Kristina från Duvemåla

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Kristina Från Duvemåla
Kristina Från Duvemåla Logo.png
Music Benny Andersson
Lyrics Björn Ulvaeus (Swedish lyrics)
Book Björn Ulvaeus
Basis

The Emigrants by Vilhelm Moberg

Translation to english lyrics Björn Ulvaeus and Herbert Kretzmer
Productions

1995 Malmö

1996 Minneapolis In Concert

1997 Gothenburg

1998 Stockholm

2001 Swedish Tour

2006 New York Workshop

2009 New York In Concert

2010 London In Concert

2012 Helsinki

2014 Gothenburg

Kristina från Duvemåla ("Kristina from Duvemåla") is a Swedish musical written by former ABBA members Björn Ulvaeus (lyrics) and Benny Andersson (music), based on a series of four novels by Swedish author Vilhelm Moberg detailing a family's poverty-driven migration from Sweden to America in the mid-19th century: The Emigrants, Unto a Good Land, The Settlers, and The Last Letter Home.

History[edit]

The show premiered at the Malmö Opera and Music Theatre in Malmö, Sweden, on 7 October 1995 and received a rapturous welcome. The audience gave it a 10-minute standing ovation, while the critics unanimously praised it.[1] Martin Nyström of Dagens Nyheter wrote that Andersson and Ulvaeus "created a great Swedish musical that thematically touches on the great questions of our time" and compared Andersson's musicality with that of Schubert; while Svenska Dagbladet's Carl-Gunnar Åhlén concluded that Björn Ulvaeus "succeeded in presenting the drama without getting bogged down, despite its almost Wagnerian length".[1] A few years later, however, Dagens Nyheter reviewer Marcus Boldemann wrote that "Kristina från Duvemåla is not an A-class musical work".[2]

Subsequently, the musical was staged at Gothenburg Opera and then premiered at the Stockholm's Cirkus that was specially renovated for it. This production won four 1998 Guldmasken Theatre Awards (Swedish equivalent of Tony Award). Counting all three runs, which were almost continuous, interrupted only by summer vacations and hiatuses due to the production's physical moving, Kristina från Duvemåla ran for nearly four years (more than 650 performances in total), making it the second longest running musical in Swedish history. In 2001, a touring concert staging was presented featuring most of the original performers recreating their previous roles. All three original Swedish productions were directed by Lars Rudolfsson with set design by Tony Award-winner Robin Wagner and musical direction by Anders Eljas.

The Original Cast triple CD set was released in 1996 and peaked at No.2 on the Swedish album chart, remaining on it for a total of 74 weeks and winning 1996 Swedish Grammis Award as the Best Album. For a number of years, a song from the musical "Guldet blev till sand" (The gold turned into sand) performed by Peter Jöback held the distinction of having spent the longest amount of time on the national Swedish radio chart Svensktoppen.

By the mid-2000s, the show had been translated into English by Björn Ulvaeus and the famed Les Misérables English lyricist Herbert Kretzmer. English translations of individual songs have been presented at various concert performances throughout the last two or three years, mainly by Helen Sjöholm or Swedish musical theatre stalwart Tommy Körberg, always in association with Benny Andersson or Björn Ulvaeus.

In the UK[edit]

Kerry Ellis premiered the song "You Have to Be There" in its English language version, at Thank You for the Music, a special event celebrating the music of Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus on 13 September 2009. The song is featured on her debut album Anthems (2010) produced by Brian May. She has since sung the song at various live events, including Anthems: The Tour (2011).

The UK premiere of the musical, also in a concert version, took place at the Royal Albert Hall on 14 April 2010.

Similarly to the US, it received a mixed critical response. "The inspiration for both score and lyrics feels more like a retread of the worst excesses of Les Misérables (a fact amplified here by sharing the English lyricist of that show, Herbert Kretzmer) and Frank Wildhorn, with the occasional Lloyd Webber rock riff thrown in for good measure", wrote The Stage,[3] while The Times concluded that "the piece displayed moments of musical power. But it will need major restructuring if it is to work on the theatrical stage... if it showed gleams of promise, this concert also emphasised that Kristina still has a long road to travel before any of us is truly moved to say thank you for the music".[4]

