Bassia scoparia

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Bassia scoparia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Camphorosmoideae
Genus: Bassia
Species: B. scoparia
Binomial name
Bassia scoparia
(L.) A.J.Scott
Synonyms

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.

Bassia scoparia (syn. Kochia scoparia) is a large annual herb in the family Amaranthaceae native to Eurasia.[1] It has been introduced to many parts of North America,[2] where it is found in grassland, prairie, and desert shrub ecosystems.[1] Its common names include burningbush,[2] ragweed, summer cypress,[1] mock-cypress, kochia, belvedere, Mexican firebrush, and Mexican fireweed.[3]

Biology[edit]

The seed of Bassia scoparia is dispersed by wind and water, and it is transported when the whole plant detaches and rolls on the wind as a tumbleweed.[1] The seed does not persist in the soil seed bank, dying within about a year if it fails to germinate.[1]

The species is a C4 plant, specifically of the NADP-ME type.[4][5]

Uses[edit]

This plant is grown as an ornamental for its red fall foliage. It has also been useful in erosion control on denuded soils.[6] It has been suggested as an agent of phytoremediation,[6] because it is a hyperaccumulator of chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, zinc,[7] and uranium.[8]

Tonburi[edit]

In Japan the seeds are used a food garnish called tonburi (とんぶり?) (Japanese). Because its texture is similar to caviar, it has been called "land caviar", "field caviar", and "mountain caviar". It is a chinmi, or delicacy, in Akita prefecture. The glossy, greenish black seeds are dried, boiled, soaked, and then rubbed by hand to remove the skin.

Traditional medicine[edit]

The seeds are used in traditional Chinese medicine to help regulate disorders such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and atherosclerosis. In a study of mice fed a high-fat diet, an extract of the seeds limited obesity.[9] They contain momordin Ic, a triterpene saponin.[10]

Forage[edit]

The plant is a moderately useful forage for livestock, especially on dry lands.[11] However, its use is limited by its toxicity in large quantities.[12] Livestock ingesting large amounts can experience weight loss, hyperbilirubinemia, photosensitization, and polyuria.[13]

Systematics[edit]

The species was first published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus, who named it Chenopodium scoparium. In 1809, it was placed in the genus Kochia by Heinrich Schrader. It was transferred to Bassia in 1978 by Andrew John Scott. Kochia was included in Bassia in 2011 following phylogenetic studies.[4]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Kochia scoparia. USFS Fire Effects Information System.
  2. ^ a b Bassia scoparia. USDA PLANTS. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
  3. ^ "USDA GRIN taxonomy". 
  4. ^ a b Kadereit, G. and H. Freitag. (2011). Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): Implications for biogeography, evolution of C4-photosynthesis and taxonomy. Taxon 60(1), 51-78.
  5. ^ Muhaidat, R., et al. (2007). Diversity of Kranz anatomy and biochemistry in C4 eudicots. Am J Bot 94(3), 362-81. doi: 10.3732/ajb.94.3.362
  6. ^ a b Casey, P.A. 2009. Plant guide for kochia (Kochia scoparia). USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Kansas Plant Materials Center. Manhattan, Kansas.
  7. ^ McCutcheon & Schnoor. Phytoremediation. New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons. 2003.
  8. ^ Schmidt, U. (2003). Enhancing phytoextraction: The effect of chemical soil manipulation on mobility, plant accumulation, and leaching of heavy metals. Journal of Environmental Quality 32(6), 1939–54. PMID 14674516.
  9. ^ Han, L. K., et al. (2006). Reduction of fat storage in mice fed a high-fat diet long term by treatment with saponins prepared from Kochia scoparia fruit. Phytotherapy Research 20(10), 877-82. PMID: 16892459
  10. ^ Matsuda, H.; Li, Y.; Yamahara, J.; Yoshikawa, M. (1999). "Inhibition of gastric emptying by triterpene saponin, momordin Ic, in mice: Roles of blood glucose, capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves, and central nervous system". The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 289 (2): 729–734. PMID 10215646. 
  11. ^ Rankins, D. L.; et al. (1991). Serum constituents and metabolic hormones in sheep and cattle fed Kochia scoparia hay. Journal of Animal Science 69(7), 2941–46. PMID 1885403.
  12. ^ Rankins Jr, D. L.; Smith, G. S.; Hallford, D. M. (1991). "Effects of metoclopramide on steers fed Kochia scoparia hay". Journal of animal science 69 (9): 3699–3705. PMID 1938652. 
  13. ^ Rankins Jr, D. L.; Smith, G. S.; Hallford, D. M. (1991). "Altered metabolic hormones, impaired nitrogen retention, and hepatotoxicosis in lambs fed Kochia scoparia hay". Journal of animal science 69 (7): 2932–2940. PMID 1885402. 

External links[edit]