Hong Beom-do

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Hong Beom-do
Hangul 홍범도
Revised Romanization Hong Beom-do
McCune–Reischauer Hong Pŏmdo

Hong Beom-do Russian: Хон Бом До; August 27, 1868 – October 25, 1943), was a Korean independence activist. Hong was born in Chasong, North Pyongan.


Hong was originally a hunter. In September 1907 Japan proclaimed a law to gather hunters' guns to weaken Korean resistance. The law made hunters angry, including Hong. So, he organized a Righteous Army which defeated Japanese garrisons around Bukcheong through the use of hit-and-run attacks.

In 1910, He moved to Gando. After March First Movement, He became a Commander-in-Chief of Korean Independence Army. In August 1919, Hong crossed Tumen River with 200 soldiers. He assaulted Japanese troops in Hyesanjin and Kapsan. He would cross the river twice more, each time carrying out more successful attacks.

In June 1920, Hong and his army fought against Japanese forces, killing hundreds of Japanese soldiers in Samdunja(Hangul삼둔자; Hanja三屯子) and Bongodong(Hangul봉오동; Hanja鳳梧洞). In October, working together with Kim Jwa-jin, Hong again fought against Japanese troops (Battle of Chingshanli).

In June 1921 as the Soviet Union disarmed Korean troops by force and internal trouble occurred, resulting in the collapse of the Korean independence army. Hong ended up as a member of the Russian red army.

In 1937, Hong and other Koreans were deported to Kazakhstan by Joseph Stalin. Hong would die there in 1943.

On October 25, 1963, Hong was posthumously awarded the Republic of Korea Medal of merit for national foundation.

Korean independence army[edit]

In 1919, Hong Beom-do (1868 ~ 1943) was established with Korean people residing in Yeonggae, Primorsky, and Gando (Inter-Intership). It joined forces with the Korean National Army in March 1920 and was also the autonomous organization of the Korean people, which lived in the area of Nosuando. Starting with the attack on Hyesanjin in August 1919, the military actively launched a military campaign in Korea. After March 1920, it led the coalition of the Korean independence forces in the northern area and the North Korean army.

Hong Beom-do, who led the Korean independence army in 1895, has won several victories since 1907 at Gaksan, Samsu, and Bukcheong. When the Korean army's activities in Korea became difficult since 1910, it fled to Primorsky via Kando and continued its campaign against the Kadosen and the Jorment Line in Japan. In August 1918, when Japan invaded Primorsky in support of the White Army during the Russian civil war, Hong Beom-do formed a military force centered around the former army and Korean people in Primorsky. When the March 1 Independence Movement took place in 1919, it moved to Antuhyun near Mt.

In August 1919, the Korean independence army crossed the Yalu River and wiped out the Japanese military's defense unit, the first domestic vacuum operation to take place since the March 1 Independence Movement. In October, the team once again vacuumed into Korea, occupied Ganggye and Manpojin, and fought a fierce battle against the Japanese army in Jaseong County. By March 1920, it was allied with the Dongdo-dong Military Service, led by Choi Jin-dong (1992-1945), and had been stationed in Hoeryong and Jongseong (Wongseong) along the Duman coast of the Duman River. The massive domestic vacuum operation of the Korean Liberation Army has boosted the will of Korean independence and prompted more armed resistance struggles in Manchuria. In March 1920, the Korean independence army moved its base from Antuhyun to Wang Qinghyun, and received financial support from the Korean National People's Association for a larger domestic vacuum operation. It also joined forces with the National Liberation Army, which was led by the National People's Association of Korea, as a military organization. The military's finances and administration were managed by the Korean Minjok Association, the Korean Liberation Army was directed by Hong Beom-do, and the Korean Army was appointed as a choreographer. . And on May 3, 1920, the Korea Military Association held a joint military operation group of the Republic of Korea Army in Wangchunhyeon Poomdong, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Military Affairs, and the Korean Civil Corps. The Korean North Korean military has become a director and a choreographer, and has mostly been in charge of administration, politics and finance. Hong Beom-do became the head of the South Korean Army Command under the jurisdiction and was in charge of the military. The troops were assembled in four groups, including Yi Cheon-oh, Kang Sang-mo, Kang Si-beom, and Jo Kwon - dong.

On June 4, 1920, the Independence Army of Korea, which was led by Park Seung-gil (1818-1960), entered Jangseong County, Japan When the independence army ambushed Samdungja and attacked a Japanese army patrol team, the Japanese army attacked Nanam-dong (now Cheongjin) in North Hamgyeong-do and attacked the 19th Division. On June 7, the United States Army, the German Army, the Doron Ministry of Military and the Shinmin Army defeated the Wallgang chasing battalion of the 19th Division of the Japanese Army in the bud and won a great victory. On July 8, he surprised the Japanese police who were searching for the independence forces in the Raoteo Guwon County, Japan, and won in October.

When the Japanese army, which lost its battle in Chungsang-ri, carried out a brutal war between the two sides, including the killing of Koreans and burning of villages, the Korean independence army launched a massive military invasion In December 1920, it was integrated with other independence forces to organize the Korean Liberation Army. [1]

Battle of Bongo-dong[edit]

After March First Independence Movement(Hangul3.1운동; Hanja三一運動), there are several armed resistance of Korean independence army in Manchuria. Japanese Imperialism carried forward a suppression operation from on May 1920. After on August 1919, Hong Beom-do set a advance operations to Korea briskly, he succeeded to integration of army in north Gando. On May 28, 1920, Hong Beom-do's Korean Independence Army(Hangul대한독립군; Hanja大韓獨立軍), Ahn-Mu's National Army(Hangul국민회군; Hanja國民會軍) and Choi Jin-dong's Military Affair Command(Hangul군무도독부; Hanja軍務都督府) was combined to Korean Northern Army Command(Hangul대한북로독군부; Hanja大韓北路督軍府). They assembled troops and ready for huge advance operation.[2]

On June 4, 1920, troops of Korean Democratic Corps(Hangul대한신민단; Hanja大韓新民團) attacked to Japanese army in Hamgyeongbuk-do Gangyang-dong(Hangul강양동; Hanja江陽洞). The next day Japanese platoon chased independence army, Korean Northern Army Command assaulted on Japanese pursuers in Samdunja(Hangul삼둔자; Hanja三屯子) and defeated them.[3]

On the pretext of this war, Japanese Army organized into a battalion in 19th division which was stationed at Nanam(Hangul나남; Hanja羅南). The battalion launched an attack on Bongo-dong(Hangul봉오동; Hanja鳳梧洞). Independence combined arms led by Hong Beom-do hid in ambush for mountain of Bongo-dong and besieged the pursuers battalion in three ways and destroyed them. The Japanese army withdrew with many casualties.[4]


The Battle of Bongo-dong was a first large scale battle between Korean independence army and Japanese army in Manchuria which was chinese land. All Korean army included Korean Northern Army Command had high morale as the battle's win. This war served as a momentum that Independence war were more briskly operated in 1920s.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "대한독립군" (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-06-16. 
  2. ^ "The Academy of Korean Studies(한국학중앙연구원)  : 봉오동전투(Battle of Bongo-dong)". 
  3. ^ "『한국독립운동사(韓國獨立運動史)』  : 한국일보사(Company of Hangook Ilbo), 1987". 
  4. ^ "두산백과(Doopedia)  : 봉오동전투(Battle of Bongo-dong)". 
  5. ^ "두산백과(Doopedia)  : 봉오동전투(Battle of Bongo-dong)".