Jean Marc Gaspard Itard
Without a university education and working at a bank, he was forced to enter the army during the French Revolution but presented himself as a physician at that time. After successfully working as an assistant physician at a military hospital in Soliers, in 1796 he was appointed deputy surgeon at Val-de-Grâce (Hôpital d'instruction des armées du Val-de-Grâce) military hospital in Paris, and in 1799 physician at the National Institution for Deaf Mutes.
In Paris, Itard was a student of distinguished physician René Laennec, inventor of the stethoscope (in 1816). Laennec was a few years younger but had a formal education at the university at Nantes and later became a lecturer and professor of medicine at the Collège de France. Itard described pneumothorax in 1803; Laennec would provide a fuller description of the condition in 1819.
In 1821, Itard published a major work on otology, describing the results of his medical research based on over 170 detailed cases. He is credited with the invention of an Eustachian catheter that is referred to as "Itard's catheter". Numbness in the tympanic membrane during otosclerosis has the eponymous name of "Itard-Cholewa Symptom".
He is known as an educator of the deaf, and tried his educational theories in the celebrated case of Victor of Aveyron, dramatized in the 1970 motion picture The Wild Child directed by François Truffaut, who also played Itard. However, he was disappointed with the progress he made with Victor. Itard was known to conduct experiments on the Deaf students of the Institution Nationale des Sourds-Muets à Paris in Paris in useless attempts to restore their hearing, including delivering electrical shocks, leech therapy, ear surgeries, and various types of internal and external medicine applications.
- An Historical Account of the Discovery and Education of a Savage Man: Or, the First Developments, Physical and Moral, of the Young Savage Caught in the Woods Near Aveyron in the Year 1798 - free fulltext of the English-language translation of the book; published in 1802.
- Traité des maladies d'oreille et de l'audition, two volumes. Paris, Méquignon Marvis, 1821.
- Mémoire sur quelques functions involontaires des appareils de la locomotion, de la préhension et de la voix, Archives générales de médecine, Paris, 1825, 8: 385-407.
- Jean Itard, Mémoire et Rapport sur Victor de l'Aveyron (1801 et 1806) 
- Jean Marc Gaspard Itard. WhoNamedIt.com. Accessed 6 March 2010.
- Henry M, Arnold T, Harvey J (May 2003). "BTS guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax". Thorax. 58 Suppl 2: ii39–52. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.suppl_2.ii39. PMC 1766020. PMID 12728149.
- Teive HA, Chien HF, Munhoz RP, Barbosa ER (December 2008). "Charcot's contribution to the study of Tourette's syndrome". Arq Neuropsiquiatr 66 (4): 918–21. doi:10.1590/S0004-282X2008000600035. PMID 19099145.
- When the Mind Hears | Harlan Lane | ISBN 0679720235
- Works by Jean Marc Gaspard Itard at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Jean Marc Gaspard Itard at Internet Archive