who have had multiple transvaginal procedures sometimes attempt a final repair through a large abdominal incision, or laparotomy.

The laparoscopic (minimally invasive) approach to VVF repair has become more prevalent due to its greater visualization, higher success rate, and lower rate of complications.[4]

Possible complications of surgical treatment[edit]

  • Recurrent formation of the fistula[5]
  • Injury to ureter, bowel, or intestines
  • Vaginal shortening

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Rape epidemic fuels fistula cases in the Democratic Republic of Congo". Conversations for a Better World. 8 Jan 2010. 
  2. ^ "Congo: More Vicious Than Rape". Newsweek. 12 Nov 2006. 
  3. ^ Kochakarn W, Pummangura W (October 2007). "A new dimension in vesicovaginal fistula management: an 8-year experience at Ramathibodi hospital". Asian J Surg. 30 (4): 267–71. doi:10.1016/S1015-9584(08)60037-8. PMID 17962130. 
  4. ^ Miklos, JR. (2010, October 20). Fistula Repair Overview. Retrieved September 11, 2013, from
  5. ^ Laparoscopic Management of Recurrent Vesicovaginal Fistula Archived August 6, 2013, on Wayback Machine. - J.R. Miklos Archived October 15, 2013, on Wayback Machine., C. Sobolewski and V. Lucente. Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA.

External links[edit]