Italian units of measurement

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A variety of units of measurement were used in the various independent Italian states and Italian dependencies of foreign empires up to the unification of Italy in the 19th century. The units to measure length, volume, mass, etc., could differ widely between countries or between towns in a country (e.g. Rome and Ancona), but usually not between a country and its capital.

The Kingdom of Sardinia included the island of Sardinia and the continental areas of Piedmont (with the capital Turin) and Liguria (with Genoa). The Kingdom of Naples included the island of Sicily (with Palermo). The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was part of the Austrian Empire, which also shared ruling family with Modena, Parma and Tuscany (capital Florence). The Papal States included the areas of Latium (with the capital Rome), Umbria, Romagna (with Bologna) and the Marches (with Ancona).

An example of a Tavole di ragguaglio (Conversion Table) in 1860 when Tuscany became part of modern Italy.

Milan adopted the metric system in 1803, during the Napoleonic wars, albeit reusing names of older units.[1][2] After the Congress of Vienna, the various Italian states reverted to their original systems of measurements.

In 1845 Sardinia passed legislation to introduce the metric system within five years. In 1859 Lombardy (but not Venetia) was annexed. In 1860 Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Umbria, Romagna and the Marches, and the Two Sicilies (Naples) were assimilated into Sardinia and under the Law 132 of 28 July 28, 1861 the metric system became the official system of measurement throughout the (this year) Italian kingdom.[3] The last to be incorporated were Venetia (1866), and the rest of the Papal States (1870).

For historical Roman measurements see Ancient Roman units of measurement. The following is a list of units before the adoption of the metric system as well as local names for metric-based units.

Over time a lot of unit names were reused for metric units, adding an unnecessary obstacle to the system change. These units are marked with . They are also placed after the traditional.

Length[edit]

Units varied from one province or city to another.[2] In the north the atomo was the smallest unit.[4]

Dedicated use:  # architect's   † commercial   ‡ mercer's

1 piede liprando = 0.51377 m [1][2]
1 punto (point) = ​1144 piede liprando [1][2]
1 oncia (inch) = 12 punti [1][2]
1 piede liprando (foot) = 12 oncie [1][2]
1 canna = 4 piedi liprando [1][2]
1 trabucco = ​1 12 canna [1][2]
1 miglio (mile) = ​4333 13 piedi liprando [1][2]

Lombardy–Venetia[edit]

1 punto = 12 atomi [5]
1 oncia = 12 punti [5]
1 piede = 12 diti (a.k.a. pollici) [6]
1 piede = 435.185 mm [6]
1 braccio = 12 once [5]
1 braccio = 2 piedi [5]

1 miglio = 1 km [5]

Milan[edit]

1 dito (a.k.a. pollico) = 36.27 mm [7]
1 oncia = 12 punti [8]
1 piede = 12 diti [7]
1 piè = 15.61 in [5]
1 braccio = 12 once = 594.94 mm [8][9]
1 trabucco = 6 piedi [9]
1 miglio = 3000 braccii = 1784.81 m [10]

1 atomo = 1 mm [1]
1 dito = 1 cm [1][7]
1 palmo = 1 dm [1]
1 metro = 1 m [1]

Venice[edit]

1 linea = 10 decimi [11]
1 piede = 348 mm [9]
1 piede = 12 once = 347.735 mm [6]
1 piè = 13.69 in [5]
1 braccio = 683 mm [9]
1 cavezzo = 6 piedi = 2.08641 m [12]
1 miglio = 1000 passi = 1738.67 m [10]

Modena[edit]

1 cavezzo = 6 piedi [13]
1 piè = 20.593 in [13]
1 braccio = 22.741 in [13]

Naples[edit]

1 oncia = 5 minuti [14]
1 decima = 10 centesimi = 26.455 mm [15]
1 palmo = 10 decime = 12 once = 264.55 mm [6]
1 palmo = 10 decime [15]
1 palmo = 12 once = 10.381 in [14]
1 canna = 10 palmi = 2.646 m [9][12]
1 canna = 10 palmi = 2.6455 m [16]
1 canna = 8 palmi [16]
1 canna = 8 palmi [14]
1 pertica (a.k.a. passo) = ​7 12 palmi [14]
1 miglio = 7000 palmi = 1.147 miles [14]
1 miglio = 1000 passi (geographical mile) = 1855.11 m [10]

Sicily[edit]