Contrary to these opinions, chief classical music and opera critic for the Independent Edward Seckerson wrote a highly sympathetic review of the performance, calling Benny Andersson "a composer/melodist of startling distinction". He suggested that "this one-off concert performance...presented only its bare bones, a series of musical snapshots from a much larger whole...So dramatically sketchy, musically sumptuous. But Andersson's gorgeous folk-sourced melodies (like a Swedish Grieg) spirited us forward from one accordion-flecked knees-up and effusive ballad to the next...If ever a piece sung a nation's pride, this is it."[5]

In the US[edit]

On 12 October 1996, the 90-minute (of a nearly four-hour score) concert version with the original cast was presented, in Swedish, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, as an opening event of the Plymouth Music Series 1996–1997 season in Orchestra Hall; and next day in Chisago Lakes High School in Lindstrom, Minnesota – the area where much of the events in Moberg's books took place and where the statue of the books' two main characters stand on the Main Street of the town.

The American premiere received a glowing review from Minneapolis Star and Tribune: "I have seen the future of the music theater, and its name is Kristina...Engaging, emotionally charged – and at times haunting – piece of work capable of enchanting US viewers even when performed in a cut-down, concert version and in a tongue foreign to the audience"; while Helen Sjöholm who performed the role of Kristina was described as "extraordinary".[6]

Time magazine later wrote that "the show has Swedes, Americans, Indians; a sacrificial whore and the death of a child; and – in case you think it sounds too solemn for your tastes – a bilingual fart joke... and it's one of the most ambitious swatches of musical theater (39 songs!) since Gershwin's 1935 "Porgy and Bess," with one of the most serious, lyrically seductive scores since Rodgers and Hammerstein were creating their midcentury, midcult epics".[7]

In March 2006, a workshop was held in New York and featured Sara Chase as Kristina, Clarke Thorell as Karl Oskar, Kevin Odekirk as Robert and Alice Ripley as Ulrika,[8] the latter performing the song "You Have To Be There" from the musical in her and Emily Skinner's 2006 show at The Town Hall in New York and later releasing this live recording on Raw At Town Hall 2-CD set.

At the time, there had been talk of a fall 2007 opening at The Broadway Theatre, but those plans never materialized partly due to a protracted legal battle over the use of the original book written for the musical.[9]

The English-language premiere of the musical, in a concert version under the name "Kristina: A Concert Event", took place at Carnegie Hall on 23 and 24 September 2009, with Helen Sjöholm as Kristina, Russell Watson as Karl Oskar, Louise Pitre as Ulrika and Kevin Odekirk as Robert.

The performances received mixed reviews, from Time commenting that "some of the most rapturous melodies ever heard in Carnegie Hall poured out of that grand old barn last night" [10] to Variety concluding that "Moberg's series adds up to some 1,800 pages, and many in the restless Carnegie Hall audience may have felt they were sitting through all of them...U.S. audiences are likely to find Kristina's epic tale less than gripping".[11] Talkin' Broadway critic Matthew Murray admitted: "It’s a musical you don’t just want to listen to: During the better portions of its score – of which there are many – you feel you have to...Andersson’s work is so big, so thoroughly conceived, and so varied in style, tempo, and color that it often feels more like a symphony than a musical. Of course, making it one would mean jettisoning the specific story treatment and lyrics, losses most shows couldn’t weather. But its music is so good that Kristina could be even more powerful as a result".[12]

The Carnegie Hall concert recordings were released on a 2-CD set by Decca Records on 12 April 2010.

Original cast (1995-1999)[edit]

Replacement performers included Frida Bergh (Kristina), Joakim Jennefors (Karl Oskar), Niklas Andersson (Robert), Lisa Gustafsson (Kristina) and Christer Nerfont (Robert).

Helsinki, Gothenburg and Stockholm cast (2012-2015)[edit]

Plot[edit]

Prologue

For 25 years Nils has worked with an iron rod to move stones from the fields of his farm Korpamoen in Ljuder's parish, Småland, Sweden. But one day he slips and falls to the ground and a big rock rolls onto him, breaking both his hip and femur. As a cripple he cannot work and is forced to sell the farm. His oldest son, Karl Oskar, barely of age, convinces Nils to sell the farm to him, and he buys it for 1700 riksdaler. But if you intend to be a farmer, you need a woman at your side...

