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Komedes is an ethnonym recorded by Ptolemy.[1] Ptolemy notes that the Komedes inhabited "the entire mountainous land of the Sakas", placing them in eastern Scythia (Transoxania).


The author of Vayu Purana uses the name "Kumuda-dvipa" for Kusha-dvipa.[2] Kumuda is also a Puranic name of a mountain forming the northern buttress of Mount Meru, also known as Sumeru (Pamirs).[3] It extended between headwaters of Oxus and Jaxartes. In anterior Epic Age, Kumuda was also the name given to high "table-land" of the Tartary located to north of the Himavata from which the Aryan race may have originally pushed their way southwards into the Indian peninsula and preserved the name in their traditions as a relic of old mountain worship (Thompson). Thus, the Kumuda-dvipa lay close to the Pamirs and, in fact, name Kumuda-dvipa applied to southern territory of Shakadvipa or Scythia. It lay north to Hemavata (Hindukush) and probably comprised Badakshan, Alay Valley/Alay Mountains range, Tienshan, Kerategin and probably extended northwards as far as Zeravshan valley and Fargana.[citation needed]


Ancient geographer Ptolemy calls the region fed by Jaxartes and its tributaries as Komdei.[4] Ptolemy refers to the people of Komdei as Komedes.[5] Ptolemy also refers to one tribal people whom he variously calls Komoi (=Kamoi) or Komroi/Khomroi or Komedei and locates them in the mountainous regions of Sogdiana as far as Jaxartes.[6] In fact, as per Ptolemy’s evidence, the Komedes (people) inhabited the entire land of the Sakas.[7] Julius HonoriusCosmography too mentions the Komedes people as Traumeda (from Caumedes) and also mentions Mt Caumedes as the source of river Oxus. Per evidence of Ptolemy and of Julius Honorius, Mt Caumedes or Komedes extended from the head-waters of Oxus to Jaxartes.[8] Ammianus Marcellinus too calls the Sogdian mountainous regions as Komadas[9]

Komedes/Komoi or Kumiji[edit]

Ptolemian reference to Komdei or Komedes as a region probably alludes to Komdesh or Kamdesh Kambodesh (?), probably "Kambojdesh").[10][11] It is the Kiumito or Kumito of Xuanzang and Kumed or Kumadh of the Muslim writers, Kiumiche of Wu'k ong, Kumi of T'ang and Cambothi, Kambuson and Komedon of some other Greek writings. Al-Maqidisi, in his book Al-Muqhni, calls the people of this territory as Kumiji which seems equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboji or Kambojas.[12] Numerous scholars have connected Komedes/Komedei of classical writings with the Kambojas of Iranian affinities.[13][10][14][15][16][17][18]

The classical sources further indicate that the south-western section of the Komedes (people) living within Mt Hemodos were known as Homodotes. Thus, Homodotes were a section of the Komedes living within Mt Hemodos or Emode, a part of Hindukush or Pamirs.

As the name itself indicates, the Komedes people occupied Kumuda-dvipa or Kumuda region of Indian traditions. The various classical sources indicate that Komedes, Traumeda/Caumedae, Homodotes/Homodoti/Homodontes, Komoi, Komroi/Khomroi are the variant names of the same people inhabiting this region. The Komoi of Ptolemy apparently refers to Kamboi—a vulgo variant of Kamboja/Kambojika, Kamboika, Kamboy or Kambo.[19] Other classical sources call the Komedes people also as Asii/Asio[20] while the Chinese equivalent was Xiuxun/Sai etc. On the north of Kumuda-dvipa was the mainland of the Sacarauloi/Saraucae (Sacaraucae) and probably of the Pasiano in Fargana, Tashkant and Issyk-kul etc. The Indian text Mahabharata indicates that the southern parts of Shaka-dvipa was the habitat of the Lohas, Parama Kambojas and Rishikas etc.[21][22][23]

Thus Parama Kambojas of Mahabharata apparently occupied what has been referred to as the Kumuda or Kumuda-dvipa in the Indian texts and Komedei/Komedes/Caumedes in classical writings.[24][25]

Linguistic evidence[edit]

