Comparison of multi-paradigm programming languages

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Programming languages can be grouped by the number and types of paradigms supported.

Paradigm summaries[edit]

A concise reference for the programming paradigms listed in this article.

  • Concurrent programming – have language constructs for concurrency, these may involve multi-threading, support for distributed computing, message passing, shared resources (including shared memory), or futures
    • Actor programming – concurrent computation with actors that make local decisions in response to the environment (capable of selfish or competitive behavior)
  • Constraint programming – relations between variables are expressed as constraints (or constraint networks), directing allowable solutions (uses constraint satisfaction or simplex algorithm)
  • Dataflow programming – forced recalculation of formulas when data values change (e.g. spreadsheets)
  • Declarative programming – describes what a computation should perform, without specifying detailed state changes c.f. imperative programming (functional and logic programming are major subgroups of declarative programing)
  • Distributed programming – have support for multiple autonomous computers that communicate via computer networks
  • Functional programming – uses evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data
  • Generic programming – uses algorithms written in terms of to-be-specified-later types that are then instantiated as needed for specific types provided as parameters
  • Imperative programming – explicit statements that change a program state
  • Logic programming – uses explicit mathematical logic for programming
  • Metaprogramming – writing programs that write or manipulate other programs (or themselves) as their data, or that do part of the work at compile time that would otherwise be done at runtime
    • Template metaprogramming – metaprogramming methods in which templates are used by a compiler to generate temporary source code, which is merged by the compiler with the rest of the source code and then compiled
    • Reflective programming – metaprogramming methods in which a program modifies or extends itself
  • Object-oriented programming – uses data structures consisting of data fields and methods together with their interactions (objects) to design programs
    • Class-based – object-oriented programming in which inheritance is achieved by defining classes of objects, versus the objects themselves
    • Prototype-based – object-oriented programming that avoids classes and implements inheritance via cloning of instances
  • Pipeline programming – a simple syntax change to add syntax to nest function calls to language originally designed with none
  • Rule-based programming – a network of rules of thumb that comprise a knowledge base and can be used for expert systems and problem deduction & resolution
  • Visual programming – manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually (e.g. Simulink); also termed diagrammatic programming[1]

Language overview[edit]

