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Lee Hysan (Chinese: 利希慎; pinyin: Lì Xīshèn; Jyutping: Lei6 Hei1-San6; 1879 - April 30, 1928) was a businessman in opium trade and refinery, as well as land development in Hong Kong in the early 1900s. He was nicknamed the "King of Opium" in Hong Kong and Macau.
The ancestral home of the Lee family was Xinhui, Guangdong, and his father, Lee Leung Yik (利良奕) was heavily involved in the opium business in Hong Kong and China. Lee Hysan was born in China and as a young boy lived in San Francisco when his father moved there. At age seventeen, he returned to Hong Kong and continued his studies at Queen's College. Because he spoke English fluently, he later taught English at Queen's College, his alma mater.
His father achieved great wealth from the opium trade, and Hysan inherited his business. Having amassed a great fortune from his successful opium business, Lee later participated in the fast-growing Hong Kong real estate market. In 1923, he bought the Jardine's Hill property, west of Causeway Bay from Jardines for HK$3.8 million. He initially wanted to build opium refinery facilities there, but owing to the global anti-opium movement, he changed his plan and developed the property as Lee Garden. It is approximately the area around Lee Garden Road, Lee Theatre, Yun Ping Road and Percival Street.
On 30 April 1928, Lee was shot on a street in the Central district and died shortly after yelling for help. The assassination was possibly due to a growing public resentment of his opium business, which people believed had caused great harm to the Chinese society. The assassin has never been caught despite his family offering a huge bounty. At the time of his death, his estate was valued at HK$4.4 million; the present-day Hysan Development Company has a market capitalization in excess of HK$20 billion.
There was a popular doggerel in Hong Kong showing Lee's notoriety. The first characters of the first three lines sound in Cantonese almost the same as Lee's name:
- 利己害人 lei6 gei2 hoi6 jan4
- 欺貧重富 hei1 pan4 cung4 fu3
- 神憎鬼厭 san4 cang1 gwai2 yim3
- 街知巷聞 gaai1 zi1 hong6 man4
- Benefiting oneself while harming others,
- Oppressing the poor while respecting the rich.
- Detested by the deities and disgusted by the ghosts,
- Known on the streets and heard on the alleys.
Landmarks named after Lee Hysan
- Hysan Avenue
- Lee Hysan Hall in the University of Hong Kong
- Lee Hysan Medical Library in the University of Hong Kong, renamed as Yu Chun Keung Medical Library after moving
- Hysan Place
Notable family members
Many of Lee's descendants and other family members are notable in their own right:
- Richard Charles Lee (利銘澤) (1905-1983) - father of Vivienne Poy and son of Lee Hysan
- Vivienne Poy née Lee (利德蕙) - daughter of Richard Charles Lee and a Canadian Senator from 1998 to 2012
- Harold Hsiao-Wo Lee (利孝和)
- Jung Kong Lee (利榮康) - son of Hysan Lee, chemist
- Lee Quo-wei (利國偉) - banker and educator, nephew of Lee Hysan
- Peter Ting Chang Lee JP (deceased) - Chairman of Hysan Development Company Limited
- Michael Tze Hau Lee BA, MBA - Managing Director, Hysan Development Company Limited
- Anthony Hsien Pin Lee BA, MBA - non-managing director, Hysan Development Company Limited
- Chien Lee - non-executive director, Hysan Development Company Limited
- Dr. Deanna Ruth Tak Yung Rudgard BA, MD - non-executive director, Hysan Development Company Limited
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