Nirukata (II.2) of Yasaka[26] attests that verb shavati in the sense "to go" was used only and only by the Kambojas.[27][28] It has been proven that the modern Pamir languages, mainly spoken in Pamir Mountains and countries on the head-waters of Oxus, still use terms derived from ancient Kamboja shavati in the sense "to go".[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] The Yaghnobi language spoken in the Yaghnob Valley around the headwaters of Zeravshan in Sogdiana, also still contains a relic from ancient Kamboja shavati in the sense "to go".[37] Further, the former language of Badakshan was also a dialect of Galcha which has been replaced by Persian only in the last few centuries.[38][39][40]

The above linguistic evidence indicates that ancient Kamboja probably included the Pamirs, Badakshan, and parts of Tajikistan extending as far as the source of Zarafshan, to the north of Pamirs and separated from them .[41] On the east it was bounded roughly by Yarkand and/or Kashgar, on the west by Bahlika (Uttaramadra), on the northwest by Sogdiana, on the north by Uttarakuru, on the southeast by Darada, and on the south by Gandhara.[42] Further, Prof Tomaschek has stated that of all the dialects of Galcha, the Munjani is most closely related to the language of Zend Avestan of the ancient Iranians[43] Scholars connect name Munjan/Munjani to ancient 'Mujavat' (people/region)[44] which name has been referred to in Atharvaveda and Mahabharata. Term shiya in Munjani/Munji dialect of Galcha, used in the sense 'to go' , still shows very marked influence of ancient Kamboja verb shvati.[45] According to other version, Munjan is derived from root 'Murg' of Amyurgio Sacae (Haumavarga Saka of Persian inscriptions), which according to scholars, translates into Soma-twisting Sakas (Dr Michael Witzel). This again connects Munjan with Mujavat, the home of Haoma/Soma i.e. Pamirs/Hindukush.

The foregoing discussion indicates that the ancestors of Munjani people were speakers of Kamboja language and belonged to the Parama Kamboja domain. This also shows that the Komedes of the classical writings translates into Parama Kamboja of the Mahabharata tradition.

Parama Kambojas vs Haumavarga Scythians[edit]

As seen from the foregoing discussion, the clans of the Parama Kambojas (Asii), Lohas and Rishikas (Tukharas?) also fell into the Scythian region, said to belong to Amyurgian Scythians of Herodotus. Majavat, the land of Soma, apparently fell within the domain of Parama Kambojas in Pamirs (Munjan or Muztagh Atta?). Like other Scythian clans, the Parama Kambojas also may have practiced Soma cult and thus they fell within the Persian/Herodotean definition and scope of Haumvargas/Amyurgios. Otherwise, they were a distinct tribe from the Sakas but were undoubtedly Scythian if one follows the classical definition of Megasthenes, Diodorus, Ptolemy, Pliny the Elder and Strabo etc. No doubt, that the linguistic traces of ancient Kamboja language have been seen in several modern languages of the Pamirs, Khotan and Sogdiana. The Parama Kambojas were obviously living within Scythia of the classical writers or the Shakadvipa of the Indian texts. Their land was also alternatively known as Kumuda-dvipa. And they were known by other names like Asii (from Aswa), Homodites (from Mt Hemodos, Emode, Oimode/Oemeda) of classical and, Xiuxun, Wai- etc. of the Chinese writings. They have been lumped together with other tribes of south-east Scythia and all called by the general name Sacae by Greeks and Sakas by the Iranic sources. They were known as Shakas in Indian texts.[46]

It is worth noting that many scholars describe the Kambojas as a Royal Clan of the Sakas or Scythians.[47][48][49][50][51] This also seems to be confirmed from Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions of Mahaksatrapa Rajuvula and the Rock Edict XIII of King Aśoka [49][52]

Migration of Komedes[edit]

During the second quarter of the 2nd century BCE, the Homodotes/Komedes or Asii (Parama Kambojas) appear to have participated in the tribal migration to Bactria and Sugugda and then further to Helmond valley. The later distribution of Komedes who are mentioned in the itinerary of Maes Titianus (1st century CE) used by Ptolemy in his treatise on Geography attest this fact. Ptolemy gives a relatively full account of this people: the Komedes inhabited the entire mountainous land of the Sakas,[53] whereas formerly, they are known to have been confined to only Pamirs, its northern valleys and Badakshan.