1 palmo = 9.5297 in [17]
1 canna = 2.06480 m [12]
1 canna = 8 palmi [12][17]
1 canna = 8 palmi = 2.06479 m [16]
1 cortena = 4 canne [18]
1 corda = 4 cortene = 33.037 m [18]
1 miglio = 45 corde = 1486.66 m [10]

Palermo[edit]

1 canna = 10 palmi = 2.065 m [9]

Papal States[edit]

1 palmo# = 12 once = 8.79 in [19]
1 palmo = 8.796 in [19]
1 palmo = 8.347 in [19]
1 palmo mercantile = 24.908 cm [16]
1 palmo architettonica# = 22.319 cm [16]
1 palmo d'ara = 12.500 cm [16]
1 once# = 10 decimi [19]
1 pie# (foot) = 16 once = 11.72 in [19]
1 pié = 11.592 in [19]
1 braccia da mercante = 67 cm [8]
1 braccia par le tele = 63.5 cm [8]
1 braccia d'ara = 75 cm [8]
1 canna = 78.4 in [19]
1 canna# = 10 palmi [19]
1 canna# = 7 1/2 piedi = 2.23190 m [12]
1 canna mercantile = 8 palmi = 1.99263 m [16]
1 canna architettonica# = 10 palmi = 2.2319 m [16]
1 canna d'ara = 9 palmi = 1.125 m [16]
1 catena# = 10 stajoli = ​25 12 palmi [19]
1 miglio = 1000 passi = 1487.93 m [10]

Rome[edit]

1 oncia# = 10 decimi = 18.6 mm [11]
1 piede = 297.587 mm [6]
1 braccio = 30.732 in [19]
1 canna = 10 palmi = 2.234 m [9]

Ancona[edit]

1 pié = 15.384 in [19]
1 braccio = ​35 13 in [19]

Bologna[edit]

1 piede = 38 cm [9]
1 braccio = 64 cm [9]

Parma[edit]

1 punto = 12 atomi [20]
1 oncia = 12 punti [20]
1 braccio di legno = 12 once [20]
1 braccio = 21.344 in [20]
1 pertica = 6 braccia [20]
1 piè = 22.428 in [20]

Sardinia[edit]

1 punto = 12 atomi [21]
1 oncia = 12 punti [21]
1 piè liprando = 12 once = 20.228 in [21]
1 canna = 8 palmi = 2.1 m [16]
1 miglio = ​4333 13 piedi liprando = 1.3835 mile [21]

Piedmont[edit]

1 raso = 14 oncie [21]
1 piede manuale = ​23 piede liprando [6]
1 piede manuale = 8 once = 342.511 mm [6]
1 trabucco = 6 piedi liprandi = 3.096 m [9]
1 trabucco = 6 piedi liprandi [21]
1 pertica = 2 trabucci [21]
1 pertica = 12 piedi liprandi = 6.16519 m [12]
1 miglio = 800 trabucchi = 2466.08 m [10]

Turin[edit]

1 piede = 293 mm [9]
1 raso = 14 oncie [21]
1 raso = 0.6 m [9]
1 trabucco = 6 piedi liprandi [21]
1 pertica = 2 trabucci [21]

Genoa[edit]

1 palmo = ​5 13 once [21]
1 palmo = 248 mm [9]
1 piè manuale = ​23 piè liprando [21]
1 braccio = ​2 13 palmi [21]
1 braccio = 28 once = 581.22 mm [8]
1 canna = about 9 palmi [21]
1 canna piccola = 9 palmi = 2.24186 m [16]
1 canna = 10 palmi = 2.49095 m [16]
1 canna grossa = 12 palmi = 2.98914 m [12][16]

Tuscany[edit]

1 quattrino = 4 denari = 9.728 mm [22]
1 soldo = 12 denari [23]
1 palmo = 10 soldi = 11.49 in [23]
1 braccio = 2 palmi [23]
1 canna = 4 braccia [23]
1 canna = 5 braccii = 2.91825 m [12]
1 canna# = 5 braccia [23]
1 canna = 4 braccia = 2.3346 m [16]
1 canna (a.k.a. percha) = 5 bracchia [16]
1 miglio = ​2833 13 braccia = 1.0277 mile [23]
1 miglio = ​2833 13 braccii = 1653.67 m [10]

Florence[edit]

1 braccio = 2 palmi = 583 mm [9]

Mass[edit]

One libbra (pound) differed between 307[2] and 398 g.[1] Several countries used both a light and a heavy pound.