List of multi-paradigm programming languages
Language Num­ber of Para­digms Con­cur­rent Con­straints Data­flow De­clar­at­ive Dis­trib­uted Func­tion­al Meta­pro­gram­ming Gen­er­ic Im­per­at­ive Lo­gic Re­flec­tion Ob­ject-ori­ented Pipe­lines Visu­al Rule-based Oth­er para­digms
Ada[2][3][4][5][6] 5 Yes[a 1] No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
ALF 2 No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No
AmigaE[citation needed] 2 No No No No No No No No Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
APL 3 No No No No No Yes No No Yes No No No No No No Array (multi-dimensional)
BETA[citation needed] 3 No No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
C++ 7 (15) Yes[7][8][9] Library[10] Library[11][12] Library[13][14] Library[15][16] Yes Yes[17] Yes[a 3] Yes Library[18][19] Library[20] Yes[a 2] Yes[21] No Library[22] Array (multi-dimensional; using STL)
C# 6 (7) Yes No Library[a 4] No No Yes[a 5] No Yes Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No reactive[a 6]
ChucK[citation needed] 3 Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
Claire 2 No No No No No Yes No No No No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
Common Lisp 5 Library[23] Library[24] Library[25] Yes[26] Library[27] Yes Yes Yes[28] Yes Library[29] Yes Yes (multiple dispatch, method combinations)[30][a 2] Library[31] No Library[32] Multiple dispatch, meta-OOP system[33], Language is extensible via metaprogramming.
Curl 5 No No No No No Yes No Yes[a 3] Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No No
Curry 4 Yes Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No
D (version 2.0)[34][35] 6 Yes[a 7] No No No No Yes Yes[36][a 3] Yes[a 3] Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
Dylan[citation needed] 3 No No No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No No
E 3 Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
ECMAScript[37][38] (ActionScript, E4X, JavaScript, JScript) 4 (5) partial (promises, native extensions)[a 8] No No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes[a 9] No No No reactive[a 10]
Embarcadero Delphi 3 No No No No No No No Yes[a 3] Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
Erlang 3 Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No No No
Elixir 4 Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No No
Elm 6 Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No Yes No No reactive
F# 7 (8) Yes[a 7] No Library[a 4] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No reactive[a 6]
Falcon 4 No No No No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No No
Fortran 4 (5) Yes No No No No Yes[a 11] No Yes[a 12] No No No Yes[a 2] No No No Array (multi-dimensional)
Go 4 Yes No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Haskell 2? Yes Library[39] No Yes Library[40] Yes (lazy) No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Template:Reactive, dependent types (partial)
Io 4 Yes[a 7] No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes[a 9] No No No No
J[citation needed] 3 No No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
Java 6 Yes Library[41] Library[42] No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No No
Julia 9 (17) Yes Library[43] Library[44][45] Library[46] Yes Yes (eager) Yes Yes Yes Library[47] Yes Yes (multiple dispatch, not traditional single) Yes No Library[48][49] Multiple dispatch,
Array (multi-dimensional); optionally lazy[50] and reactive (with libraries)
Kotlin 8 Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No
LabVIEW 4 Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No No
Lava 2 No No No No No No No No No No No Yes[a 2] No Yes No No
Leda 4 No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes[a 2] No No No No
LispWorks (version 6.0 with support for symmetric multi-processing, rules, logic (Prolog), CORBA) 9 Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes[a 2] No No Yes No
Lua[citation needed] 3 No No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes[a 9] No No No No
MATLAB 6 (10) Toolbox[51] Toolbox[52] Yes[53] No Toolbox[54] No Yes[55] Yes[56] No No Yes[57] Yes[58] No Yes[59] No Array (multi-dimensional)
Nemerle 7 Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No No
Object Pascal 4 Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
OCaml 4 No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
Oz 11 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes[a 2] Yes No Yes No
Perl[citation needed] 8 (9) Yes[60] Library[61] Yes[62] No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes[a 2] Yes[a 2] Yes No No No
Perl6 10 Yes[63] Yes[64] Yes[65] No Library[66] Yes Yes[67] Yes[68] Yes No Yes[69] Yes[70] Yes No No Multiple dispatch, lazy lists, reactive.
PHP[71][72][73] 4 No No No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No No
Poplog 3 No No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
Prograph 3 No No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes[a 2] No Yes No No
Python 5 (10) Library[74][75] Library[76] No No Library[77] Partial Yes[78][79] Yes[80][81] Yes Library[82] Yes Yes[a 2] No No No structured
R 4 No No No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes[83] No No Array (multi-dimensional)
Racket 6 No No No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
ROOP 3 No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
Ruby 4 No No No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No No
Rust (version 1.0.0-alpha) 6 Yes[a 7] No No No No Yes Yes[84][85] Yes[86] Yes No No Yes No No No linear, affline, and ownership types
Sather[citation needed] 2 No No No No No Yes No No No No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
Scala[87][88] 9 Yes[a 7] No Yes[a 13] Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No No
Simula[citation needed] 2 No No No No No No No No Yes No No Yes[a 2] No No No No
SISAL 3 Yes No Yes No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No
Spreadsheets 2 No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No
Swift 7 Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No block-structured
Tcl with Snit extension[citation needed] 3 No No No No No Yes[89] No No Yes No No Yes[a 9][90] No No No No
Visual Basic .NET 6 (7) Yes No Library[a 4] No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] No No No reactive[a 6]
Windows PowerShell 6 No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes[a 2] Yes No No No
Wolfram Language & Mathematica 13[91] (14) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[92] No Yes Knowledge Based

