The mina (also mĕnē, Aramaic; Hebrew: מנה)[a] is an ancient Near Eastern unit of weight, which was divided into 60 shekels. The mina, like the shekel, was also a unit of currency. In ancient Greece, it originally equalled 70 drachmae and later was increased to 100 drachmae. The Greek word mna (μνᾶ) was borrowed from Semitic; compare Hebrew māneh, Aramaic mĕnē, Syriac manyā, Ugaritic mn, and Akkadian manū. However, before it was used as currency, a mina was a unit of measurement, equal to 1.25 pounds (0.57 kg).
From earliest Sumerian times, a mina was a unit of weight. At first, talents and shekels had not yet been introduced. By the time of Ur-Nammu, the mina had a value of 1/60 talents as well as 60 shekels. The value of the mina is calculated at 1.25 pounds (0.57 kg).
Evidence from Ugarit indicates that a mina was equivalent to fifty shekels. The prophet Ezekiel refers to a mina ('maneh' in the King James Version) as sixty shekels, in the Book of Ezekiel 45:12. Jesus of Nazareth tells the "parable of the minas" in Luke 19:11-27. In Jewish usage, the maneh is equal in weight to 100 denarius.
The Greek mina
The Aeginetan mina weighed 623.7 g.
The Attic mina weighed 436.6 g.
- The price for a slave in Plautus' Pseudolus (191 BCE) was 20 minæ; one mina being, according to the commentator writing in 1912, "about US$18.05, or £3 14s. 4d." $18.05 USD in 1912 would be equivalent to approximately $470 USD in 2019[failed verification]
- In the first century AD [in Greece?], it amounted to about a fourth of the wages earned annually by an agricultural worker.
- In the Hebrew tradition, a maneh had always the weight of 100 silver denarii.
- Aristotle (unknown date). Constitution of the Athenians, 10.2.
- Edwards, Tom. "Bible Weights, Measures, and Monetary Values", SpiritRestoration.org at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 January 2012). Calculation of weight by number of shekels.
- Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Money". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
- Tenney, Merril ed., The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, vol. 5, "Weights and Measures," Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976.
- Maimonides (1974). Sefer Mishneh Torah - HaYad Ha-Chazakah (Maimonides' Code of Jewish Law) (in Hebrew). 4 (Seder Avodah). Jerusalem: Pe'er HaTorah., s.v. Hil. Kelei HaMikdash 2:3
- Oleson (1998), p. 764
- Oleson (1998), p. 764
- Perseus Project Ps.1.3
- "US Inflation Calculator". US Inflation Calculator. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
- "The Inflation Calculator". westegg.com. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
- Oleson, John Peter (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199720149.
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