Dedicated use:  # gold   ∆ silver   § jewels   † apothecaries'   ‡ silk   @ spices, drugs and pigments   ¥ commercial   ¢ oil     ship cargoes: ∑ grain   ® flour etc   © salt

1 grano (grain) = ​16912 libbra [1][2]
1 grano = 4 carato [24]
1 tomin = 12 grani [24]
1 denaro (scruple) = 24 grani [1][2]
1 ottavo (drachm) = 3 denari [1][2]
1 carato = 6 denaro (a.k.a. scrupolo) [24]
1 oncia (ounce) = 8 ottavi [1][2]
1 oncia = 4 quarto (quarta) [25]
1 libbra (pound) = 12 oncie [1][2]
1 rubbo = 25 libbre [1][2]
1 quintale = 4 rubbi [26]
1 cantaro = 6 rubbi [1][2]
1 cantaro = 100 rotoli [27]

Lombardy–Venetia[edit]

1 denaro#∆ = 24 grani [28]
1 oncia#∆ = 24 denari [28]
1 marco#∆ = 8 once = 7.5562 troy ounce [28]
1 marco di zecca = 8 once [29]

1 denaro = 10 grani [28]
1 grosso = 10 denari [28]
1 oncia = 10 grossi [28]
1 libbra metrica = 10 once = 1 kg [28]
1 rubbio = 10 libbre [28]

Milan[edit]

1 grano∆‡ (a.k.a. denaro) = 50.998 mg [22]
1 marco = 234.997 g [29]
1 libbra piccola = 12 once = 326.793 g [30]
1 libbra grossa = 28 once [30]
1 libbra grossa = 28 once = 763 g [9]
1 libbra da olio¢ = 32 once [30]
1 rubbio = 8.17 kg [31]
1 fascio = 10 peso = 87.14 kg [32]

1 grano = 1 dg [1]
1 denar = 1 g [1]
1 denaro (from 1803) = 1 g [22]
1 grosso = 1 dag [1]
1 oncia = 1 hg [1]
1 libbra nuova = 1 kg [1]
1 rubbio = 10 kg [31]
1 quintale = 10 rubbi [26]
1 quintale = 10 miriagrammi = 100 kg [26]
1 centinajo metrico (a.k.a. centarello) = 100 kg [33]

Venice[edit]

1 marco = 238.499 g [29]
1 libbra sottile = 301 g [9]
1 libbra sottile = 301.23 g [30]
1 libbra grossa = 12 once = 477 g [9]
1 libbra grossa = 12 once = 476.999 g [30]
1 centinaio sottile = 100 libbre = 30.123 kg [12]
1 centinajo (–1869) = 100 libbre sottile [33]
1 centinajo (–1869) = 100 libbre grossa [33]

Trieste[edit]

Austrian, but not part of Lombardy-Venetia.

1 funto (–1858) = 1 Wiener Pfund [33]
1 centinaji = 100 funti [33]
1 migliajo (–1858) = 10 centinaji [33]

Modena[edit]

1 oncia = 16 ferlini [13]
1 libbra (a.k.a. lira) = 12 once = 0.7044 lb [13]
1 libbra = 340.457 g [30]
1 peso = 25 libbre = 8.2 kg [32]

Naples[edit]

1 scrupolo = 20 accini [14]
1 trapeso#∆‡@ = 20 accini [14]
1 drachma = 3 scrupoli [14]
1 dramma#∆‡@ = 3 trapesi (a.k.a. scrupoli)[14]
1 oncia = 10 drachme [14]
1 oncia#∆‡@ = 10 dramme [14]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.321 kg [9]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.70722 lb [14]
1 libbra = 12 once [14]
1 libbra#∆‡@ = 12 once [14]
1 libbra‡@ (–1840) = 320.759 g [30]
1 rotolo = 861 g [9]
1 rotolo = ​2 79 libbre [14]
1 rotolo di puglia = 1000 trappesi = 890.997 g [34]
1 cantaio piccolo (1840 6/4-) = 32.076 kg [27]
1 cantaro = 100 rotoli = 89.100 kg [12]
1 cantaio grosso¢ (1840 6/4-) = 89.1 kg [27]

Sicily[edit]

1 taro = 20 grani [35]
1 onza# = 70 tarì = 26.4473 g [35]
1 libbra = 12 oncie = 0.70723 lb [17]
1 rotolo = 30 once = 12 once alla grossa = 793.42 g [34]
1 rottolo sottile = 30 oncie = 1.76 lb [17]
1 rottolo grosso = 38 oncie = 1.925 lb [17]
1 cantaro = 79.15 kg [27]
1 cantaro = 100 rotoli = 79.342 kg [12]

