List of orogenies
The following is a list of known orogenies organised by continent, starting with the oldest at the top. The organization of this article is along present-day continents that do not necessarily reflect the geography contemporary to the orogenies. Note that some orogenies encompass more than one continent and might have different names in each continent. Like-wise some very large orogenies include a number of sub-orogenies. As with other geological phenomena orogenies are often subject to different and changing interpretations regarding to their age, type and associated paleogeography.
- Pan-African orogeny (550 Ma) (Neoproterozoic)
- Damaran Orogeny
- Kibaran Orogeny
- Eburnean Orogeny
- East African Orogeny
- Mauritanide Orogeny
- Mozambique Orogeny
- Zambezian Orogeny
- Napier orogeny (4000 ± 200 Ma)
- Rayner orogeny (~ 3500 Ma)
- Humboldt orogeny (~ 3000 Ma)
- Insel orogeny (2650 ± 150 Ma)
- Early Ruker orogeny (2000–1700 Ma)
- Late Ruker / Nimrod orogeny (1000 ± 150 Ma)
- Beardmore orogeny (633–620 Ma)
- Ross Orogeny (~550 to ~480 Ma)
- The Aravalli-Delhi Orogen (precambrian)
- The Altaid Orogeny (Paleozoic)
- The Cimmerian and Cathayasian orogenies
- Alpine orogeny, encompassing:
- The Saamian orogeny
- Formation of an extensive area of tonalitic-trondhjemitic crust in Fennoscandia, from 3.1 Ga to 2.9 Ga
- The Lopian orogeny
- Formation of two different types of terrain compatible with plate tectonic concepts. One is a belt of high-grade gneisses formed in a regime of strong mobility, while the other is a region of granitoid intrusions and greenstone belts surrounded by the remnants of a Saamian substratum, from 2.9 Ga to 2.6 Ga.
- The Svecofennian orogeny
- The Gothian orogeny
- Formation of tonalitic-granodioritic plutonic rocks and calc-alkaline volcanites (like the Svecofennian orogeny) from 1.75 Ga to 1.5 Ga.
- The Sveconorwegian orogeny
- Essentially reworking of previously formed crust, from 1.25 Ga to 900 Ma.
- The Timanide orogeny affecting the northern Baltic Shield during the Neoproterozoic Era, from 620 Ma to 550 Ma.
- The Cadomian orogeny on the north coast of Armorica in the Ediacaran/Cambrian from 660 Ma to 540 Ma.
- The Caledonian orogeny
- Uralian orogeny
- The Variscan orogeny (also called the Hercynian orogeny)
- The Alpine orogeny, encompassing:
- Ongoing (happening now):
- the Mediterranean Ridge.
North American orogenies
- Algoman orogeny (or Kenoran)
- Superior province, South Dakota to Lake Huron
- Late Archean 2700-2500 Ma.
- Wopmay orogeny
- Along western edge of Canadian shield, 2100–1900 Ma.
- Hudsonian orogeny or Trans-Hudson orogeny
- Penokean orogeny
- Big Sky orogeny
- Ivanpah orogeny
- Mojave province, south western USA
- Yavapai orogeny
- mid to south western USA, 1760-1700 Ma.
- Mazatzal orogeny
- mid to south western USA, circa 1600 Ma.
- Grenville orogeny
- Caledonian orogeny
- Appalachian orogeny, usually seen as the same as the Variscan orogeny in Europe.
- Ouachita orogeny
- Antler orogeny
- Innuitian orogeny or Ellesmerian orogeny
- Sonoma orogeny
- Rocky Mountains, western North America, 270–240 Ma.
- Nevadan orogeny
- Developed along western North America during the Jurassic Period.
- Sevier orogeny
- Rocky Mountains, western North America, 140–50 Ma.
- Laramide orogeny
- Rocky Mountains, western North America, 40–70 Ma.
- Sleaford Orogeny (2440–2420 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
- Glenburgh Orogeny (c. 2005–1920 Ma), Glenburgh Terrane, Western Australia.
- Kimban Orogeny (c. 1845–1700 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
- Yapungku Orogeny (c. 1765 Ma), North Yilgarn craton margin, Western Australia
- Mangaroon Orogeny (c.1680–1620 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.
- Kararan Orogeny (1650– Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
- Barramundi Orogeny (c. 1870 - 1800 Ma), MacArthur Basin, northern Australia
- Albany-Fraser Orogeny (c. 1710–1020 Ma), Western Australia
- Isan Orogeny, c. 1600 Ma, Mount Isa Block, Queensland
- Olarian Orogeny, Olary Block, South Australia
- Capricorn Orogeny, Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia
- Musgrave Orogeny (c. 1080 Ma), Musgrave Block, Central Australia.
- Edmundian Orogeny (c. 920–850 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.
- Petermann Orogeny (c. 550–535 Ma late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian), Central Australia
- Delamerian Orogeny,(ca. 514 - 510 Ma) South Australia and Victoria, Australia, Ordovician
- Lachlan Orogeny, c. 540 and 440 Ma., Victoria and New South Wales
- Thomson Orogeny, northern continuation of the Lachlan Orogeny
- Kanimblan Orogeny, (c. 318 Ma.), Carboniferous, Victoria and New South Wales
- Alice Springs Orogeny (450 - 300 MA) in central Australia, Early Carboniferous
- New England Orogeny, early Carboniferous to mid Triassic, Eastern Australia
- Hunter-Bowen Orogeny, (c. 260–225 Ma) Permian to Triassic, Queensland and New South Wales
New Zealand orogenies
South American orogenies
- Transamazonian orogeny (Paleoproterozoic)
- Sunsás orogeny
- Cariri Velhos orogeny
- Brasiliano-Pan African orogeny
- Brasilia Belt
- Pampean orogeny
- Paraguai Belt
- San Rafael orogeny
- Gondwanide orogeny
- Toco orogeny
- Andean orogeny
- Andes Mountains, 0–200 Ma.
- http://home.freeuk.com/gtlloyd/tam/geochron.htm Tectonics of the Transantarctic Mountains: Geochronology
- Strachan, R.A.; Smith, M.; Harris, A.L.; Fettes, D.J. (2002). "4: The Northern Highland and Grampian terranes". In Trewin N.H. The Geology of Scotland. Geological Society, London. ISBN 978-1-86239-126-0.
- Alkmima, Fernando F. and Stephen Marshak; Transamazonian Orogeny in the Southern São Francisco Craton Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil: evidence for Paleoproterozoic collision and collapse in the Quadrilátero Ferrı́fero, Precambrian Research, Volume 90, Issues 1–2, 30 June 1998, Pages 29–58
- The Geology of Chile Teresa Moreno, Wes Gibbons, Geological Society of London