Temporal range: Eifelian-?Givetian
Homosteus is a genus of flattened arthrodire placoderm from the Middle Devonian. Fossils are found primarily in Eifelian-epoch aged strata of Europe, Canada, Greenland, and Estonia. All of the species had comparatively large, flattened heads with, as suggested by the upward opening orbits, upward-pointing eyes. These adaptations suggest that the various species were benthic predators.
The type species of the genus. It is a thin-plated species from the Eifelian-aged Aruküla beds of Estonia. Although H. sulcatus was described earlier in 1837, H. formosissimus is the official type species as it was the first to be described as a placoderm (H. sulcatus was originally described as a soft-shelled turtle). H. formosissimus had a small, thin keel down the dorsal-center of its median dorsal plate.
This species is based on a 15 centimeter-long preorbital plate from the early Eifelian of the Wood Bay formations of Spitzbergen, Norway. Compared to other species, the anatomy of the plate suggests the species is very primitive for the genus. Denison, 1978, suggests that the species may be different enough to merit its own distinct genus.
H. cf. arcticus
A giant species from the Eifelian-aged Aruküla beds of Estonia, and may have existed sympatrically with H. formosissimus. H. latus differed from H. formosissimus in having comparatively thick plates, a large, massive crest-like keel along the dorsal-center of its medial dorsal plate, and head-plates over a meter in length. Originally described as "Trionyx latus Kutorga 1837"
This species is found in the Eifelian-aged Elm Point Limestone of Manitoba. Based on a pair of paranuchal and marginal plates originally referred to the genus Dinichthys. H. manitobensis is the only member of the genus found in North America proper.
Another species from the Eifelian-aged Aruküla beds of Estonia. Although H. sulcatus was described before H. formosissimus, H. sulcatus was originally described as a soft-shelled turtle, ne "Trionyx sulcatus Kutorga 1837". H. sulcatus had thick plates, and a well-developed keel on the dorsal-center of its median dorsal plate. It was larger than H. formosissimus, but still much smaller than H. latus.