Lactuca perennis

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Lactuca perennis
Lactuca perennis Sturm47.jpg
1796 illustration[1]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Lactuca
L. perennis
Binomial name
Lactuca perennis
L. 1753

Lactuca perennis, common names: mountain lettuce,[2] blue lettuce or perennial lettuce, is a perennial herbaceous plant species belonging to the genus Lactuca of the family Asteraceae. It is widespread across most of central and southern Europe.[3] Its leaves are edible.[citation needed]


Lactuca perennis reaches on average 60 centimetres (24 in) of height, with a minimum height of 20 centimetres (7.9 in). This plant is glabrous, the stems is erect and branched, leaves are greyish-green, the lower ones with a small petioles, the upper ones partly amplexicaul. It is hermaphrodite and entomophilous. The flowers are violet-blue, with a size of 30–40 millimetres (1.2–1.6 in). The flowering period extends from April through August and the seeds ripen from July until September.[4]

In southern France it is sometimes referred to by its Occitan name “breou”[1] or “breu”[2]

Flower of Lactuca perennis
Leaves of Lactuca perennis


These plants prefer calcareous well-drained soils and they are common on sunny rocky soils, on dry meadows, on roadsides and on banks of rivers. They can be found on average at 500–2,000 metres (1,600–6,600 ft) above sea level.


  1. ^ illustration from 1796 Figure 47 from Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen by Johann Georg Sturm (Painter: Jacob Sturm)
  2. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Lactuca perennis L.
  4. ^ Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia - Edagricole – 1982. vol. III

External links[edit]