Palermo[edit]

1 libbra = 12 once = 317 g [9]
1 libbra = 317.368 g [30]
1 cantaro = 100 rotoli = 79.34 kg [9]

Papal States[edit]

1 denaro = 24 grani [36]
1 oncia = 24 denari [36]
1 libbra = 12 once [36]
1 centinaio = 100 libbre = 33.907 kg [12]
1 rubbio© = 600 libbre [31]
1 rubbio = 640 libbre [31]
1 rubbio® = 720 libbre [31]

Rome[edit]

1 denaro∆¥ = 24 grani = 1.178 g [22]
1 oncia = 12 denari [22]
1 libbra = 12 once = 339 g [9]
1 libbra = 6912 grani = 339.072 g [30]
1 libbra = 0.7477 lb [36]
1 decina = 10 libbre = 3.391 kg [37]
1 cantaro (a.k.a. centinajo) (–1870) = 100 libbre [27]
1 cantaro piccolo = 100 libbre = 33.9073 kg [33]
1 cantaro (–1870) = 160 libbre [27]
1 cantaro (–1870) = 250 libbre [27]
1 cantaro grosso (a.k.a. migliajo) (–1870) = 1000 libbre = 339.07 kg [27]

Ancona[edit]

1 libbra = 0.7277 [36]
1 rubbo = 25 libbre [33]
1 centinajo = ​23 cantari [33]
1 centinajo = 4 rubbi = 32.96 kg [33]

Bologna[edit]

1 carato = 4 grani [36]
1 ferlino = 10 carati [36]
1 ferlino = 10 carati = 1.885 g [38]
1 ferlino§ = 1.9225 g [38]
1 ottavo = 2 ferlini [36]
1 oncia = 8 ottavi [36]
1 oncia = 16 ferlini [38]
1 libbra mercantile¥ = 12 once = 362 g [9]
1 libbra = 0.7984 [36]
1 libbra = 12 once [36]
1 libbra#∆‡ = 361.851 g [30]
1 peso = 25 libbre = 9.046 kg [32]

Ferrara[edit]

1 ferlino = 10 carati = 1.80 g [38]
1 oncia = 16 ferlini [38]
1 centinajo (–1859) = 34.514 kg [33]

Parma[edit]

1 denaro = 24 grani [20]
1 oncia = 24 denari [20]
1 marco = 234.997 g [29]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.7197 lb [20]
1 libbra = 328 g [30]
1 rubbio = 25 libbre [20]

Sardinia[edit]

1 grano = 53.363 mg [22]
1 denaro¥ = 24 grane = 1280.71 mg [22]
1 cantaro = 4 rubbi [27]
1 cantaro di comercio¥ = 25 libbre = 10.164 kg [27]
1 cantaro grosso (a.k.a. cantarello) = 26 libbre = 10.5706 kg [27]
1 calpo = 10 cantari grossi [27]

Piedmont[edit]

1 grano = 24 granotini [21]
1 denaro = 24 grani [21]
1 ottavo = 3 denari [21]
1 oncia = 8 ottavi [21]
1 marco = 245.920 g [29]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.81332 lb [21]
1 libbra = ​1 14 marco [21]
1 marco#∆ = ​23 libbra [21]
1 rubbo = 25 libbre = 9.222 kg [12]

Turin[edit]

1 grano = 24 granotini [21]
1 denaro = 24 grani [21]
1 denaro (1853) = 50 mg [22]
1 ottavo = 3 denari [21]
1 oncia = 8 ottavi [21]
1 marco#∆ = ​23 libbra [21]
1 libbra = ​1 14 marco [21]
1 libbra (–1818) = 368.88 g [30]
1 libbra = 12 once = 369 g [9]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.81332 lb [21]
1 rubbio = 9.22 kg [31]

Genoa[edit]

1 denaro = 24 grani [21]
1 oncia = 24 denari [21]
1 libbra = 12 once = 317 g [9]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.70021 lb [21]
1 libbra (peso grosso) = 12 once = 0.77023 lb [21]
1 libbra peso sottile = 316.75 g [30]
1 libbra peso grosso = 317.664 g [30]
1 rottolo = ​1 12 libbre [21][34]
1 rotolo = 18 once = 475.125 g [34]
1 cantaro (–1847) = 6 rubbi [27]
1 cantaro (–1847) = 47.649 kg [27]
1 cantaro grosso = 100 rotoli = 47.650 kg [12]
1 peso (–1847) = 5 cantari [27]
1 rubbio = 7.942 kg [31]
1 mina = 12 rubbi = 95.299 kg [39]

