Horsfield's bush lark

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Horsfield's bush lark
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Alaudidae
Genus: Mirafra
Species: M. javanica
Binomial name
Mirafra javanica
Horsfield, 1821

see text

The Horsfield's bush lark or Australasian bushlark (Mirafra javanica) is a species of lark which inhabits grassland throughout most of Australia and much of Southeast Asia.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The alternate shortened name "bush-lark" can also refer to many of the other species in the genus Mirafra. The alternate name of "cinnamon bush lark" is an alternate name for the flappet lark, and the alternate name of "singing bush lark" more commonly refers to the species of the same name, Mirafra cantillans.[2][3] Other alternate names for Horsfield's bush lark include Australasian lark, Australian lark, Eastern bush lark, Eastern lark, Eastern singing bush lark, Horsfield's lark and Javan Lark.[4]


Sixteen subspecies are recognized:[5]

  • M. j. williamsoni - Baker, ECS, 1915: Originally described as a subspecies of the singing bush lark. Found from central Myanmar to southern China, central and south-central Thailand, Cambodia, central and southern Vietnam.
  • M. j. philippinensis - Wardlaw-Ramsay, 1886: Originally described as a separate species. Found in northern Philippines
  • M. j. mindanensis - Hachisuka, 1931: Found in southern Philippines
  • M. j. javanica - Horsfield, 1821: Found in Borneo, Java and Bali
  • M. j. parva - Swinhoe, 1871: Originally described as a separate species. Found in the western Lesser Sunda Islands
  • M. j. timorensis - Mayr, 1944: Found in the eastern Lesser Sunda Islands
  • M. j. aliena - Greenway, 1935: Found in northern and north-eastern New Guinea
  • Cinnamon lark (M. j. woodwardi) - Milligan, 1901: Originally described as a separate species. Found in extreme north-western Western Australia
  • M. j. halli - Bianchi, 1907: Found in northern Western Australia
  • M. j. forresti - Mayr & McEvey, 1960: Found in north-eastern Western Australia
  • M. j. melvillensis - Mathews, 1912: Found on Melville and Bathurst Islands (off northern Australia)
  • M. j. soderbergi - Mathews, 1921: Found in northern Northern Territory (northern Australia)
  • M. j. rufescens - Ingram, W, 1906: Originally described as a separate species. Found in central Australia
  • M. j. athertonensis - Schodde & Mason, IJ, 1999: Found in north-eastern Australia
  • M. j. horsfieldii - Gould, 1847: Originally described as a separate species. Found in eastern and south-eastern Australia
  • M. j. secunda - Sharpe, 1890: Originally described as a separate species. Found in south-central Australia


Horsfield's bush lark is a small, short, thickset bird with a short, sparrow-like bill. Its dorsal plumage colour is brown, reddish or sandy with darker central streaks to the feathers. The breast is mottled or streaked and it has a buff eyebrow. The underparts are pale, with a brown tail.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The range of Horsfield's bush lark is very broad, with an estimated global extent of occurrence of 10,000,000 km2.[1]


Bryden, south-east Queensland, Australia


  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Mirafra javanica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Mirafra rufocinnamomea rufocinnamomea - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  3. ^ "Mirafra cantillans - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  4. ^ "Mirafra javanica - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  5. ^ "IOC World Bird List 6.4". IOC World Bird List Datasets. doi:10.14344/ioc.ml.6.4.