List of Nazi concentration camps

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The main gate into Auschwitz II (Birkenau) concentration camp, where an estimated 1.1 million people were killed.[1]

This article presents a partial list of the most prominent Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps set up across Europe before and during the course of World War II and the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the West German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Germany,[2] while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries."[3] Some of the data presented in this table originates from the monograph titled The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz among similar others.[4]

In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Germans.[5] They were not utilized to sustain the German war effort.

Although the term 'concentration camp' is often used as a general term for all German camps during World War II, there were in fact several types of concentration camps in the German camp system. Holocaust scholars make a clear distinction between death camps and concentration camps which served a number of war related purposes including prison facilities, labor camps, prisoner of war camps, and transit camps among others.[6]

Concentration camps served primarily as detention and slave labor exploitation centers. An estimated 15 to 20 million people were imprisoned in 42,500 camps and ghettos, and often pressed into slavery during the subsequent years,[7] according to research by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum conducted more recently.[7] The system of about 20,000 concentration camps in Germany and German-occupied Europe played a pivotal role in economically sustaining the German reign of terror.[5] Most of them were destroyed by the Germans in an attempt to hide the evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity; nevertheless tens of thousands of prisoners sent on death marches were liberated by the Allies afterward.[8]

Extermination camps were designed and built exclusively to kill prisoners on a massive scale, often immediately upon arrival.[9] The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard such as Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka served as "death factories" in which German SS and police murdered nearly 2,700,000 Jews by asphyxiation with poison gas, shooting, and extreme work under starvation conditions.[9][10][11]

The concentration camps held large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of systemic mistreatment, starvation, forced labour and murder.

Selected examples[edit]

Statistical and numerical data presented in the table below originates from a wide variety of publications and therefore does not constitute a representative sample of the total.

The Ghettos in German-occupied Europe are generally not included in this list. Relevant information can be found at the separate List of Nazi-era ghettos.

  Main camps, including collection points
# Camp name Country (today) Camp type Dates of use (YYYY/MM/DD) Est. prisoners Est. deaths Sub-camps Webpage
1 Alderney Guernsey Labour camps 1942/01 – 1944/06 6,000 700 Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney, Lager Sylt [1]
2 Amersfoort Netherlands Transit camp and prison 1941/08 - 1945/04 35,000 1,000 [2]
3 Arbeitsdorf Germany Labour camp 1942/04/08 - 1942/10/11 600 min. none
4 Auschwitz-Birkenau Poland Extermination and labour camp 1940/04 - 1945/01 1,300,000 1,100,000 min.[12] with 400,000 recorded arrivals [13] list of 48 sub-camps with description at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum [14] [15] in August 1944 [12] [14] [13]
5 Banjica Serbia Concentration camp 1941/06 - 1944/09 23,637 3,849[16]
6 Bardufoss Norway Concentration camp 1944/03 - ???? 800 250 [17]
7 Bełżec Poland Extermination camp 1941/10 - 1943/06 434,508 min. [3]
8 Bergen-Belsen Germany Concentration camp 1943/04 - 1945/04 120,000 52,000 2 [4]
9 Berlin-Marzahn Germany Early a "rest place" then labour camp for Roma 1936/07/16 – 1943/03/01 1,200 none [5]
10 Bernburg Germany Collection point 1942/04 – 1945/04 14,385 2
11 Bogdanovka Ukraine Concentration camp 1941 54,000 40,000
12 Bolzano Italy Transit camp 1944/07 – 1945/05/03 11,116
13 Bor Serbia Labour camp 1943/07 - 1944/09 6,000 1,800–2,800 [6]
14 Bredtvet Norway Concentration camp 1941 (Fall) – 1944/05 1,000 min. none
15 Breendonk Belgium Prison and labour camp 1940/09/20 – 1944/09 3532 min. 391 min. none [7]
16 Breitenau Germany "Early wild camp", then labour camp 1933/06 – 1934/03,
1940–1945
470 – 8,500 [8]
17 Buchenwald Germany Concentration camp 1937/07/15 – 1945/04/11 280,000 56,545 list [9]
18 Chełmno
(Kulmhof)
Poland Extermination camp 1941/12 – 1943/04,
1944/04 – 1945/01
152,000 min. [10]
19 Crveni Krst Serbia Concentration camp 1941 – 1944 30,000 10,000
20 Dachau Germany Concentration camp 1933/03/22 – 1945/04/29 200,000 41,500 list [11]
21 Drancy France Internment camp, transit 1941/08/20 – 1944/08/17 70,000 Three of five Paris annexes: Austerlitz, Lévitan and Bassano camps [12]
22 Falstad Norway Prison camp 1941/12 – 1945/05 200 min. none [13]
23 Flossenbürg Germany Concentration camp 1938/05 – 1945/04 96,000 30,000 list of subcamps [14]
24 Fort de Romainville France Prison and transit camp 1940 – 1944/08 8,100 min. 200 min. none [15]
25 Fort VII (Posen) Poland Concentration, detention, transit 1939/10 – 1944/04 18,000 min. 4,500 min. [16]
26 Fossoli Italy Prison and transit camp 1943/12/05 – 1944/11 2,800
27 Grini Norway Prison camp 1941/05/02 – 1945/05 19,788 8 Fannrem
Bardufoss
Kvænangen
28 Gross-Rosen Poland Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp 1940/08 – 1945/02 125,000 40,000 list [17]
29 Herzogenbusch
(Vught)
Netherlands Concentration camp 1943 – 1944 (Summer) 31,000 750 list [18]
30 Hinzert Germany Collection point and subcamp 1940/07 – 1945/03 14,000 302 min. [19]
31 Jägala Estonia Labour camp 1942/08 – 1943/08 200 3,000 none [20]
32 Janowska
(Lwów)
Ukraine Ghetto; transit, labour, & extermination camp 1941/09 – 1943/11 40,000 min. none [21]
(see "A-Z")
33 Kaiserwald
(Mežaparks)
Latvia Concentration camp 1942 – 1944/08/06 20,000? 16,
incl. Eleja-Meitenes
[22]
34 Kaufering/Landsberg Germany Concentration camp 1943/06 – 1945/04 30,000 14,500 min. [23][24]
35 Kauen
(Kaunas)
Lithuania Ghetto and internment camp 1941/06/22 - 1944/08/01 Prawienischken [25]
36 Kemna Germany Early concentration camp 1933/07/05 – 1934/01/19 2,500–5,000 none [26]
37 Kistarcsa Hungary Concentration camp 1944 – 1945 1,800 [27]
38 Klooga Estonia Labour camp 1943 (Summer) – 1944/09/28 1,800
39 Koldichevo Belarus Labour camp 1942 (Summer) – 1944/06 22,000
40 Le Vernet France Internment camp 1939 – 1944
41 Majdanek
(KZ Lublin)
Poland Extermination and concentration camp 1941/10 - 1944/07 78,000 [28]
42 Malchow Germany Concentration and transit camp 1943 (Winter) – 1945/05/08 5,000
43 Maly Trostenets Belarus Extermination camp 1941/07 – 1944/06 60,000-65,000 [18][19]
44 Mauthausen-Gusen Austria Concentration camp 1938/08 – 1945/05 195,000 122,766-