Act I

The young girl Kristina, sits on her swing and dreams about her beau Karl Oskar. He is on his way to see her, and she pictures how he makes his way through the familiar surroundings ("Duvemåla Pasture"). When Karl Oskar arrives he tells her that he has bought his father's farm, and can now make Kristina his wife (My lust for you). The two are wed and begin a life together, but times are hard as they keep getting bad harvest years (King of Stone's Kingdom). Kristina worries that they won't be able to support their growing family, and suggests to her husband that they don't have intercourse, in order to prevent another pregnancy. Karl Oskar talks her out of it, saying that it would be a betrayal of his lust and love for her ("My Lust for You").

Karl Oskar's younger brother, Robert, is on his way to begin working as a farm hand on a nearby farm. He stops by a stream and wishes he was as free as the water ("Out Towards a Sea").

Kristina is pregnant again, and both she and Karl Oskar worry that they won't be able to feed their little ones during winter. There is a drought, and the harvest is bad. In a fit of rage Karl Oskar tells God that since he took their hay last year, he might as well take the rest. Shortly thereafter lightning strikes the barn and what little hay they had goes up in flames. Kristina tells her husband that he got what he wished for ("Bad Harvest").

Young Arvid, who works as a farmhand beside Robert at the farm of Nybacken, is injustly blamed by his mistress for having done a cow with calf. One day, in desperation, he is on his way to kill the mistress with an axe, but Robert stops him. Secretly the two boys dream of a better world, a world across the ocean, called North America, which Robert reads about in a book.

Kristina loves her home, her county. She is happy to be married with Karl Oskar and is happy to have their three children (Blåklintstäcket/Kristina's Apple Tree). One day Robert returns home, having been beaten badly by his master. He refuses to go back, instead he wants his share of the inheritance. He plans to leave Sweden and travel to North America. Karl Oskar confesses that he has been considering the same thing. Kristina is horrified. Karl Oskar and Robert try to convince her that she will love life in America, but she is too afraid ("No"). Kristina prays to God that he will not force her to go out on the sea and risk the lives of her children. Perhaps her beloved Uncle, Danjel, can help her talk some sense to her husband?

In a dream Danjel, has a vision where he is called to fulfill his uncles work of restoring God's Kingdom on earth and to lead the people away from the wrong teachings of the church. One night he has gathered a group of outcasts to celebrate communion ("Little Group"). However the gathering is disrupted by the Provost and the local authorities, who scatter the group and intend to bring them all to justice for breaking the law. One of the persons in the room is Ulrika of Västergöhl, a former prostitute who is now born again through Christ and lives in Danjel's house. She is furious over the hypocrisy of the priests; one of his men used to be her customer, but he is not excluded from the communion in the church like she and the other outcasts are. Ulrika vows that her illegitime daughter Elin will never have to suffer because her mother was a whore ("Never").

Kristina and Karl Oskar's parents, try to convince him that it would be foolish to move. They would never be able to return and would never get to see family and friends again. They wouldn't speak the language and would end up completely isolated ("Golden Wheat Fields"). But when Kristina makes christening porridge for the new baby, their starving oldest daughter (Anna) eats it, and all the grain swells in her stomach, and the poor child dies ("Come To Me Everyone"). Realising that the poverty in Sweden is just as dangerous as anything on the sea, Kristina agrees to move. They visit the Provost and write down their reasons for emigrating in the church book. The provost tries to convince them to stay by telling them of all the horrors waiting in America, and by saying that God will wipe America off the face of the earth within fifty years. The emigrants don't care however, and begin their journey. Karl Oskar, Kristina, their children and Robert have gained some companions on their journey; Danjel and his family are moving to escape the religious persecution. Ulrika and her daughter are moving with them, and so is Arvid, who also has stayed in the home with Danjel. 16 People leaves Ljuder to never return ("We Open up the Gateways".)

The ship turns out to be smaller than they had thought it would be. There is no room for Karl Oskar in the family area and he must bunk with the bachelors. For the first time in their marriage, Kristina and Karl Oskar are separated ("Farmers At Sea"). One day Kristina discovers lice on her body. She is horrified, since she believes lice to be a sign of poor hygiene, and she has never had them before in her life. She blames Ulrika, who does not have a louse on her. The two have a heated argument (*Lice"). An old woman on the ship, Fina-Kajsa, is traveling to find her son in America. She is bringing a big grindstone on her journey, because she's heard grindstones are very expensive in America. Fina-Kajsa tells the story of how lice came to be for her fellow emigrants. One night in the middle of a storm Karl Oskar is woken up by his oldest son, Johan, who tells him that his mother is bleeding. Kristina, pregnant with her fifth child, has fallen ill to scurvy. The captain does what he can to help her, and Karl Oskar sits by her side, waking through the longest night of his life ("Stay"). When morning finally comes Kristina is alive, but Danjel's wife, who has been ill for a long time without telling her husband, is not ("Burial at Sea"). Fina-Kajsa has a letter from her son, which tells that he has plowed 100 acres of fields with good soil. Perhaps that place might be their destination? Karl Oskar asks about the address, and Fina-Kajsa reads: "Taylors Falls, Minnesota". Easy to remember, Karl Oskar points ("Minne" meaning "memory" on Swedish).