Cagliari[edit]

1 libbra di commercio¥ = 406.563 g [30]
1 libbra da orefici = 325.25 g [30]

Tuscany[edit]

1 denaro = 24 grani [23]
1 dramma = 3 denari [23]
1 oncia = 8 dramme [23]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.7486 lb [23]
1 cantaro comune = 150 libbre = 50.931 kg [12]
1 cantaro (–1861) = 100 libbre = 33.9542 kg [27]
1 migliajo (–1861) = 10 cantari [27]

Florence[edit]

1 libbra = 12 once = 339.5 g [9]
1 libbra = 339.542 g [30]

Lucca[edit]

1 libbra = 334.5 g [30]
1 libbre grosse = 11 libbre mercantile [40]
1 coppo = 24 libbre grosse = 88.308 kg [40]

Area[edit]

Dedicated use:  # architect's

1 giornata (a.k.a. quadrao) = 38 are [1]
1 tavola = ​1100 giornata [1]

Lombardy–Venetia[edit]

1 tornatura = 100 palmi2 = 1 are [5]
1 campo = 0.6881 acre [5]

Lombardy[edit]

1 tavola = 4 trabucchi quadri [41]
1 pertica = 24 tavole = 654.52 m2 [41]

Venetia[edit]

1 migliajo = 1000 passi quadrati = 3022.99 m2 [41]

Modena[edit]

1 cavezzo2 = 36 piedi2 [13]
1 tavola = 4 cavezzi2 [13]
1 biolca = 72 tavole = 0.7009 acres [13]

Naples[edit]

1 canna quadrata (centesimo) = 6.999 m2 [16]
1 decima = 10 centesimi = 69.987 m2 [15]
1 decima = 10 canne quadrate [42]
1 moggio = 10 decime [15]
1 moggio = 50,626 palmi2 = 0.8684 acre [14]
1 moggio = 10 decime = 699.87 m2 [42]

Sicily[edit]

1 canna (quartiglio) = 4.263 m2 [16]
1 mondelli = 1024 canne quadrate [42]
1 bisaccia = 16 mondelli = 4365.72 m2 [42]

Papal States[edit]

1 scorzo = 28 catene agrimensorie [41]
1 quarta = 4 scorzi = 4621.19 m2 [41]
1 rubbio = 370300 palmi2 # = 4.5658 acres [19]
1 rubbio = 184.8438 ar [42]

Parma[edit]

1 staro = 12 tavola [20]
1 biolca = 6 stari = 0.7528 acre [20]
1 biolca = 288 pertica2 [20]

Sardinia[edit]

Piedmont[edit]

1 giornata = 100 pertica2 = 0.9393 acre [21]
1 giornata = 100 tavole = 38.01 ar [43]
1 giornata = 100 tavole = 3800.96 m2 [41]

Tuscany[edit]

1 saccato = 16500 braccia2 = 1.389 acre [23]

Volume (dry)[edit]

Dry and wet capacity (volume) were usually two separate systems, but a few units were universally handled, mostly in countries that had had experience with the metric system. (One of the sources do not state what subsystem they are handling).[12]

Dedicated use:  # firewood   † grain   ‡ salt   ∆ oats and legumes   ∑ coal

One mina varied from 12 to 120 litres.[1]

Lombardy–Venetia[edit]

1 pinta = 10 coppi = 1 litre [5]
1 mina = 10 pinte [5]
1 soma = 10 mine [5]

Venice[edit]

1 moggio = 8 mezzeni = 333.3 litres [9]

Milan[edit]

1 moggio = 8 stala = 146.2 litres [9]
1 soma = 164.51 l [44]

1 coppo = 1 dl [1]
1 pinta = 1 l [1]
1 mina = 1 dal [1][44]
1 soma = 1 hl [1][44]

Modena[edit]

1 stajo = 1.9978 bushels [13]
1 sacco = 2 staja [13]

Naples[edit]

1 quarto (–1840) = 6 misuri [45]
1 mezzetta = 2 quarte = 27.77 l [45]
1 mezzetto (–1840) = 2 quarti = 27.66 l [45]
1 tomolo = 55.54 litres [9]
1 tomolo = 24 misure = 1.5646 bushels [46]
1 carro = 36 tomoli [46]
1 canna da legna# = 256 cubic palmi = 4.74 m3 [16]

Sicily[edit]

1 salma generale = 7.8 bushels [17]
1 salma grosso = 10 bushels [17]