Scholars believe that the land of Parama Kamboja of Indian texts was taken over during the 2nd century by the Tukharas,[54][55] and as a result, some sections of their population had dispersed to other places while other population stayed put there and became subjects of the Tukharas. The former Parama Kamboja thus became Tukharistan.

According to Strabo, Greek Bactriana was taken over by nomads like Asii/Asio, Pasianoi, Tokhario and Sakarauloi who had originally come from country from other side of Jaxartes. In fact, there seems to be a factual error in Strabo's statement since only Sacaraulois i.e. the proper Amyurgian Sakas appear to have come from the Jaxartes and the northern Fargana regions. The Asii or Asio (Parama Kambojas) belonged to the Pamirs/Alay Valley and southern parts of Fargana. Similarly, the Pasianois also belonged to Fargana or about region. They had joined the displaced Sacaraulois in their south-westerely movements or else they were also displaced by the invading hordes of the Ta Yue-chis.

Some scholars tend to link the Rishikas of Mahabharata with the Tukharas and the latter with the Kushanas and the Ta Yue-chis themselves. If one accepts this connection, then the Tukharas or Tusharas ( => Rishikas => Kushanas = > Yue-chis) had controlled the eastern parts of Bactria country (Ta-hia) while the combined forces of the displaced Sakarauloi, 'Asii/Asio' (horse people = Parama Kambojas) and the 'Pasinoi' of Strabo etc. had occupied its western parts after being dislocated from their original homes in Issyk-kul, Fargana, the Alay Valley and Tienshan by the Ta-Yuechis. The Ta-hia of the Chinese records is taken to mean Tukhara/Tokhara which also is believed to have included Badakshan, Chitral, Kafirstan and Wakhan which districts had formed eastern parts of Bactria.[56][57][55][58] The Kambojas of Trans-Hindukush territories (i.e. Parama Kambojas) again come into limelight and find important references in the 5th-century Sanskrit play Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa; in the itineraries of 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang; in the victories of 8th-century King Lalitadutya Muktapida of Kashmir; as well as in the writings of Arabic geographer Al-Idrisi (1099-1166 CE) etc. These Kambojas apparently were the descendants of that section of the Kambojas who, instead of leaving their ancestral land during the 2nd century BCE under pressure from Ta Yue-chi, had rather compromised with the invaders and had decided to stay put in their ancestral land instead of moving to Helmond valley or to the Kabol valley.[59] According to other scholars, it were the Scythian hordes alone (i.e. Asii/Asio, Pasianoi, and Sakarauloi) who had put an end to the Greek kingdom of Bactria[60][61]

Interestingly, Mahabharata attests that the Rishikas were closely allied or affiliated to the Parama-Kambojas.[62] George Rawilson observes that: "The Asii or Asiani were closely connected with the Tochari and the Sakarauli (Saracucse?) who are found connected with both the Tochari and the Asiani".[63] If the Rishikas were indeed the Tukharas, then the observation from Dr Rawilson is in line with the Mahabharata statement (2.27.25-26) which too closely allies the Parama Kambojas (=Asii/Asio) with the Rishikas, and locates them both in the Shakadvipa.

However, based on the syntactical construction of the Mahabharata verse 5.5.15, outstanding Sanskrit scholar Prof Ishwa Mishra states that the Rishikas were also Kambojas.[64][65][66] Dr V. S. Aggarwala also identifies the Parama Kambojas with the Rishikas [67] and locates them in Sakadvipa (or Scythia) .[68] According to Dr B. N. Puri, the Kambojas were a branch of the Tukharas.[69] Based on the above Rishika-Kamboja connections, some scholars also claim that the Kambojas were a branch of the Yuezhi themselves.[70] Dr Moti Chander also sees a close ethnic relationship between the Kambojas and the Yuezhi .[71][72][73]

Dr H. W. Bailey lists several classes of the Kamboja horses and states that their haya- and javana- breed ( 'swift horse') implies the famous horses of the Farghana breed.[74] Praja Bhata, a Kashmiri Sanskrit poet and author of the fourth Rajatarangini, while writing about history of Moghul dynasty in India, addresses emperor Babur as a Yavana king hailing from Kambhoja.[75] Since Vabur (Babur) was native of Fargana (in Kyrgyzstan of Central Asia), this Indian reference seems to extend the Kamboja boundaries i.e. the Parama Kamboja domain almost as far as to Fargana. Obviously, the Alay valley, north of Pamirs, had formed important part of Parama Kamboja.

