The Pan-African orogeny was a series of major Neoproterozoic orogenic events (mountain building) which related to the formation of the supercontinents Gondwana and Pannotia about 600 million years ago.
The Mozambique Belt, extending from east Antarctica through East Africa up to the Arabian-Nubian Shield, formed as a suture between plates during the Pan-African orogeny. The Mozambique ocean began closing between Madagascar-India and the Congo-Tanzania craton between 700 and 580 million years ago, with closure between 600 and 500 million years ago.
- Cutten, Huntly N.C. (October 29, 2002). "THE MOZAMBIQUE BELT, EASTERN AFRICA – TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE MOZAMBIQUE OCEAN AND GONDWANA AMALGAMATION". The Geological Society of America. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- "Glossary of Plate Tectonic and Paleogeographic Terms" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-04-09. (not available without registration (free))
- Grantham, G.H.; Maboko, M.; Eglington, B.M. (2003). "A review of the evolution of the Mozambique Belt and implications for the amalgamation and dispersal of Rodinia and Gondwana". Proterozoic East Gondwana: supercontinent assembly and breakup. Geological Society. ISBN 1-86239-125-4.
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