Palermo[edit]

1 salma = 4 bisace = 275 litres [9]
1 salma = 16 tomoli [9]

Papal States[edit]

1 scorzo = 4 quartucci [19]
1 starello = ​1 38 scorzi [19]
1 quarta = 4 starelli [19]
1 rubbio = 4 quarte [19]
1 rubbio = 249.458 l [31]
1 rubbio = 294.465 l [31]

Rome[edit]

1 decina†‡ = 4.601 l [37]
1 staro = 4 decine [37]
1 rubbio = 8.355 bushels [36]
1 rubbio = 22 scorzi = 294.5 litres [9]

Ancona[edit]

1 rubbio = 7.974 bushels [36]

Bologna[edit]

1 quarterone = 4 quarticini [36]
1 stajo = 4 quarteroni [36]
1 corba (dry and liquid) = 2 staja [36]
1 corba (dry and liquid) = 2.232 bushels
(20.7617 gallons, liquid) [36]
1 corba = 2 staia = 60 boccali = 78.6 litres [9]

Parma[edit]

1 mina = 8 quarteroli [20]
1 stajo (a.k.a. staro) = 2 mine = 1.334 bushels [20]

Sardinia[edit]

Piedmont[edit]

1 coppo = 2.876 l [40]
1 emine# = 23.006 l [47]
1 sacco# = 5 emine = 115.027 l [48]
1 sacco# (1818–) = 5 emine = 115,275 l [48]
1 sacco camerale = 6 emine [48]

Turin[edit]

1 copello = 20 cucchiari [21]
1 quartière = 4 copelli [21]
1 mina = 2 quartière [21]
1 stajo = 2 mine [21]
1 sacco = 3 staje = 3.2635 bushels [21]
1 sacco = 5 mine = 115.3 litres [9]

Genoa[edit]

1 gombetta = 4 misurette = 1.21 l [49]
1 quarto = 12 gombette [21]
1 mina = 8 quarti = 2.4804 gallons [21]
1 mina = 116.5 litres [9]
1 mina = 116.532 l [39]
1 sacco = 3 misure (coppi) = 157.75 l [48]

Tuscany[edit]

1 quartuccio = 2 bussoli [23]
1 mezzetta = 2 quartucci [23]
1 mezzetta = 2 quartucci = 0.761 l [45]
1 metadella = 2 mezzette [23]
1 quarto = 4 metadelle [23]
1 mina = 2 quarti [23]
1 stajo = 2 mine [23]
1 sacco = 3 staja [23]
1 sacco# = 3 staja = 73.09 l [48]
1 moggio = 8 sacci = 16.5904 bushels [23]
1 moggio = 8 sacci# [48]

Florence[edit]

1 moggio = 8 sacca = 584.7 litres [9]

Volume (liquids)[edit]

There are also a unit cantara:[27] no specifics.

Dedicated use:  # wine   † spirits   ‡ oil

1 barile da vino# = 45.6 l [1]
1 barile da olio = 33.4 l [1]

Lombardy–Venetia[edit]

1 pinta = 10 coppi = 1 litre [5]
1 mina = 10 pinte [5]
1 soma = 10 mine [5]

Venice[edit]

1 quartuccio = 4 gotti = 670.7 ml [12] 1 barile#† = 24 bozze = 64.386 l [50]

Milan[edit]

1 mezzo = 2 zaine (bicchieri) = 393.5 ml [51]
1 boccale = 2 mezzi [51]
1 boccale = 0.787 l [52]
1 quartaro = 4 pinte [39]
1 mina (secchia) = 2 quartari = 12.592 l [39]
1 brenta = 96 boccali = 75.6 litres [9]
1 brenta = 75.554 l [53]

1 coppo = 1 dl [1][40]
1 pinta = 1 l [1][54]
1 mina = 1 dal [1][39]
1 soma = 1 hl [1]

Trieste[edit]

1 boccale = 1.83 l [52]

Modena[edit]

1 fiasco = 2 boccali = 0.55028 gallon [13]
1 fiasco# = 2 boccali = 2.083 l [55]
1 barile = 20 fiasci [13]

Naples[edit]

1 barile#† = 60 caraffi [14]
1 botta#† = 12 barile [14]
1 botte#† = 12 barili = 523.5 litres [9]
1 carro#† = 2 botti [14]
1 caraffa = 3 bicchieri = 0.7271 l [12]
1 caraffa#† = 0.1929 gallons [14]
1 quarto = 6 misurelle [46]
1 stajo = 16 quarti = 2.61633 gallons [46]
1 stajo = 20 pignate [46]
1 salma = 16 staja [46]
1 barile#† = 43.625 l [50]

