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Jiong (Chinese: 囧; pinyin: jiǒng; Jyutping: gwing2) is a once obscure Chinese character meaning a "patterned window". Since 2008, it has become an internet phenomenon and widely used to express embarrassment and gloom, because of the character's resemblance to a sad facial expression.
- Window, according to Xu Shen's 2nd-century dictionary Shuowen Jiezi: “窻牖麗廔闓明” (an open and light window).
- Granary. 米囧 means “put the new rice into a granary”.
- Sacrificial place. Based on Chouli.
The character for jiong is nowadays more widely used on the Internet as an ideographic emoticon representing a range of moods, as it resembles a person's face. It is commonly used to express ideas or feelings such as annoyance, shock, embarrassment, awkwardness, etc.
The use of jiong as an emoticon can be traced to 2005 or earlier; it was referenced on 20 January 2005 in a Chinese-language article on orz. The character is sometimes used in conjunction with orz, OTZ or its other variants to form "囧rz", representing a person on their hands and knees (jiong forming the face, while r and z represent arms and legs respectively) and symbolising despair or failure.
- Hammond, Kenneth J.; Richey, Jeffrey L. (3 December 2014). The Sage Returns: Confucian Revival in Contemporary China. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-5493-1.
- Li, Yuming; Li, Wei (1 April 2014). The Language Situation in China. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-1-61451-365-0.
- Ru, Xin; Lu, Xueyi; Li, Peilin (25 March 2010). The China Society Yearbook. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-18221-7.