Kommando Spezialkräfte

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Kommando Spezialkräfte
Wappen KSK
KSK unit badge
Active20 September 1996 (Created)
1997 (Activated)–present
Country Germany
BranchGerman Army
TypeSpecial forces
RoleAirborne operations
Counter-Insurgency
Counter-terrorism
Covert Ops
Direct Action
Hostage Rescue
High Value Targets/Manhunting
Intelligence Operations
Mobility Operations
Unconventional Warfare
Size~1,100 active personnel
Part ofRapid Forces Division
Garrison/HQCalw, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Motto(s)Facit Omnia Voluntas (lat. The will is decisive)[1]
Engagements
Decorations
Navy and Marine P.U.C.
United States Navy Presidential Unit Citation for KSK-members of Task Force K-Bar
Commanders
Current
commander
Brigadier General (Brigadegeneral) Alexander Sollfrank, since 2017
Notable
commanders
Brigadier General (Brigadegeneral) Hans-Christoph Ammon
Heliborne Training

KSK Kommando Spezialkräfte (Special Forces Command, KSK) is an elite special forces military unit composed of special operations soldiers selected from the ranks of Germany's Bundeswehr and organized under the Rapid Forces Division. KSK has received many decorations and awards from NATO, the United States and its affiliates and KSK operatives are frequently requested for joint anti-terror operations, notably in the Balkans and Middle East.

History[edit]

From 1973, until the KSK’s formation in 1996, the West German (and later German) government assigned all counter-terrorist and special operations activities to the GSG 9, a highly trained police force created shortly after the hostage-taking that transpired during the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Prior to 1973, the army’s Fernspäher (Long-Distance Reconnaissance), the navy’s Kampfschwimmer (Combat Swimmers/"Frogmen"), and (until 1989) the Special Weapons Escort Companies—Sonderwaffenbegleitkompanien[2] were the only military units comparable to anything that other nations may have seen as dedicated special forces units. Following the KSK’s activation on April 1, 1997, all but one of the Fernspähkompanie have been either disbanded or merged into the newly constituted unit.

Like those of all German military units, KSK deployments require authorization from the German Bundestag (Federal Assembly). The unit has engaged in numerous anti-terror campaigns both in Europe and abroad; known engagements include operations inside Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and most recently in Afghanistan.

During the War in Afghanistan, although nominally under OEF command, the KSK worked under ISAF command since 2005, carrying out numerous operations in the vicinity of the German deployment in Kabul, including a successful raid on an al-Qaeda safehouse for suicide bombers in October 2006. KSK operators have commented in the German media about the restrictions placed on them by their national caveats and stated that a preference for working directly for the Americans as part of OEF-A as they had done as part of Task Force K-Bar.[3]

As is to be expected with such units, specific operational details such as success and casualty rates are considered to be top secret and withheld even from the highest-ranking members of the Bundestag. This practice has elicited some serious concerns, resulting in agreement to increase both transparency and accountability, by disclosing mission details to selected members of the Bundestag, in relation to the future deployments of KSK forces.

On May 4th, 2013 the KSK reported its first casualty. First Sergeant Daniel Wirth was fatally shot in Baghlan Province - Afghanistan during operation "Maiwand". US Army forces were part of the attempted rescue mission. Daniel Wirth was honored by his sister Kathrin Wirth-Torrente in a book titled "Brothers in Bravery". It not only tells her brother's story, but also reflects on 40 additional military members who lost their lives while fighting The Global War on Terror in the Greater Middle East. The book was published by the Travis Manion Foundation in September of 2017.

Commanders[edit]

There have been eight commanders in the 20-year period since KSK was formed in 1996. They are as follows:[4]

  • 1996–1998: Brigadier General Fred Schulz
  • 1998–2000: Brigadier General Hans-Heinrich Dieter
  • 2000–2003: Brigadier General Reinhard Günzel
  • 2003–2005: Brigadier General Carl-Hubertus von Butler
  • 2005–2007: Brigadier General Rainer Hartbrod
  • 2007–2010: Brigadier General Hans-Christoph Ammon
  • 2010–2013: Brigadier General Heinz Josef Feldmann
  • 2013–2017: Brigadier General Dag Knut Baehr*
  • 2017–present: Brigadier General Alexander Sollfrank

*Brigadier general Dag Baehr has previously served twice as a field officer in the KSK: First, under the command of Brigadier general Schulz, when it was founded from 1996 until 1999 and then again between 2004 until 2007 under the command of Brigadegeneral Hartbrod.[5]

Structure[edit]

KSK land based training operations
KSK air insertion training

The KSK is a regular army unit at brigade level and (apart from the HQ and the Development Group) divided into two battalion-sized departments: Operational Forces and Support Forces.