On Midsummer's Eve land is finally spotted, after two and a half months on the ocean. The emigrants set foot on American soil for the first time. The sight of all the New Yorkers out for a Sunday walk overwhelms them, and so does the foreign language ("A Sunday in Battery Park"). Kristina sits and rests in Battery Park when Karl Oskar brings her an apple one friendly lady has given him and the kids. It reminds her of her apple tree at home. The children also long for home, and their son Johan asks if they can go home now. Kristina remembers her motherland, where they now are celebrating midsummer ("Home"). The group travels by train and then by steamboat, amazed at how wide America is ("Travel Through America"). At a land grab Karl Oskar's and Kristina's daughter Lill-Märta disappears. In vain they search for the girl among the uncomprehending Americans, but to no avail. At the last moment, when the paddle steamer already started moving, Ulrika finds Märta and returns the girl to her parents. One night the immigrants are left on a pier in Stillwater. It's dark and rainy, and no one understands what they say; they are completely abandoned. But as a light in the darkness Baptist pastor Henry O Jackson shows up. He gives the immigrants shelter, warmth and food. They don't really understand each other's language, but as Danjel makes a prayer thanking the Lord for the food, they all find out that they have a word in common: "Amen". Robert tells his friend Arvid of his plans to go on the California trail and dig for gold and asks him to come along. Karl Oskar is highly skeptical, but his brother is firmly set on leaving ("The Dream of Gold"). The women are amazed by how Pastor Jackson handles household chores, and begin to understand that women are more equal to men in this new country. The immigrants struggle with the language barrier as they try to communicate with Reverend Jackson ("To Think That Men Like Him Can Exist").

Karl Oskar and Kristina continues to the lake of Ki-Chi-Saga, where they intend to build their new home. Here, with help from Ulrika, Kristina gives birth to a healthy boy who, unlike any of the other emigrants, remained safe throughout the trip over the ocean. Karl Oskar reads the Christmas Gospel for his little family, and as she holds the new-born boy in her arms she tells him about the land where she was born, and of her astrakan apple tree which is still carrying fruit ("My Astrakan").

Act II

A few years have passed by. The settlers have begun to build a new life and a new civilisation by Chisago Lake. They gather and celebrate their choice to move to this New World ("The Superiors"). But Kristina doesn't cheer with them. She lies awake at night, tormented by her longing for Sweden, and begs God to let her return ("Bright Evenings in Springtime"). Karl Oskar sees her longing, and tells her that if God tries to move her back he will reach out his hand and keep her by his side. He shows her the boots that once belonged to their daughter Anna, and reminds her of why they left Sweden. He also tells her that he plans to write to her father and ask for some seeds from her astrakan tree back home. Hopefully a new tree planted at their new settlement will help her feel more at home.

When Christmas comes Karl Oskar has bought Kristina a new stove, called the Queen of the Prairie. Their friends gather at New Duvemåla to celebrate Christmas, and they all marvel at the new stove ("The Queen of the Prairie"). The fun gathering is disrupted when Karl Oskar gets into a fight with Nöjd, a fur hunter. Nöjd tells Karl Oskar that he doesn't own the land he farms, and informs him of the crimes committed against the Indians. Karl Oskar defends himself by stating his plight back home in Sweden, the seven acres of stony farmland that would feed his whole family, and tells Nöjd just how hard he has worked to turn the wild grass on his property into a home and a farm ("Wild Grass").

