Ice-ice is a disease condition of seaweed. Ice-ice is caused when changes in salinity, ocean temperature and light intensity cause stress to seaweeds, making them produce a "moist organic substance" that attracts bacteria in the water and induces the characteristic "whitening" and hardening of the seaweed's tissues. Bacteria involved include those in the Vibrio-Aeromonas and Cytophaga-Flavobacteria complexes. The bacteria lyse epidermal cells and chloroplasts, turning the seaweed tissue white. The disease is known from seaweeds including Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum, economically important sources of carrageenan. In countries where seaweed is harvested as a crop, ice-ice can wreak havoc on yields. Zamboanga, Philippines, had an outbreak of ice-ice in 2004, and Bali, Indonesia, experienced an outbreak in 2009. A rise in surface sea temperatures of 2–3 degrees Celsius can trigger ice-ice outbreaks.
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- JakartaPost: Rising sea temperatures bad news for seaweed farmers