Organisation[edit]

  • Kommando Spezialkräfte
    • HQ KSK
      • Psychological Service
      • Language Service
    • Force Development Group
    • Operational Forces
      • 1st Commando Company
      • 2nd Commando Company
      • 3rd Commando Company
      • 4th Commando Company
      • Special Commando Company
      • Training and Development Centre
    • Support Forces
      • Staff & Supply Company
      • Signal Company
      • Support Company
        • Supply Platoon
        • Maintenance Platoon
        • Support Platoon
      • Medical Company

Operational Forces[edit]

Combat-ready units are divided into four Commando companies of approximately one hundred men. The Special Commando Company is normally staffed with veteran members, taking on various supporting roles. Each of the four Commando Companies has five specialized platoons, each with a unique specialty and ability that can be adapted to both the terrain and situation, depending on type action(s) required:

  • Command Platoon
  • 1st Platoon: vehicle insertion
  • 2nd Platoon: airborne insertion
  • 3rd Platoon: amphibious operations
  • 4th Platoon: operations in special geographic or meteorological surroundings (desert, jungle, mountain or arctic regions)
  • 5th Platoon: reconnaissance, intelligence operations and sniper/counter-sniper operations

There are four commando squads in every platoon. Each of these squads consists of about four equally skilled members that have been hand-picked from the German Army into the platoon that best suits their abilities. Each squad member is specially trained as a weapons expert, medic, combat engineer or communications expert, respectively. Additionally, some groups may contain other specialists, such as a heavy weapons or language expert.

Support Forces[edit]

The HQ & Support Company is responsible for supply duties in Germany. For that, the unit is made up of:

  • HQ Platoon
  • Material Platoon
  • Supply Echelon
    • Catering Section
    • Transport Platoon
    • Ammunition and Refueling Platoon

The Signal Company consists of three signal platoons.

While the HQ & Support Company supports the KSK in Germany the Support Company takes supply duties during operations. Herefor, the company is organized in:

  • Repair Platoon
  • Supply Platoon
  • Parachute Equipment Platoon

Selection and training[edit]

Sniper training

Initially, only officers and non-commissioned officers of the Bundeswehr could apply for service with the KSK and the subsequent evaluation period. As a prerequisite for entry, the Bundeswehr Commando Course (Einzelkämpferlehrgang) must have been completed by the applicant. Since 2005, however, applications have also been opened to civilians and enlisted personnel who must complete an 18-month Long Range Surveillance training cycle before the intense KSK selection process begins.

The selection process for the combat positions is divided into two phases: a three-week-long physical and psychological training regimen (normally having a 40% pass rate), and later a three-month-long physical endurance phase (normally with a 8–10% pass rate). During latter phase, the KSK use the Black Forest as their proving grounds for prospective operators. In this time, candidates must undergo a grueling 90-hour cross-country run, followed by a three-week international Combat Survival Course at the German-led multinational Special Operations Training Center (formerly the International Long Range Reconnaissance School) in Pfullendorf.

Upon successful completion of the selection process, candidates may be allowed to start their 2–3-year training cycle with the KSK. This training includes roughly twenty courses at over seventeen schools worldwide: in Norway for Arctic terrain, Austria for mountainous terrain; El Paso, Texas, or Israel for desert and/or bush training; San Diego for amphibious operations; and Belize for jungle experience.

According to press releases from May 2008, the Bundeswehr aims to advance the attractiveness of service in the KSK to women.[6] This is partially because the KSK was previously unable to reach its targeted number of troops.[7] The KSK was no longer restricted to male troops after the Bundeswehr opened all units to women in 2001. As of 2018 in KSK, women occupied auxiliary positions.[8]

Equipment[edit]

Weapons[edit]

Name Type Origin Notes
Heckler & Koch USP Semi-automatic Pistol Germany
Heckler & Koch SFP9-SF M Semi-automatic Pistol Germany
Heckler & Koch MP5K / MP5SD SMG Germany May be fitted with various different optics.
Heckler & Koch MP7 A2 PDW Germany May be fitted with the Rheinmetall LLM Vario-Ray and various different optics.
Heckler & Koch G36K Assault-rifle Germany May be fitted with the AG36 grenade launcher, the Rheinmetall LLM Vario-Ray and various different optics.
Heckler & Koch HK416 A7 (as G95) Assault-rifle Germany May be fitted with the HK GLM grenade launcher, the Rheinmetall LLM Vario-Ray and various different optics.
Heckler & Koch HK417 A2 (as G27) Battle-rifle Germany May be fitted with the HK GLM grenade launcher, the Rheinmetall LLM Vario-Ray and various different optics.
Heckler & Koch G28 DMR Germany
Haenel RS9[9] (as G29) Sniper-rifle Germany
Barrett M107A1 (as G82) Sniper-rifle United States
Heckler & Koch MG4K LMG Germany
Heckler & Koch MG5 A2 GPMG Germany
Remington 870 Express / MCS Shotgun United States
Heckler & Koch GLM Grenade-launcher Germany
Milkor AV-140 MSGL Revolver Grenade-launcher United States
Heckler & Koch GMG AGL Germany
DND RGW 60/90 MANPAT Germany
Stinger FIM-92J MANPADS United States
Rafael Spike-MR ATGM Israel
Pohl Force knife Combat-knife Germany Various models.