320,000

list [29]
45 Mechelen Belgium Transit camp 1942/07 – 1944/09 25267 min.[20] 300 min.[21] none [30]
46 Mittelbau-Dora Germany Concentration camp 1943/09 – 1945/04 60,000 20,000 min. list [31]
47 Natzweiler-Struthof (Struthof) France Concentration camp; Nacht und Nebel camp; extermination camp 1941/05/21 – 1944/09 52,000 22,000 list [22]
48 Neuengamme Germany Concentration camp 1938/12/13 – 1945/05/04 106,000 42,900+ list [32]
49 Niederhagen Germany Concentration and labour camp 1941/09 – 1943 (early) 3,900 1,285 none [33]
50 Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp Germany Concentration camp 1933/11 – 1935/07 600 0 Former infantry base Gleißelstetten (Fortress of Ulm) [34]
51 Oranienburg Germany Early concentration camp 1933/03/21 – 1934/07 3,000 16 min.
52 Osthofen Germany Collective point 1933/03/06 – 1934/07 3,000
53 Płaszów Poland Labour camp 1942/12 – 1945/01 150,000 min. 9,000 min. list
54 Ravensbrück Germany Concentration camp for women 1939/05 – 1945/04 132,000 28,000 list [35][36]
55 Risiera di San Sabba
(Trieste)
Italy Police detainment camp, transit camp 1943/09 - 1945/04/29 25,000 5,000 [37]
56 Sachsenhausen Germany Concentration camp 1936/07 - 1945/04 200,000 min. 30,000 list [38]
57 Sajmište Serbia Extermination camp 1941/10 - 1944/07 50,000 20,000–23,000
58 Salaspils (Kirchholm) Latvia Concentration camp 1941/10 - 1944 (Summer) 12,000 2,000 [39]
59 Skrochowitz
(Skrochovice)
Czech Republic Transit (1939) and labour camp 1939/09 - 1939/12,
1940–1943
700 13 [40]
60 Sobibór Poland Extermination camp 1942/05 - 1943/10 170,165 [41]
61 Soldau Poland Labour and transit camp 1939 (or 1940) (Winter) – 1945/01 30,000 13,000 3
62 Stutthof Poland Concentration camp 1939/09/02 – 1945/05/09 110,000 65,000 list [42]
63 Syrets
(Kiev)
Ukraine Labor and extermination camp 1942/07 - 1943 (Spring) 2,000 [43]
64 Theresienstadt
(Terezín)
Czech Republic Transit camp and Ghetto 1941/11/24 – 1945/05/08 144,000 33,000 min. [44]
65 Treblinka Poland Extermination camp 1942/07 – 1943/11 700,000 - 900,000 [23][24] [45]
66 Vaivara Estonia Concentration and transit camp 1943/09/15 – 1944/02/29 20,000 950 22 [46] [47]
67 Warsaw Poland Concentration camp 1943 – 1944 8,000–9,000 4,000–5,000
68 Westerbork Netherlands Transit camp 1940/05 - 1945/04 102,000