One evening in June, a strange man is spotted down at the lake shore. He is extremely thin, the clothes are too big, and he walks as if he had no stability and control over his tall body. Robert has come back from the gold fields. Arvid is not with him, but he has a lot of money, which Karl Oskar heads away to deposit at the bank. Kristina finds a watch which belonged to Arvid and demands to know where Arvid is. Robert tells her that he eventually reconciled to his fate and then tells her the story of how they went searching for gold, but ended up lost in the desert. Arvid drank poisoned water and died, the watch slipping from his hand ("Roberts Story"). The money Robert gives to Karl Oskar turns out to be false. Karl Oskar becomes furious ("Wild Cat Money"), he believes that his brother knew it all along. Robert leaves and walks out to the woods where he finds a lonely stream, the symbol of the freedom he never found. He brought home the yellow fever along with the money, and by the stream he succumbs to it and dies ("Out Towards a Sea (Reprise)"). Close to the gold seeker's motionless body, the flowing stream in its furrow hurries away to join the larger waters.

Karl Oskar and Kristina plant seeds in their new farmlands, and a great wheat field is grown ("The Field"). Along with it Kristina's apple tree, planted from seeds from home, grows bigger.

Back in Sweden Ulrika was a whore and no respectable man would look at her twice. Now she is a coveted maiden, and she tells Kristina she has had several suitors ("Won't You Marry Me?"). She tells that she decided to marry Pastor Jackson, whom she has been in love with since first sight, and that she will convert to Baptism. Kristina and Ulrika have found friendship; a friendship that no one ever imagined could exist ("A Miracle of the Lord"). Kristina comes to watch her friend being baptised by her husband ("Down to the Sacred Wave").

Kristina suffers a miscarriage which is a hard blow on her already fragile health. Ulrika takes her to the doctor, and then brings Karl Oskar the bad news. After all the children Kristina has birthed, and after her miscarriage, her body is broken and can't handle much more. The next childbirth will mean her death ("Miscarriage"). A devastated Kristina is alone under the stars. She thinks of all the bad things that have happened to her, having to leave her home, losing her child and now losing her husband as well. It is as if God didn't exist. She desperately begs to God, not knowing what she will do if he isn't real ("You have to be there").

As time passes, Kristina begins to feel better. One day the settlers gather for a big harvest feast ("Harvest Feast"), and she tells Uncle Danjel of her wish to live long enough to see her children grow up. She also tells him about her apple tree, which finally is blooming and will give fruits to the autumn. After the feast Kristina tries to convince Karl Oskar that it is God's meaning that husband and wife should be together, and that if God wants her to live she will live, but if He wants her to die He will take her regardless. Karl Oskar resists her, until she repeats the words he said to her so many years ago ("Here You Have Me Again").

During the civil war, the state of Minnesota gets a civil war of its own, an Indian uprising. Chaos, murder and violence begins to spread ("Red Iron/The Sioux uprising") at the same time as Kristina finds out that she is once again carrying a child. She tells Karl Oskar and wants him not to worry, but he is very concerned. She turns to God and asks for help to comfort him, since she is so weak and tired herself ("Help Me Comfort"). The settlers have to leave their homes as the uprising spreads ("Where Do We Belong?"). Karl Oskar sends the children away with Uncle Danjel, but cannot leave himself. Kristina has miscarried again, and lies dying in her bed.

Karl Oskar is the only settler remaining in St. Croix Valley. He is going to watch over his ailing wife, as long as her life lasts. She moans softly in her sleep. When he leans over her, he sees that she for the first time in three days, recognizes him.

The apples on the Astrakan tree have finally matured. Karl Oskar gives Kristina the first of the ripe apples, and she smells it. Now her life is complete. She explains Karl Oskar that she is in good keeping. She tells him not to worry, and that she will be waiting for him at Duvemåla Pasture, like she once used to do ("I'll be waiting there"). Quietly Kristina then dies in her husband's arms.

Music numbers in the original set[edit]

(English translations in parentheses)

Act I[edit]