Thus, the foregoing discussion sufficiently proves that the territory of the Parama Kambojas lied within and beyond Mt Hemodos or Imaos or Himalaya/Hindukush[76] and that during 2nd century BCE major parts of it were occupied by the Tukharas. The displaced Kambojas (Asii/Asio) in alliance with Sacaraulois and Pasianois had moved to Bactria and put an end to Greek kingdom there. Little later, these mixed hordes were over-powered by Parthian rulers and thus became their subjects and settled in Drangiana in Helmond valley and about region. This settlement became known as Sakasthana (modern Seistan) after the appellation of the dominant clan i.e. Sakas. Later, these mixed hordes entered south-western Indian sub-continent via Bolan Pass and spread into Sindhu, Sovira, Gujarat, Rajputana, Malwa, Maharashtra, Punjab, UP and eastern, central and southern India as well.


According to Herodotus, the Sakai (i.e. the Sakas) were, in truth, the Amurgio Skuthai i.e. the Amyurgian Scythians.[77] Herodotus’s Amyurgians or Amyrgians are the Saka Haumavarga of the Persian inscriptions. Amyrgians apparently got their name from their association with Haoma (Sanskrit Soma). 'Haumavarga Sakas' literally means Soma pressing Sakas.[78] The ancient Indo-Iranians made use of Haoma (Indic Soma). The leaves of the plant were pressed/squeezed and the juice so produced was mixed with milk or water and consumed. The place famous for Soma/Haoma plant was Mujavata or Munjavata parvata. According to Atharvaveda, it lay close to Bahlika and Gandhara[79] in the north-west (Central Asia). Mahabharata (14.8.1) also locates Mujavat in the snow-laden mountains (Himavata) of north-west.[80]

The Bahlikas are undoubtedly the Bactrians. Scholars have determined that the Mujavat (the land of Soma) refers to Hindukush-Pamirs[81][82]