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ rendezvous and monitor-like based
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Class-based
  3. ^ a b c d e Template metaprogramming
  4. ^ a b c using TPL Dataflow
  5. ^ only lambda support (lazy functional programming)
  6. ^ a b c using Reactive Extensions (Rx)
  7. ^ a b c d e actor programming
  8. ^ using Node.js' cluster module or child_process.fork method, web workers in the browser, etc.
  9. ^ a b c d Prototype-based
  10. ^ using Reactive Extensions (RxJS)
  11. ^ purely functional
  12. ^ parameterized classes
  13. ^ Akka Archived 2013-01-19 at the Wayback Machine.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Bragg, S.D.; Driskill, C.G. (20–22 September 1994). "Diagrammatic-graphical programming languages and DoD-STD-2167A". IEEEXplore. IEEE. 
  2. ^ Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3, Section 9: Tasks and Synchronization
  3. ^ Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3 Annex E: Distributed Systems
  4. ^ Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3, Section 12: Generic Units
  5. ^ Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3, Section 6: Subprograms
  6. ^ Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3, 3.9 Tagged Types and Type Extensions
  7. ^ Thread support
  8. ^ Atomics support
  9. ^ Memory model
  10. ^ Gecode
  11. ^ SystemC
  12. ^ Boost.Iostreams
  13. ^ Boolinq
  14. ^ AraRat
  15. ^ OpenMPI
  16. ^ Boost.MPI
  17. ^ Boost.MPL
  18. ^ LC++
  19. ^ Castor Archived 2013-01-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Reflect Library
  21. ^ N3534
  22. ^ Boost.Spirit
  23. ^ [1] many concurrency paradigms implemented as language extensions
  24. ^ [2] constraint programming inside CL through extensions
  25. ^ [3] dataflow extension
  26. ^ [4] by creating DSLs using the built-in metaprogramming; also see note on functional, constraint and logic paradigms, which are part of declarative
  27. ^ [5] MPI, etc via language extensions
  28. ^ template metaprogramming using macros (see C++)
  29. ^ [6] [7] [8] Prolog implemented as a language extension
  30. ^ Common Lisp Object System see Wikipedia article on CLOS, the Common Lisp Object System.
  31. ^ implemented by the user via a short macro, example of implementation: [9]
  32. ^ [10] rule-based programming extension
  33. ^ [11] through the Meta Object Protocol
  34. ^ D Language Feature Table
  35. ^ Phobos std.algorithm
  36. ^ D language String Mixins
  37. ^ The Little JavaScripter demonstrates fundamental commonality with Scheme, a functional language.
  38. ^ Object Oriented Programming in JavaScript gives an overview of object-oriented programming techniques in JavaScript.
  39. ^ Prolog embedding
  40. ^ Cloud Haskell
  41. ^ https://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=331 JSR 331: Constraint Programming API
  42. ^ https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/DataflowJavaSDK Google Cloud Platform Dataflow SDK
  43. ^ https://jump.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
  44. ^ https://github.com/MikeInnes/DataFlow.jl
  45. ^ https://github.com/JuliaGizmos/Reactive.jl
  46. ^ https://github.com/davidanthoff/Query.jl Query almost anything in julia
  47. ^ https://github.com/lilinjn/LilKanren.jl A collection of Kanren implementations in Julia
  48. ^ https://github.com/abeschneider/PEGParser.jl
  49. ^ https://github.com/gitfoxi/Parsimonious.jl
  50. ^ Lazy https://github.com/MikeInnes/Lazy.jl
  51. ^ "Execute loop iterations in parallel". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  52. ^ "Write Constraints". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  53. ^ "Getting Started with SimEvents". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  54. ^ "Execute loop iterations in parallel". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  55. ^ "Execute MATLAB expression in text - MATLAB eval". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  56. ^ "Determine class of object". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  57. ^ "Class Metadata". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  58. ^ "Object-Oriented Programming". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  59. ^ "Simulink". mathworks.com. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  60. ^ interpreter based threads
  61. ^ Moose
  62. ^ Higher Order Perl
  63. ^ Channels and other mechanisms
  64. ^ [12]
  65. ^ Feed operator
  66. ^ https://github.com/perl6/doc/issues/1744#issuecomment-360565196 Cro module
  67. ^ https://perl6advent.wordpress.com/2011/12/14/meta-programming-what-why-and-how/
  68. ^ https://perl6advent.wordpress.com/2009/12/18/day-18-roles/ Parametrized Roles
  69. ^ https://docs.perl6.org/language/mop
  70. ^ https://docs.perl6.org/language/classtut Classes and Roles
  71. ^ PHP Manual, Chapter 17. Functions
  72. ^ PHP Manual, Chapter 19. Classes and Objects (PHP 5)
  73. ^ PHP Manual, Anonymous functions
  74. ^ "Parallel Processing and Multiprocessing in Python". wiki.python.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  75. ^ "threading — Higher-level threading interface". docs.python.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  76. ^ "python-constraint". pypi.python.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  77. ^ "DistributedProgramming". wiki.python.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  78. ^ "Chapter 9. Metaprogramming". chimera.labs.oreilly.com. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  79. ^ "Metaprogramming". readthedocs.io. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  80. ^ "PEP 443 -- Single-dispatch generic functions". python.org. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  81. ^ "PEP 484 -- Type Hints". python.org. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  82. ^ "PyDatalog". Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  83. ^ "Magrittr: A Forward Pipe Operator for R". cran.r-project.org\accessdate=13 July 2017. 
  84. ^ "The Rust macros guide". Rust. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  85. ^ "The Rust compiler plugins guide". Rust. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  86. ^ The Rust Reference §6.1.3.1
  87. ^ An Overview of the Scala Programming Language
  88. ^ Scala Language Specification
  89. ^ "Tcl Programming/Introduction". en.wikibooks.org. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  90. ^ "TCLLIB - Tcl Standard Library: snitfaq:". sourceforge.net. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  91. ^ Notes for Programming Language Experts, Wolfram Language Documentation.
  92. ^ External Programs, Wolfram Language Documentation.

References[edit]

  • Jim Coplien, Multiparadigm Design for C++, Addison-Wesley Professional, 1998.