Jakarta RESTful Web Services
|Original author(s)||Sun Microsystems|
3.0 / June 30, 2020
|License||EPL 2.0 or GPL v2 w/Classpath exception|
Jakarta RESTful Web Services, (JAX-RS; formerly Java API for RESTful Web Services) is a Jakarta EE API specification that provides support in creating web services according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural pattern. JAX-RS uses annotations, introduced in Java SE 5, to simplify the development and deployment of web service clients and endpoints.
From version 1.1 on, JAX-RS is an official part of Java EE 6. A notable feature of being an official part of Java EE is that no configuration is necessary to start using JAX-RS. For non-Java EE 6 environments a small entry in the web.xml deployment descriptor is required.
JAX-RS provides some annotations to aid in mapping a resource class (a POJO) as a web resource. The annotations use the Java package
jakarta.ws.rs (previously was
javax.ws.rs but was renamed on May 19, 2019). They include:
@Pathspecifies the relative path for a resource class or method.
@HEADspecify the HTTP request type of a resource.
@Producesspecifies the response Internet media types (used for content negotiation).
@Consumesspecifies the accepted request Internet media types.
In addition, it provides further annotations to method parameters to pull information out of the request. All the
@*Param annotations take a key of some form which is used to look up the value required.
@PathParambinds the method parameter to a path segment.
@QueryParambinds the method parameter to the value of an HTTP query parameter.
@MatrixParambinds the method parameter to the value of an HTTP matrix parameter.
@HeaderParambinds the method parameter to an HTTP header value.
@CookieParambinds the method parameter to a cookie value.
@FormParambinds the method parameter to a form value.
@DefaultValuespecifies a default value for the above bindings when the key is not found.
@Contextreturns the entire context of the object (for example
@Context HttpServletRequest request).
In January 2011 the JCP formed the JSR 339 expert group to work on JAX-RS 2.0. The main targets are (among others) a common client API and support for Hypermedia following the HATEOAS-principle of REST. In May 2013, it reached the Final Release stage.
Implementations of JAX-RS include:
- Apache CXF, an open source Web service framework
- Jersey, the reference implementation from Sun (now Oracle)
- RESTeasy, JBoss's implementation
- WebSphere Application Server from IBM:
- Version 7.0: via the "Feature Pack for Communications Enabled Applications"
- Version 8.0 onwards: natively
- WebLogic Application Server from Oracle, see notes
- Apache Tuscany (http://tuscany.apache.org/documentation-2x/sca-java-bindingrest.html), discontinued
- Cuubez framework (https://web.archive.org/web/20190707005602/http://cuubez.com/)
- Everrest, Codenvy's Implementation
- Jello-Framework, Java Application Framework optimized for Google App Engine, including a powerful RESTful engine and comprehensive Data Authorization model.
- Apache TomEE, an addition to Apache Tomcat
- Hadley, p. 1.
- "Rename package commit on Github". GitHub.
- "JSR 339: JAX-RS 2.0: The Java API for RESTful Web Services". Java Community Process.
- "JSR 370: Java API for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS 2.1) Specification". Java Community Process.
- "JSR 367: Java API for JSON Binding (JSON-B)". Java Community Process.
- Little, Mark (October 1, 2008). "A Comparison of JAX-RS Implementations".
- Hadley, Marc and Paul Sandoz, eds. (September 17, 2009). JAX-RS: Java API for RESTful WebServices (version 1.1), Java Community Process