According to Perspolis and Hamadan inscriptions of Achaemenid Darius I, there were at least three major settlements of the Sakas viz. Saka Haumavarga, Saka Tigrakhauda and Saka Taradarya.[83][84] In the days of Achaemenid Darius I (522 BCE - 486 BCE), the Sakas Haumavarga lived 'beyond Sogdiana' (para-Sugudam) which when seen from Perspolis (the seat of power of king Darius, the royal author of these inscriptions), seems to point to Tashkant, Fargana, Alai Mountains, Tian Shan, Kashgar and the regions about.[85][86] But according to Mahabharata, the Transoxian Pamirs and regions north of it as far as Fargana are known to have been the habitat of the allied tribes of the Lohas, the Parama Kambojas, the Rishikas etc.[87][88][89][90] Thus, broadly speaking, the Persian term Haumavarga applied probably to the Saka proper as well as the Lohas and Parama Kambojas and Rishikas tribes settled north of Oxus etc. In all probability, this settlement of the Haumavarga Sakas finds numerous references as Shakas in ancient Indian texts and are known to have been closely associated with the Kambojas (or Parama Kambojas) etc. This was same the people who had formed the constituent of the Kamboja army of Kamboja Sudakshina in Mahabharata war. And undoubtedly, this was people who had become the target of the tribal aggression of the Ta Yue-chi or Great Yue-chi.[84][91]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ P’iankov, I. "History of Iran - The Ethnic of Sakas (Scythians)". Iran Chamber Society. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  2. ^ Vayu I.48.34-36
  3. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam, Canto 5 , Chapter Seventeen: The Descent of the River Ganges; canto 5, chapter 16, verse 11.
  4. ^ J. W. McCrindle, Ancient India, Trans & Edited by Dr R. C. Majumdar, 1927, p 275.
  5. ^ Geography 6.12.2; 6.13.3
  6. ^ J. W. McCrindle, Ancient India, Trans & Edited by Dr R. C. Majumdar, 1927, pp 268, 284
  7. ^ Ptolemy’s Geography 6.13.3
  8. ^ Geography 6.12.3; and Cosmography A.7
  9. ^ J. W. McCrindle, Ancient India, Trans & Edited by Dr R. C. Majumdar, 1927, p 326
  10. ^ a b Central Asiatic Provinces of the Mauryan Empire, p 403, Dr H. C. Seth
  11. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 49, 155, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  12. ^ Predatory peoples, the Kumiji tribemen of the Buttamn Mountains in the upper Oxus near Khuttal
  13. ^ India and Central Asia, 1955, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi
  14. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 48-49, 155, 300, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  15. ^ Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351
  16. ^ India and the World, 1961, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash
  17. ^ Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 91, 92, 159, S Kirpal Singh
  18. ^ These Kamboj People, 1979, p 355, K. S. Dardi etc.
  19. ^ Ashoka's Rock Edicts V and XII at Shahbazgarhi and the Jaina Canon Uttradhyana-Sutra (11/16), both write Kamboya for Kamboja
  20. ^ "In Aswa, we have ancient race peopled on both sides of Indus and probable etymon of Asia. The Assaceni, the Ari-aspii, the Aspasians and (the Asii) whom Strabo describes as Scythic race, have same origin. Hence Asi-gurh (Hasi/Hansi) and Asii-gard, the first settlements of Scythic Asii in Scandinavia" . (See: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Reprint (2002), Vol I, p 64. Also see: pp 51-54, 87, 95; Vol-2, P 2, James Tod).
  21. ^ Mahabharata 2.27.25
  22. ^ India as Known to Panini, p 70, Dr V. S. Aggarwala
  23. ^ The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, S. Kirpal Singh.
  24. ^ See: The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 59, 92, 159, S Kipral Singh
  25. ^ Dr V. S. Aggarwala writing on Rishikas observes: "The name Rishika occurs in Mahabharata as a part of 'Shakadvipa'. Arjuna had conquered Rishikas across the Vakshu (Oxus) which flowed through the Shaka country". Since the Parama Kambojas, Lohas and the Rishikas were all neighborly tribes and were allied together in their fight against Arjuna (Lohan. ParamaKambojan.Rishikan uttaranpi), this verifies that the Transoxian Lohas and Parama Kambojas were also located in Shakadvipa or Scythia
  26. ^ Believed by some belonging to the 7th century BCE, by others to the 3rd century BCE.
  27. ^ Early Eastern Iran and Atharvaveda, 1980, 92, Dr Michael Witzel; also Nilukata, Vol I, Sarup.
  28. ^ :shavatir gatikayaghnrmaa Kamboje.sv eva bhaa.syate...vikaara enam Aaryaa bha.sante shava iti.| (Nirukata II.2.8), Trans:The verb 'shavati', meaning 'to go', is used by the Kambojas and only the Kambojas..... but its root 'shava' is used by the Aryans i.e Indo-Aryans.
  29. ^ Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 456ff, 468, 473, 474, 476, 500, 511, 524 etc