Sicily[edit]

1 quartuccio = 4 bicchieri = 0.8597 l [12]
1 salma = 22 gallons [17]
1 barile#† = 34.386 l [50]

Papal States[edit]

1 foglietta = 4 quartucci [19]
1 foglietta = 4 quartucci (cartocci) [56]
1 boccale = 1.8232 l [12]
1 boccale = 4 fogliette [12][19]
1 barile = 32 boccale [19]
1 barile# = 15.412 gallon [19]
1 barile = 15.185 gallon [19]
1 botte = 16 barile [19]

Rome[edit]

1 fogliette = 4 quartucci [51]
1 foglietta# = 456 ml [56]
1 mezzo = 2 fogliette = 911.6 ml [51]
1 boccale = 2 mezzi [51]
1 boccale# = 4 fogliette = 1.823 l [52]
1 boccale = ¼ cugnatella = 2.053 l [52]
1 soma = 43.386 gallons [19]
1 barile#† = 32 boccali = 58.342 l [50]
1 barile = 32 boccali = 75.5 litres [9]
1 brenta = 175.023 l [53]
1 soma# = 116,683 l [44]
1 soma = 164,23 l [44]
1 botte = 8 some {sfn|Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 16: Soma|p=84}}

Ancona[edit]

1 soma = 18.49 gallons [19]

Bologna[edit]

1 foglietta# = 327 ml [56]
1 boccale = 4 fogliette [19]
1 boccale = 0.346 gallon [19]
1 boccale = 1.31 l [52]
1 quarterone = 15 boccale [19]
1 corba = 4 quarterone [19]
1 corba = 2 staia = 60 boccali = 78.6 litres [9]

Parma[edit]

See Lombardy–Venetia and Milan.[20]

Sardinia[edit]

Piedmont[edit]

1 boccale = 2 quartini [21][54]
1 pinta = 2 boccali [21]
1 pinta = 4 quartini = 1.3696 l [12]
1 pinta (–1818) = 2 boccale = 1.369 l [54]
1 rubbio = 6 pinte = 2.4804 gallons [21]
1 brenta = 6 rubbi [21]
1 carro = 10 brente [21]

Turin[edit]

1 boccale = 2 quartini [21]
1 boccale = 0.68 l [52]
1 pinta = 2 boccali [21]
1 rubbio = 6 pinte = 2.4804 gallons [21]
1 brenta = 6 rubbi [21]
1 brenta = 49.285 l [53]
1 carro = 10 brente [21]
1 carro = 10 brente = 493.11 litres [9]

Genoa[edit]

1 amola = 4 quarti = 0.8833 l [12]
1 barile = 90 amole [21]
1 barile = 50 pinte = 17.084 gallons [21]
1 barile = 70 litres [9]
1 barile#† = 79.02 l [50]
1 mezzaruòla = 2 barilli [21]

Tuscany[edit]

1 mezzetta# = 2 quartucci [23]
1 mezzetta = 2 quartucci = 0.57 l [45]
1 mezzetta = 2 quartucci = 0.522 l [45]
1 boccale# = 2 mezzette [23]
1 boccale = 4 quartucci = 1.1396 l [12]
1 fiasco# = 2 boccale [23]
1 fiasco# = 2 boccali = 2.279 l [55]
1 barile# = 20 fiasci = 12.0444 gallons = ​133 13 libbre (weight)[23]
1 barile = 20 fiasci = 12.0444 gallons = 120 libbre (weight)[23]
1 barile = 16 fiasci = 120 libbre (weight)[23]
1 soma = 2 barile [23]

Florence[edit]

