List of orogenies

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Geologic provinces of the World (USGS)

The following is a list of known orogenies organised by continent, starting with the oldest at the top. The organization of this article is along present-day continents that do not necessarily reflect the geography contemporary to the orogenies. Note that some orogenies encompass more than one continent and might have different names in each continent. Like-wise some very large orogenies include a number of sub-orogenies. As with other geological phenomena orogenies are often subject to different and changing interpretations regarding to their age, type and associated paleogeography.

African orogenies[edit]

Antarctic orogenies[edit]

Orogenies affecting Antarctica include:[1]

  • Napier orogeny (4000 ± 200 Ma)
  • Rayner orogeny (~ 3500 Ma)
  • Humboldt orogeny (~ 3000 Ma)
  • Insel orogeny (2650 ± 150 Ma)
  • Early Ruker orogeny (2000–1700 Ma)
  • Late Ruker / Nimrod orogeny (1000 ± 150 Ma)
  • Beardmore orogeny (633–620 Ma)
  • Ross Orogeny (~550 to ~480 Ma)

Asian orogenies[edit]

The Dabie-Sulu Orogen (Mesozoic)

European orogenies[edit]

North American orogenies[edit]

Taconic orogeny

Oceania orogenies[edit]

Australian orogenies[edit]

New Zealand orogenies[edit]

South American orogenies[edit]


  1. ^ Tectonics of the Transantarctic Mountains: Geochronology
  2. ^ Strachan, R.A.; Smith, M.; Harris, A.L.; Fettes, D.J. (2002). "4: The Northern Highland and Grampian terranes". In Trewin N.H. The Geology of Scotland. Geological Society, London. ISBN 978-1-86239-126-0. 
  3. ^ Alkmima, Fernando F. and Stephen Marshak; Transamazonian Orogeny in the Southern São Francisco Craton Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil: evidence for Paleoproterozoic collision and collapse in the Quadrilátero Ferrı́fero, Precambrian Research, Volume 90, Issues 1–2, 30 June 1998, Pages 29–58
  4. ^ The Geology of Chile Teresa Moreno, Wes Gibbons, Geological Society of London