  30. ^ Journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Asia, 1911, pp 801-802, Sir Griersen
  31. ^ India as Known to Panini, 1968, p 49, Dr V. S. Aggarwala
  32. ^ Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, A Critical Study, 1972, p 164, Dr M. R. Singh
  33. ^ Bharata Bhumi aur uske Nivasi, Samvat 1987, pp 297-305, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar
  34. ^ Geographical and Economical Studies in the Mahabharata, Upayana Parva, p 37, Dr Motichandra
  35. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 127-28, 167, 218, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  36. ^ Sindhant Kaumudi Arthaprakashaka, 1966, pp 20-22, Acharya R. R. Pande.
  37. ^ See: Bhartya Itihaas ki ruprekha, 229-301, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, p 456ff, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Asia, 1911, pp 801-802, Sir Griersen; also Ancient Kamboja, People And the Country, 128, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  38. ^ Linguistic Survey of India, X, p. 456
  39. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 128, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  40. ^ Bhartya Itihaas ki ruprekha, p 531-33, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar etc.
  41. ^ Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 102-119.
  42. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 49, 155, 237 Dr J. L. Kamboj
  43. ^ Centralasiatische Studien II. Die Pamir-Dialekte, Vienna, 1880, Wilhelm Tomaschek; quoted by Dr J. C. Vidyalankar in his Bhartya Itihas ki Mimansa, p 471, 480-81, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Quoted in: Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 217, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  44. ^ Early Eastern Iran and the Atharvaveda, Persica, 9, 1981, p 105, fn16, Dr Michael Witzel;
  45. ^ Linguistics Survey of India, Vol X, p 511
  46. ^ Dr Robert Shafer has recently reported that the Shakas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Sugudas etc was the left- over population of the Indo-Iranian Aryans after the latter had moved from their original home in Central Asia to Iran and India (See Report: Ethnography of Ancient India, p 43, Robert Shafer)
  47. ^ Ref: La vieille route de l'Inde de Bactres à Taxila, p 271, Alfred A. Foucher.
  48. ^ See also entry: Kamboja in online "Heritage du Sanskrit Dictionnaire, Sanskrit-Francais", 2008, p 101, Gerard Huet, which defines Kamboja as: Clan royal Kamboja des Śakās:(i.e Kambojas, a royal clan of the Sakas/Scythians). See link: [1]
  49. ^ a b See ref: A bilingual Graeco-Aramaic edict by Aśoka: the first Greek inscription discovered in Afghanistan , 1964, p 17, Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni Garbini - Aśoka, India, Published by Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo Oriente, 1964
  50. ^ See further references: Watching Cambodia: Ten Paths to Enter the Cambodian Tangle, 1993, p 51, Serge Thion - History. See also: Tai World: A Digest of Articles from the Thai -Yunnan Project Newsletter, Andrew Walker, Nicholas Tapp - Folklore - 2001 or Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter (NEWSLETTER is edited by Scott Bamber and published in the Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific Studies; printed at Central Printery; the masthead is by Susan Wigham of Graphic Design (all of The Australian National University); Cf: Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute - India; cf: Notes on Indo-Scythian chronology, Journal of Indian History, xii, 21; Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, S. Konow; Cf: History of Indian Administration, p 94, B. N. Puri.
  51. ^ IMPORTANT NOTE: Indian Epic Mahabharata (See: Mahabharata 5.19.21-23; See also: The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, Dr F. E. Pargiter, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) powerfully attests that Kamboja ruler Sudakshin Kamboj had marshaled and lead an Akshuni army of wrathful warriors which besides the Kambojas, also comprised a strong contingent from the Sakas (or Scythians). This fact clearly proves that the Sakas, in general, were subservient to the Kamboja ruler Sudakshina Kamboj and that Sudakshina's clan was ruling over the Sakas. Thus from epic evidence also, the Kambojas were indeed a royal or ruling Scythian clan and the Scythians had formed an indispensable part of the Kamboja army. Furthermore, the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions also connect yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuia (Kamboja) and his daughter Aiyasi Kamuia (Kamboja), chief queen of the Scythian Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula, to the imperial house ruling in Taxila (See: Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions, Edition 1991, p 36, Sten Konow)