  • Prolog - Orkester, Nils, Märta, Karl Oskar, Robert
  • Duvemåla hage (Path of Leaves and Needles) - Kristina
  • Min lust till dig/Wedding (Where You Go I Go With You)- Kristina, Karl Oskar, Ensemble
  • Kung i stenrike (Stone Kingdom) - Kristina, Karl Oskar
  • Robert vid bäcken (Down to the Sea) - Robert
  • Missväxt (A Bad Harvest) - Kristina, Karl Oskar, Anna, Ensemble
  • Bröderna vill åka till Nordamerika (No!) - Karl Oskar, Robert, Kristina
  • Bönemötet (He's Our Pilot) - Danjel, Inga-Lena, Ulrika, Elin, Arvid, others
  • Aldrig (Never) - Ulrika
  • Om ett fat korngrynsgröt (Golden Wheat Fields/All Who Are Grieving) - Kristina, Karl Oskar, Nils, Märta, Ensemble
  • Vi öppnar alla grindar (We Open Up the Gateways) - Brusander, Kristina, Karl Oskar, Robert, Ulrika, Danjel, Ensemble
  • Bönder på havet (Peasants at Sea) Ensemble
  • Löss (Lice) - Ulrika, Kristina, Fina-Kajsa, Ensemble
  • Kristina nära döden (In The Dead of Darkness) - Karl Oskar
  • Begravning till sjöss (Funeral at sea) - Captain Lorentz, others
  • Battery Park - New York (A Sunday in Battery Park) - Ensemble, Danjel, Robert, Fina-Kajsa, Ulrika
  • Hemma (Home) - Kristina
  • Resan i Amerika/Från New York till Stillwater - Ensemble, Danjel
  • Hemma hos Pastor Jackson (Dreams of Gold) - Robert, Arvid, Karl Oskar
  • Tänk att män som han kan finnas (American man) - Kristina, Ulrika, Elin, Fina-Kajsa
  • Modern och barnet (Summer Rose) - Kristina

Act II[edit]

  • Överheten (Emperors and Kings) - Ensemble, Ulrika, Danjel, Fina-Kajsa, Karl Oskar, Kristina
  • Ljusa kvällar om våren (Twilight Images Calling) - Kristina, Karl Oskar, Anna with angels
  • Präriens drottning (Queen of the Prairie) - The children, Karl Oskar, Kristina, Ensemble
  • Vildgräs (Wild Grass) - Karl Oskar
  • Robert kommer tillbaka (Roberts story/Gold Can Turn To Sand - Robert, Kristina, lill-Märta
  • Wild Cat money - Karl Oskar, Robert
  • Robert vid bäcken- repris (Down to the sea - reprise) - Robert
  • Åkern (The fields grow) Orchestra, Kristina, Karl Oskar
  • Ulrikas tre friare - Ulrika, Kristina, Nöjd, Abbott, Thomassen
  • Ett herrans underverk (Miracle of God) - Ulrika, Kristina
  • Dop (Down to the Waterside) - Ensemble, Pastor Jackson, Ulrika
  • Missfall (Miscarriage) - Ulrika, Karl Oskar
  • Du måste finnas (You have to be there) - Kristina
  • Skördefest - Orchestra, Karl Oskar, Ulrika, Danjel, Kristina
  • Här har du mig Igen (Here I Am Again) - Kristina, Karl Oskar
  • Red Iron/Hjälp mig trösta (Sioux rise/With Child Again) Red Iron, Kristina
  • De flyendes kör (Rising from the Myth and Legend) - Ensemble
  • Slutet (I'll Be Waiting There) Kristina, Karl Oskar

Kristina: A Concert Event (2009 English language version)[edit]

On 23 and 24 September 2009, Benny Andersson, Björn Ulvaeus, Ki-Chi-Saga and Universal Music presented "Kristina: A Concert Event"; Music by Benny Andersson; Lyrics by Björn Ulvaeus and Herbert Kretzmer. The concert took place at Carnegie Hall.

Note: In the Playbill for the concert the song "Summer Rose" was listed as a reprise at the end of Act Two but was not performed at either of the two concerts.

The cast featured:

Music (1995 original cast recording)[edit]

The song titles are the original Swedish ones. The titles in parenthesis are the titles directly translated into English.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Reuters report in The Globe And Mail, 10 October 1995, page D2.
  2. ^ Dagens Nyheter, 25 February 2002.
  3. ^ Mark Shenton (15 April 2010). "The Stage review". Thestage.co.uk. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  4. ^ "The Times review". Entertainment.timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  5. ^ Independent review[dead link]
  6. ^ Minneapolis Star and Tribune, 14 October 1996, page 05B.
  7. ^ Time, 23 October 2001.
  8. ^ Interview with Alice Ripley
  9. ^ "Kristina The Musical Legal Dispute". Broadway.com. 24 March 2007. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  10. ^ Corliss, Richard (24 September 2009). "Time review". Time.com. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  11. ^ Suskin, Steven (24 September 2009). "Variety review". Variety.com. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  12. ^ "Talkin' Broadway review". Talkinbroadway.com. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 

External links[edit]