José Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba
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|José Álvarez de Toledo|
|Duke of Alba,
Marquis of Villafranca (etc...)
The Duke of Alba by Francisco de Goya, 1795
José María del Carmen Francisco Manuel Joaquín Pedro Juan Andrés Avelino Cayetano Venancio Francisco de Paula Gonzaga Javier Ramón Blas Tadeo Vicente Sebastián Rafael Melchior Gaspar Baltasar Luis Pedro de Alcántara Buenaventura Diego Andrés Apostol Isidro
16 July 1756|
|Died||9 June 1796
Seville, Andalusia, Spain
|Noble family||House of Toledo|
|Spouse(s)||María del Pilar Teresa Cayetana de Silva Alvarez de Toledo, 13th Duchess of Alba|
María de la Luz (Adopted)
Don José Álvarez de Toledo Osorio y Gonzaga, 11th Marquis of Villafranca, Grandee of Spain, jure uxoris Duke of Alba de Tormes, Grandee of Spain (16 July 1756 – 9 June 1796) was a patron of the artist Francisco Goya.
Álvarez de Toledo was born in 1756 in Madrid. He became chamberlain, at thirteen, to King Charles IV of Spain. He, originally Marquess of Villafranca, married his kinswoman Doña María del Pilar Teresa Cayetana de Silva y Álvarez de Toledo, 13th Duchess of Alba, who was the legendary "Duchess of Alba" in Goya's paintings, thus becoming de jure uxoris Duke of Alba. Their marriage made them the wealthiest couple in the kingdom; they competed against the Osuna family. A year after his marriage, he inherited the dukedom of Medina-Sidonia and joined two of the most important Houses of the Spanish nobility.
The failed attempt of his friend Alejandro Malaspina to oust Queen María Luisa's favourite Manuel de Godoy in favour of the Duke of Alba put an early end to the political career of the progressive aristocrat.
In 1796, Álvarez de Toledo y Gonzaga died on 9 June in Seville.
In a famous portrait by Goya, the duke is clad in elegant riding clothes. With an air of melancholy he looks up from the music book he is holding in his hands, including the "Four songs/with piano accompaniment/by Mr. Haydn". The duke commissioned several works from Joseph Haydn and was a gifted musician himself. In his painting, Goya subtly combines the symbols of his model's passion for music and equestrian skills (viola or violin, riding boots and riding hat) with the neoclassical interior of the ducal residence.
María del Pilar de Silva, Duchess of Alba, his wife.
The 12th Marquis of Villafranca, his brother and successor.
|Ancestors of José Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba|
Titles and styles
- 15th Duke of Medina Sidonia, Grandee of Spain
- 11th Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo, Grandee of Spain
- 11th Marquis of los Vélez, Grandee of Spain
- 11th Duke of Montalto, Grandee of Spain
- 10th Duke of Bivona
- 8th Duke of Fernandina
- 8th Prince of Montalbán
- 14th Marquis of Molina
- 13th Marquis of Cazaza in Africa
- 8th Marquis of Martorell
- 6th Marquis of Villanueva de Valdueza
- 22nd Count of Niebla
- 18th Count of Caltabellotta
- 17th Count of Adernò
- 17th Count of Golisano
- The Most Excellent The Duke of Fernandina (1756–1773)
- The Most Excellent The Marquis of Villafranca (1773–1776)
- The Most Excellent The Duke of Alba (1776–1779)
Antonio Álvarez de Toledo
|Duke of Fernandina
Francisco de Borja Álvarez de Toledo
|Marquis of Villafranca
Pedro de Alcántara Alonso Pérez de Guzmán
|Duke of Medina Sidonia
Title last held byMaría Teresa de Haro
as Duchess of Alba
|Duke consort of Alba
Title next held byRosalia Ventimiglia
as Duchess of Alba