  52. ^ See Rock Edict 13, 30 (see Bloch).
  53. ^ Geography 6.13.3
  54. ^ Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha, p 534, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar
  55. ^ a b Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 129, 300 Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  56. ^ See ref: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, Commentary, p 719, Dr B. N. Mukerjee.
  57. ^ It is also notable that before its occupation by the Tukhara Yue-chis, Badakshan and Alay valley had formed a part of ancient Kamboja i.e. it was a part of Parama Kamboja country. But after its occupation by the Tukharas during the 2nd century BCE, it became a part of Tukharistan. Around the 4th or 5th century CE, when the fortunes of the Tukharas finally died down, the original population of Kambojas re-asserted themselves and the region again started to be called by its former name i.e. Kamboja (See: Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha, p 534, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar
  58. ^ Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 159, S Kirpal Singh). There are several later-time references to these Kambojas of Pamirs/Badakshan. Raghuvamsha, a 5th-century Sanskrit play of Kalidasa, attests the Kambojas on river Vamkshu (Oxus) as a neighbors to the Hunas (Raghu: 4.68-70). They have also been attested as Kiumito by 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang. King of Kashmir in the 8th century, King Lalitadiya had invaded the Oxian Kambojas as is attested by Rajatarangini of Kalhana (See: Rajatarangini 4.163-65). Here, they are mentioned as living in the eastern parts of the Oxus valley as neighbors to the Tukharas who were living in western parts of Oxus valley (See: The Land of the Kambojas, Purana, Vol V, No, July 1962, p 250, Dr D. C. Sircar). Arabic geographer Al-Idrisi (1099-1166 CE), while writing on Badakshan, its flora, its fauna, its scenic beauty, its quality horses & ponis, its precious stones and mineral wealth etc---at the end, he states that Badakshan shared boundaries with Kanoj. The Kanoj of Idrisi, in fact, is the Sanskrit Kamboj. Due to misplacement of dot, the Kamboj got changed to Kanoj in Persian transcription. Al-Idrisi belonged to the 11th century CE. Obviously, the boundaries of ancient Kamboj had considerably shrunken down at times of Idrisi so that he had to differentiate Badakshan from the Kamboj located in its contiguity i.e. Pamirs (Views of Dr J. C. Vidyalankara, Dr J. L. Kamboj). Otherwise also, the Kanoj of Idrisi can't be the Kanauj of Uttar-Pradesh since Kanauj of Uttar-Pradesh does not share boundaries with Badakshan and it is also located over thousand miles away from Badakshan.
  59. ^ There is yet another evidence which equates the Kamboja = Tokhara. A Buddhist Sanskrit Vinaya text (Gilgit Manuscripts, III, 3, 136, Dr N. Dutt, quoted in B.S.O.A.S XIII, 404) has the expression Satam Kambojikanam kanayanam i.e. a hundred maidens from Kamboja. This has been rendered in Tibetan as Tho-gar yul-gyi bu-mo brgya and in Mongolian as To-gar ulus-un yagun ükin. Thus, the proper name Kamboja has been rendered as Tho-gar or To-gar. And Tho-gar/To-gar are Tibetan or Mongolian names for Tokhar/Tukhar. See refs: Irano-Indica III, H. W. Bailey, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1950 , pp. 389-409; see also: Ancient Kamboja, Iran and Islam, 1971, p 66, Dr H. W. Bailey.
  60. ^ Cambridge History of India, Vol I, p 510
  61. ^ Taxila, Vol I, p 24, Marshal, Early History of North India, p 50, Dr S. Chattopadhyava.
  62. ^ :Lohan ParamaKambojanRishikan uttaran api:MBH 2.27.25; See link: [2].
  63. ^ See: The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 6. (of 7): Parthia, by George Rawlinson.
  64. ^ Shakanam Pahlavanan cha Daradanam cha ye nripah, Kambojarishika ye cha pashchim.anupakash cha ye, 5.5.15, Trans: The kings of the Shakas, Pahlavas and the Daradas and the Kamboj-Rishikas live in the west in Anupadesa or region.
  65. ^ Daradas here is a copyists mistake for Paradas
  66. ^ According to A Cunningham, "Kaofu was the appellation of one of the five tribes of the Yuechis or Tochari who are said to have given their names to the town which they occupied towards the end of second century BCE" (The Ancient Geography of India, p 15, A Cunningham). Dr J. L. Kamboj inferes from this statement that the fifth clan mentioned among the Tochari/Yuechis may rather have been a clan of the Kambojas (Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 43, Dr J. L. Kamboj). Sanskrit equivalent of Kaofu is Kabol and the name Kabol is anciently connected with the Kambojas rather than the Kushanas or the Tukharas. Thus, if the Kaofu tribe (Kaofu) had indeed moved along with the 'four Yue-chi tribes (i.e Hshiumi, Shuangmi, Hsitun & Tumi) from across the Hindukush to Kabol valley', then the higher probability is that this Kaofu clan was a Kamboja clan from the Parama Kamboja domain which may have joined or followed the Yue-chis to southern side of the Hindukush in later part of the 2nd century BCE.
