List of orogenies

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Geologic provinces of the world (USGS)

The following is a list of known orogenies organised by continent, starting with the oldest at the top. The organization of this article is along present-day continents that do not necessarily reflect the geography contemporary to the orogenies. Note that some orogenies encompass more than one continent and might have different names in each continent. Like-wise some very large orogenies include a number of sub-orogenies. As with other geological phenomena orogenies are often subject to different and changing interpretations regarding to their age, type and associated paleogeography.

African orogenies[edit]

  • Pan-African orogeny – A series of major Neoproterozoic orogenic events which related to the formation of the supercontinents Gondwana and Pannotia (550 Ma) (Neoproterozoic)
  • Damara orogeny – Mountain building event at the intersection of the Congo and the Kalahari cratons.
  • Kibaran orogeny – A mountain building event in what is now Africa
  • Eburnean orogeny – A mountain building event in what is now West Africa
  • East African Orogeny – The main stage in the Neoproterozoic assembly of East and West Gondwana
  • Mauritanide Orogeny – An ancient orogen parallel to the west coast of Africa from Morocco to Guinea-Bissau
  • Mozambique Orogeny – A band in the earth's crust from East Antarctica through East Africa up to the Arabian-Nubian Shield
  • Zambezian Orogeny – Area of mountain building now in southern Zambia and northern Zimbabwe

Antarctic orogenies[edit]

Orogenies affecting Antarctica include:[1]

Asian orogenies[edit]

European orogenies[edit]

North American orogenies[edit]

Taconic orogeny

Oceania orogenies[edit]

Australian orogenies[edit]

New Zealand orogenies[edit]

South American orogenies[edit]


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-10-19. Retrieved 2010-11-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Tectonics of the Transantarctic Mountains: Geochronology
  2. ^ Strachan, R.A.; Smith, M.; Harris, A.L.; Fettes, D.J. (2002). "4: The Northern Highland and Grampian terranes". In Trewin N.H. (ed.). The Geology of Scotland. Geological Society, London. ISBN 978-1-86239-126-0.
  3. ^ Alkmima, Fernando F. and Stephen Marshak; Transamazonian Orogeny in the Southern São Francisco Craton Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil: evidence for Paleoproterozoic collision and collapse in the Quadrilátero Ferrı́fero, Precambrian Research, Volume 90, Issues 1–2, 30 June 1998, Pages 29–58
  4. ^ The Geology of Chile Teresa Moreno, Wes Gibbons, Geological Society of London