List of Chaldean Catholic Patriarchs of Babylon
This is a list of the Chaldean Catholicos-Patriarchs of Babylon, the leaders of the Chaldean Catholic Church and one of the Patriarchs of the east of the Catholic Church starting from 1553 following the Schism of 1552 which caused a break from the Assyrian Church of the East and the subsequent founding of the Church of Assyria and Mosul, later called the Chaldean Catholic Church.
This list continues from the List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East that traces itself back from the Church founded in Assyria first mentioned in the 1st century under Simon Peter in 1 Peter 5:13 out of which grew the Church of the East. It was Catholicos Timothy I Al-Baghdadi incorporated the numerically dominant St. Thomas Christians under the Apostolic See of the Catholicos-Patriarch of Babylon, which is often wrongly attributed to St. Thomas as a result.
The term Chaldean Catholic Patriarchs of Babylon is somewhat inaccurate in a geographical and historical context, as the Church was an offshoot of the Assyrian Church, and founded by priests from Upper Mesopotamia, a region which had been Assyria, rather than in southern Mesopotamia where Babylonia and Chaldea had once been.
Catholicoi and Patriarchs of Babylon for the Chaldeans
The Shimun line
In 1553, Mar Yohannan Sulaqa, willing to separate from the Church of the East's Patriarchal See of Alqosh, an Assyrian town in the Assyrian homeland in northern Iraq, went to Rome asking for his appointment as Patriarch. He was consecrated in St. Peter's Basilica on 9 April 1553.
- 90 Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa (1553–1555) — fixed the See in Amid
- 91 Abdisho IV Maron (1555–1570) — moved the See near Siirt
- Vacant (1570–1572)
- 92 Yahballaha V (1572–1580)
- 93 Shimun IX Dinkha (1580–1600) — moved the See in Urmia, was the last patriarch of the Shimun line to be formally recognized by Rome, reintroduced the hereditary succession
- 94 Shimun X Eliyah (1600–1638) — moved the See in Salmas
- 95 Shimun XI Eshuyow (1638–1656)
- 96 Shimun XII Yoalaha (1656–1662)
- 97 Shimun XIII Dinkha (1662–1692) — moved the See in Qochanis, formally broke full communion with Rome in 1692, moved back to the Assyrian church, continued to be Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East until c. 1700, the Shimun line of successors continued in the Assyrian Church of the East
The Josephite line of Amid
The Catholic Patriarchs based in Amid, now Diyarbakır in southeastern Turkey, began with Joseph I who in 1681 separated from the Assyrian Patriarchal See of Alqosh entering into full communion with Rome.
- 98 Joseph I (1681–1696)
- 99 Joseph II Sliba Maruf (1696–1713)
- 100 Joseph III Timothy Maroge (1713–1757)
- 101 Joseph IV Lazare Hindi (1757–1780)
- 102 Joseph V Augustine Hindi (1780–1827), patriarchal administrator from 1802, apostolic delegate for the Patriarchate of Babylon from 1812, never formally recognized as patriarch by Rome.
- Vacant (1827–1830)
At the death of Joseph V Augustine Hindi, this See remained vacant until 1830 upon the merging of the Alqosh line in the person of Yohannan VIII Hormizd thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.
The Alqosh/Mosul line
The patriarchal See of Alqosh, also known during the 17th and 18th centuries as Eliya line, was the oldest and largest patriarchal See of the Assyrian Church of the East, the only one existing patriarchal line before the 1553 split, and traces itself back from St. Thomas in the 1st century. In 1610, Mar Eliyya VIII (1591–1617), Patriarch of the See of Alqosh, entered communion with the Catholic Church. Eliyya VIII, however died in 1617, and his successor quickly repudiated the union, returning to Nestorianism.
In 1778, with the death of Eliya XII (or XI) Denkha, the See of Alqosh divided between Mar Eliyya XIII Isho-Yab, who was not in communion with Rome, and his cousin Mar Yohannan VIII Eliyya Hormizd, who professed to be Catholic. In 1804, with the death of Eliyya Isho-Yab, Yohannan Hormizd remained the only incumbent of this ancient See. He was recognized patriarch by Rome only in 1830, after the merging of the see of Amid, thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.
- 103 Yohannan VIII Hormizd (1830–1838) — moved the See in Mosul
- 104 Nicholas I Zaya (1839–1846)
- 105 Joseph VI Audo (1847–1878)
- 106 Eliya XIV Abulyonan (1878–1894)
- 107 Audishu V Khayyath (1894–1899) (Georges Ebed-Iesu)
- 108 Yousef VI Emmanuel II Thomas (1900–1946)
- 109 Yousef VII Ghanima (1946–1958) — moved the See in Baghdad
- 110 Paul II Cheikho (1958–1989)
- 111 Raphael I Bidawid (1989–2003)
- Shlemon Warduni (2003) (Locum Tenens)
- 112 Emmanuel III Delly (2003–2012) (retired on 19 December 2012)
- Jacques Ishaq (2012–2013) (Locum Tenens)
- 113 Louis Raphaël I Sako (31 January 2013–present)
- Chaldean Catholic Patriarchate of Babylon
- List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East
- Assyrian Church of the East
- Assyrian people
- Assemani, Giuseppe Luigi (1775). De catholicis seu patriarchis Chaldaeorum et Nestorianorum commentarius historico-chronologicus. Roma.
- Assemani, Giuseppe Luigi (2004). History of the Chaldean and Nestorian Patriarchs. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press.
- Wilmshurst, David (2000). The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318–1913. Louvain: Peeters Publishers.
- Wilmshurst, David (2011). The martyred Church: A History of the Church of the East. London: East & West Publishing Limited.
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