  67. ^ The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  68. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 64, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India.
  69. ^ Buddhism in Central Asia, p. 90.
  70. ^ Journal of Tamil Studies, 1969, pp 86, 87, International Institute of Tamil Studies - Tamil philology.
  71. ^ Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 19, Dr Moti Chandra - India.
  72. ^ The Cultural Heritage of India also sees a close ethnic relationship between the Kambojas, the Tukharas (=Rishikas = Yue-chis) and the modern Tajik race. It calls the modern Tajik race to be descendants of the Tukharas and Kambojas, thus assuming Kambojas as a component of the Tukharas or vice versa (The Cultural Heritage of India: Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Memorial, 1936, p 151). Cf: "The Kambojas indicate the people of Tajikistan speaking Ghalcha..." (See: Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p 94, Dr Moti Chandra). For Kambojas as the ancestors of the Tajiks, Cf: Bhart Bhumi Aur Unke Nivasi, p 313-314, 226, Bhartya Itihaas Ki Mimansa, p 335 by Dr J. C. Vidyalanka
  73. ^ Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 164-65, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.
  74. ^ Ancient Kamboja, in Iran and Islam, 1971, p 65, H. W. Bailey
  75. ^ :Kaambhoja.yavaneshen Vabhore.n vipatitah |:tadaiva hastinapuryamebhrahemo nripeshavra || 223 ||: (Raghu Nath Sinha, Shukarjatrangini tatha Rajatarangini Sangraha: p 110).
  76. ^ which region the ancient Sanskrit texts like Mahabharata labels as Shakadvipa and the classical writers like Megasthenes, Diodorus, Strabo and Ptolemy etc define it as part of Scythia.
  77. ^ History, VII, 64.
  78. ^ Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts, Section 1, Terminology, Dr Michael Witzel.
  79. ^ Atharvaveda 5.22.14.
  80. ^ :Girey himvata: prishthe munjhavan naam parvata (MBH 14.8.1).
  81. ^ See: Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, 1981, p 222, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  82. ^ Also see: "The Mujavat mountain is known since Rig Veda times and is a semi-mythical mountain in Hindukush- Pamir area and said to have a good variety of Soma. To the Vedic Indians, it clearly is situated 'at the end of the world'. In the same (north)-westernly direction, the Bahlika people are found; they are supposed to mean Bactrians...." (See: Early Eastern Iran and the Atharvaveda, Persica-9, 1980, p 87, Dr Michael Witzel); cf also: "In addition, Soma, a plant of the high Iranian Pamir and Himalayan mountains -- especially that of mujavat; cf. Avestan muzha --originally had a Central Asian name as well (aMzu). Indo-Iranian *sau-ma, with regular development (au > o) to Ved. so-ma and (s > h) to Avestan haoma, Old Persian hauma, is a simple and rather descriptive derivative of su "to press." (Dr Michael Witzel) [3].
  83. ^ Select Inscriptions bearing on the Indian History and Civilization, Vol I, p 10
  84. ^ a b Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 297, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  85. ^ Based on the wording of Persian Inscriptions, some writers locate this Saka settlement to the north of Suguda (Sogdiana) in the plains of Jaxartes in the Issyk-kul Lake area, but Para-Sugudma should rather point to Fargana, Kashgar, Pamirs and the about regions. This location of Haumavarga Scythians seems more reasonable since there was another different settlement of the Sakas, north of Jaxartes in its lower valleys near the Aral Sea, which settlement must be distinguished from the Saka Haumavarga.
  86. ^ In reference to Sakas of Transoxiana i.e Saka Haumavarga, Arrian also remarks: "...the Sakas living not far from Bactria and Sugada" (See: History and Culture of Indian People, Vol II, p 120). This obviously alludes to the Sakas living in the regions of Tashkant, Fargana and Kashgar etc i.e Haumavarga Sakas.
  87. ^ Lohan paramakambojanrishikan uttaranpi...Mahabharata 2.27.25. See Ganguli's Trans: [4]. See: Geographical Data in Early Puranas, pp 167-68, Dr M. R. Singh
  88. ^ Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1-8, K. D. Sethna
  89. ^ cf: A Geographical Text of Puranas: A Further Critical Study, Purana Vol VI, No 1, February 1962, pp 112- sqq.
  90. ^ Purana, Vol VI, No 1, pp 207-14 etc
  91. ^ cf also: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 381, 691-92, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury and Dr B. N. Murkerjee

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