1 boccale = 1.14 l [52]
1 barile# = 20 fiaschi = 45.6 litres [9]
1 barile = 16 fiaschi = 33.43 litres [9]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Washburn 1926, p. 8.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Cardarelli 2003, p. 87.
  3. ^ Borgato 2006.
  4. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 2: Atomo, p. 102.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Clarke 1891, p. 80.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 6: Fuß, p. 1018.
  7. ^ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 5: Dito, p. 47.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 3: Braccio, p. 357.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Cardarelli 2003, p. 88.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 12: Miglio, p. 80.
  11. ^ a b Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 4: Decimo, p. 655.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 11: Maße, p. 1024c.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Clarke 1891, p. 52.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Clarke 1891, p. 53.
  15. ^ a b c d Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 4: Decima, p. 655.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 3: Canna, p. 836.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Clarke 1891, p. 69.
  18. ^ a b Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 4: Corda, p. 324.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Clarke 1891, p. 63.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Clarke 1891, p. 58.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb Clarke 1891, p. 67.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 4: Denaro, p. 730.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Clarke 1891, p. 76.
  24. ^ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 7: Grano, p. 865.
  25. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 14: Quarto, p. 371.
  26. ^ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 14: Quintale, p. 398.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 3: Cantaro, p. 842.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Clarke 1891, p. 81.
  29. ^ a b c d e Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 11: Marco, p. 908.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 11: Libbra, p. 311.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 14: Rubbio, p. 974.
  32. ^ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 13: Peso, p. 720.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 3: Centinajo, p. 954.
  34. ^ a b c d Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 14: Rotolo, p. 954.
  35. ^ a b Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 13: Onza, p. 190.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Clarke 1891, p. 64.
  37. ^ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 4: Decina, p. 655.
  38. ^ a b c d e Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 6: Ferlino, p. 305.
  39. ^ a b c d e Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 12: Mina, p. 338.
  40. ^ a b c d Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 4: Coppo, p. 321.
  41. ^ a b c d e f Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 12: Morgen, p. 529.
  42. ^ a b c d e Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 12: Morgen, p. 530.
  43. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 7: Giornata, p. 584.
  44. ^ a b c d e Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 16: Soma, p. 84.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 12: Mezzetta, p. 257.
  46. ^ a b c d e f Clarke 1891, p. 54.
  47. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 5: Emine, p. 740.
  48. ^ a b c d e f Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 15: Sacco, p. 46.
  49. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 7: Gombetta, p. 750.
  50. ^ a b c d e Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 2: Barile, p. 473.
  51. ^ a b c d e Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 12: Mezzo, p. 257.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 3: Boccale, p. 152.
  53. ^ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 3: Brenta, p. 460.
  54. ^ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 13: Pinta, p. 942.
  55. ^ a b Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 6: Fiasco, p. 404.
  56. ^ a b c Meyers Konversations-Lexikon vol 6: Foglietta, p. 607.

References[edit]

Borgato, Maria Teresa (6–9 September 2006). "The first applications of the metric system in Italy" (PDF). The Global and the Local:The History of Science and the Cultural Integration of Europe. Proceedings of the 2nd ICESHS. Cracow, Poland: The Press of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 17 March 2011.

Cardarelli, F. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4471-1122-1.

Clarke, F. W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company.

"Atomo". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 2 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 102.

"Barile" [Barrel]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 2 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 473.

"Boccale". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 3 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 152.

"Braccio" [Ell]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 3 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 357.

"Brenta". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 3 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 460.

"Canna". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 3 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 836.

"Cantaro" [Hundredweight]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 3 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 842.

"Centesimo". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 3 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 954.

"Centinajo". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 3 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 954.

"Coppo" [Cup]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 4 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 321.

"Corda". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 4 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 324.

"Decima". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 4 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 655.

"Decimo". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 4 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 655.

"Decina". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 4 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 655.

"Denaro". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 4 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 730.

"Dito". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 5 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 47.

"Emine". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 5 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 740.

"Ferlino". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 6 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 305.

"Fiasco". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 6 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 404.

"Foglietta". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 6 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 607.

"Fuß" [Foot]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 6 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 1018.

"Giornata" [Acre]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 7 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 584.

"Gombetta". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 7 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 750.

"Grano" [Grain]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 7 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 865.

"Libbra" [Pound]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 11 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 311.

"Marco". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 11 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 908.

"Maße" [Units of measurement]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 11 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 1024c.

"Meta". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 12 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 190.

"Mezzetta". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 12 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 257.

"Mezzo". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 12 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 257.

"Miglio" [Mile]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 12 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 80.

"Mina". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 12 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 338.

"Morgen" [Acre]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 12 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897.

"Onza". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 13 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 190.

"Palmo" [Handsbreath]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 13 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 448.

"Peso". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 13 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 720.

"Pinta" [Pint]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 13 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 942.

"Quarto". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 14 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 371.

"Quintale" [Quintal]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 14 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 398.

"Rotolo". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 14 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 954.

"Rubbio". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 14 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 974.

"Sacco" [Sack]. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 15 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 46.

"Soldo". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 16 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 73.

"Soma". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 16 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 84.

"Talandon". Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (in German). 16 (5th ed.). Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut. 1897. p. 660.

Washburn, E. W. (1926). International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.