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Auschwitz". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  2. ^ Bundesministerium der Justiz (2011), List of concentration camps and their outposts in alphabetical order. Internet Archive. (in German)
  3. ^ Concentration Camp Listing Sourced from Van Eck, Ludo Le livre des Camps. Belgium: Editions Kritak; and Gilbert, Martin Atlas of the Holocaust. New York: William Morrow 1993 ISBN 0-688-12364-3. In this on-line site are the names of 149 camps and 814 subcamps, organized by country.
  4. ^ Search Results: Mapping the SS Concentration Camp System. Alphabetical listing. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Further Reading. Bergen, Dawidowicz, Gilbert, Gutman, Hilberg, Yahil.
  5. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia, Nazi Camps. Introduction. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  6. ^ Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen (2002), The difference between concentration camps and extermination camps. Archived 2015-10-27 at the Wayback Machine The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
  7. ^ a b Anat Helman (2015). "The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos by Geoffrey P. Megargee". Exploring the Universe of Camps and Ghettos. Jews and Their Foodways. Oxford University Press. pp. 251–252. ISBN 0190265426.
  8. ^ Source: Abzug, Bridgman, Chamberlin, Goodell (2015). "Liberation of German Camps". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia, Killing Centers: An Overview.Archived 2013-04-02 at the Wayback Machine United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  10. ^ Yad Vashem (2012). "The Implementation of the Final Solution: The Death Camps". The Holocaust. Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013 – via Internet Archive, 4 November 2013. Also in: Wolf Gruner (2004). "Jewish Forced Labor as a Basic Element of Nazi Persecution: Germany, Austria, and the Occupied Polish Territories (1938–1943)" (PDF). Forced and Slave Labor in Nazi-Dominated Europe. Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: 43–44.
  11. ^ Robert Gellately; Nathan Stoltzfus (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Princeton University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-691-08684-2.
  12. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Dead victims of KL Auschwitz per nationality and/or profile of deportees ("Liczba uśmierconych w KL Auschwitz ogółem wg Narodowości lub kategorii deportowanych"). Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  13. ^ a b Franciszek Piper. "Victims of KL Auschwitz" [Liczba ofiar KL Auschwitz]. Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum (in Polish). Oświęcim, Poland. 1999–2010. Overwhelming majority of Auschwitz arrivals were killed within hours. Only about 10 percent of the prisoners from transports organized by the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) were registered and assigned to the Birkenau barracks. There were around 400,000 registrations at Auschwitz in total, including 195,000 non-Jews, and around 202,000 Jews. — Franciszek Piper. See also: Vincent Châtel & Chuck Ferree (2006). "Auschwitz-Birkenau Death Factory". The Forgotten Camps. Archived from the original on 2010-09-25 – via Internet Archive, 2010-09-25.
  14. ^ a b List of Subcamps of KL Auschwitz (Podobozy KL Auschwitz). Archived 2011-10-12 at the Wayback Machine The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  15. ^ Franciszek Piper, Construction and Expansion of KL Auschwitz ("Budowa i rozbudowa KL Auschwitz"). Archived 2010-09-25 at the Wayback Machine The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  16. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P., The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation: 1918–2005. Indiana University Press, 2006. (p. 131)
  17. ^ Store norske leksikon (2010-04-09). "Bardufoss fangeleir" (in Norwegian).
  18. ^ Gerlach, Christian (2013). Kalkulierte Morde (in German) (Kindle ed.). Hamburger Edition. loc 25883. ISBN 978-3-86854-567-8.
  19. ^ "Shoah Resource Center - Maly Trostinets" (PDF). Yad Vashems.
  20. ^ Schram, Laurence (2006). "De cijfers van de deportatie uit Mechelen naar Auschwitz. Perspectieven en denkpistes". De Belgische tentoonstelling in Auschwitz. Het boek - L'exposition belge / Auschwitz. Le Livre (in Dutch). Het Joods Museum voor Deportatie en Verzet. ISBN 978-90-76109-03-9. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  21. ^ Mikhman, Dan; Gutman, Israel, eds. (2005). The encyclopedia of the righteous among the nations: rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Belgium. Yad Vashem Publications. ISBN 978-9653083769.
  22. ^ Roger Boulanger (2006), L'historique du camp de Natzweiler-Struthof via Internet Archive.
  23. ^ Roca, Xavier (2010). "Comparative Efficacy of the Extermination Methods in Auschwitz and Operation Reinhard" (PDF). Equip Revista HMiC (Història Moderna i Contemporània). University of Barcelona. 8. p. 204 (4/15 in current document).
  24. ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, p. 114.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]