|Meaning of name||Old Norse for 'high island'|
The Old Man of Hoy, at the western side of the island, seen from the south
Hoy shown within Orkney
|OS grid reference|
|Area||14,318 hectares (55.3 sq mi)|
|Area rank||12 |
|Highest elevation||Ward Hill 479 metres (1,572 ft)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Council area||Orkney Islands|
|Population rank||23 |
|Population density||2.9 people/km2|
Hoy (from Norse Háey meaning high island) is an island in Orkney, Scotland measuring 143 square kilometres (55 sq mi) — ranked largest in the archipelago after the Mainland. A natural causeway, the Ayre, links to much smaller South Walls; the two islands are treated as one entity by the UK census.
The dramatic coastline of Hoy greets visitors travelling to Orkney by ferry from the Scottish mainland. It has extremes of many kinds: some of the highest sea cliffs in the UK at St John's Head, which reach 350 metres (1,150 ft);; a light-stone precarious sea stack taller than the facing cliff – the Old Man of Hoy; patches of northernmost scattered, hardy woodland and the remote possibility of locally extant Orkney charr (Salvelinus inframundus) documented in 1908 at Heldale Water. The most northerly Martello Towers stand here built to defend the south entrance to Scapa Flow at Longhope in 1814 towards the end of the Napoleonic War, never used in combat.
The highest point in the archipelago, Ward Hill, is on Hoy.
The main naval base for the British fleet in both the First and Second World Wars, Scapa Flow, was at Lyness in the southeast of the island. Some rather incongruous Art Deco structures nearby date from this period.
An unusual rock-cut tomb, the Dwarfie Stane, lies in the Rackwick valley towards the north. It is unique in northern Europe, bearing similarity to Neolithic or Bronze Age tombs around the Mediterranean. The tomb has a small rectangular entrance and cleft hence its name.[Note 2]
Orkney Ferries traverse the west of Scapa Flow with two routes:
- Lyness on Hoy and Longhope on associated Walls via small Flotta to/from the village of Houton on Orkney Mainland.
- Moaness in Hoy via small Graemsay to/from the town of Stromness on Orkney Mainland.
Hoy is an Important Bird Area. The northern part of the island is an RSPB reserve due to its importance for birdlife, particularly great skuas and red-throated divers. It was sold to the RSPB by the Hoy Trust for a nominal amount. Anastrepta orcadensis, a liverwort also known as Orkney Notchwort, was first discovered on Ward Hill by William Jackson Hooker in 1808.
In popular culture
Cliffs on the Atlantic coast of Hoy, south of Rackwick
- Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. pp. 344–6. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.
- Area and population ranks: there are c. 300 islands over 20 ha in extent and 93 permanently inhabited islands were listed in the 2011 census.
- National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland - Release 1C (Part Two). "Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland’s inhabited islands". Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Orkney Placenames. Orkneyjar.
- Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 6 Orkney (Mainland) (Map). Ordnance Survey. 2014. ISBN 9780319228128.
- Anderson, Joseph (Ed.) (1893) Orkneyinga Saga. Translated by Jón A. Hjaltalin & Gilbert Goudie. Edinburgh. James Thin and Mercat Press (1990 reprint). ISBN 0-901824-25-9
- Pedersen, Roy (January 1992) Orkneyjar ok Katanes (map, Inverness, Nevis Print)
- General Register Office for Scotland (28 November 2003) Scotland's Census 2001 – Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- IUCN Red List
- National Scenic Areas Archived 11 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. SNH. Retrieved 30 March 2011
- Important Bird Areas factsheet: Hoy Birdlife.org, Retrieved 24th January 2015
- Hoy IBA Global Species.org, Retrieved 24 January 2015
- Haswell-Smith, Hamish (1996). The Scottish Islands. Canongate. p. 283. ISBN 0-86241-579-9.
- "Bryology (mosses, liverworts and hornworts)" Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
- "West Highland Mosses And Problems They Suggest" (January 1907) Annals Of Scottish Natural History 61 p. 46. Edinburgh. Retrieved 11th June 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hoy.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hoy.|