Vehicles[edit]

Name Type Origin Notes
Eurocopter EC645 T2 LUH Armored Multi-mission helicopter Germany
Rheinmetall Serval Light-armored S.O.-vehicle Germany
ACS ENOK LAPV 6.1 Armored Patrol-vehicle Germany
MOWAG Eagle V Armored Patrol-vehicle Switzerland
BAE BvS10 MkIIB All-terrain Armored-vehicle United Kingdom

Sweden

Yamaha Kodiak 450 EPS ATV Japan
Lynx 69 Ranger Heavy-duty snowmobile Finland
KTM 640 LS-E Military Multi-purpose Enduro Austria
Wayland MkI 450 Commando Folding-kayak Poland

Special equipment[edit]

Name Type Origin Notes
Airborne-Systems MMS Tactical-parachute United Kingdom HAHO/HALO capable.
Airborne-Systems SOLR Mask HAHO/HALO Oxygen-mask United Kingdom
Airborne-Systems SOLR 4500 HAHO/HALO Oxygen-tank United Kingdom

Gear[edit]

  • 3M United States
    • Peltor Comtac XPI Dual Com NATO
  • Arc'teryx Canada
    • Fire-resistant Combat-clothing
    • All-weather clothing
    • Bagpacks
  • ArmorSource United States
    • AS-600 helmet (rifle-resistant)
  • Carinthia Austria
    • Military sleeping-bags
  • Crye Precision United States
    • Fire-resistant Combat-clothing
    • Plate-carriers
    • Kinetic support-systems
    • Bagpacks
    • Pouches
    • Belts
  • Dräger Germany
    • Rebreather (combat-diving)
  • FirstSpear United States
    • Plate-carriers (Combat-diving)
    • Flotation-systems
    • Bagpacks
    • Pouches
    • Belts
  • Harris United States
    • Falcon III RF-7850M-HH
    • Combat-electronics
  • Heinrichs Weikamp Germany
    • OSTC 4
    • Diving-electronics
  • JFD Scotland
    • Divex Stealth CDLSE
    • Divex Dual Mode Mask
    • Divex Low Magnetic Fins
  • L3-Insight United States
    • GPNVG-18
    • AN/PSQ-36 FGS
  • Leo Köhler Germany
    • Fire-resistant Combat-clothing
    • All-weather clothing
    • Plate-carriers
    • Bagpacks
  • MATBOCK United States
    • Parachuting-gear
    • Bagpacks
    • Medic-gear
  • Meindl Germany
    • All-weather Combat-boots
  • MEN Germany
    • Ammunition
  • Nivisys United States
    • DVS-110
  • Rheinmetall Germany
    • Ammunition
    • Combat-electronics
  • SeaBear Austria
    • HUDC
    • Diving-electronics
  • TEA United States
    • H2O U94 PTT
    • Sub Assault
    • OSK Maritime Kit
  • Team Wendy United States
    • Retention-Kits
    • Liner-Kits
    • ARC-Rails
  • UF PRO Slovenia
    • Fire-resistant Combat-clothing
    • All-weather clothing
  • Ursuit Finland
    • Combat-diving dry-suits
    • Combat-diving gear
  • W+R PRO Germany
    • Combat-gloves

(site under construction)

Insignia[edit]

Beret and badge[edit]

Members of the KSK wear maroon berets as a symbol of their roots in airborne units. A metal badge is worn which consists of a sword surrounded by oak leaves. The flag of the Federal Republic of Germany is depicted on the bottom of the sword.

Kommandoabzeichen[edit]

The Kommandoabzeichen (commando badge) is a cloth patch worn on the right pouch of the uniform. The commando badge's design is similar to the metal badge worn on the beret. It depicts a silver sword on light green background surrounded by oak leaves. The badge was permitted to be worn in 2000 by Federal President Johannes Rau.

Waffenfarbe[edit]

KSK units wear green as their Waffenfarbe, similar to infantry units. Before becoming an independent military force, the KSK was a part of infantry units.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reinhard Scholzen: KSK – Das Kommando Spezialkräfte der Bundeswehr, Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-613-02384-9, S. 108
  2. ^ The eight platoons operated jointly with US forces under the command of SACEUR, e.g. the German army's 2./S.W.120 stationed in Werlte and the US AWSCOM (Advanced Weapons Support Command/59th Ordnance Group). The nuclear weapons had yields between 40 kt and 200 kt.
  3. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1-4728-0790-8, p.142
  4. ^ "Dag Baehr soll Chef der Eliteeinheit KSK werden" (in German). 4 March 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2016 – via Welt Online.
  5. ^ "Startseite Heer" (in German). Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  6. ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "Anti-Terror-Einsatz: Bundeswehr-Elitetruppe will Soldatinnen an die Front schicken". Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  7. ^ "Frauen dürfen bald bei der KSK-Truppe Dienst tun" (in German). 20 May 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2016 – via Welt Online.
  8. ^ "Kontext: Soldatinnen geschichtlich und weltweit." www.bundeswehr.de, Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  9. ^ "STRATEGIE & TECHNIK: Aus Suhl an die Spezialkräfte: RS9 wird G29" (in German). Retrieved 14 June 2016.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 48°42′30″N 8°46′19″E / 48.70833°N 8.77194°E / 48.70833; 8.77194