Newfoundland and Labrador

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Newfoundland and Labrador
Quaerite prime regnum Dei  (Latin)
"Seek ye first the kingdom of God" (Matthew 6:33)
Coordinates: 53°13′48″N 59°59′57″W / 53.23000°N 59.99917°W / 53.23000; -59.99917Coordinates: 53°13′48″N 59°59′57″W / 53.23000°N 59.99917°W / 53.23000; -59.99917
ConfederationMarch 31, 1949 (12th)
(and largest city)
St. John's
Largest metroSt. John's metropolitan area
 • TypeConstitutional monarchy
 • Lieutenant governorJudy Foote
 • PremierAndrew Furey (Liberal)
LegislatureNewfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly
Federal representationParliament of Canada
House seats7 of 338 (2.1%)
Senate seats6 of 105 (5.7%)
 • Total405,720 km2 (156,650 sq mi)
 • Land373,872 km2 (144,353 sq mi)
 • Water31,340 km2 (12,100 sq mi)  7.7%
Area rank10th
 4.1% of Canada
 • Total519,716 [1]
 • Estimate 
(2021 Q3)
520,553 [2]
 • Rank9th
 • Density1.39/km2 (3.6/sq mi)
(see notes)[a]
Official languagesEnglish (de facto)[3]
 • Rank8th
 • Total (2011)C$33.624 billion[4]
 • Per capitaC$65,556 (5th)
 • HDI (2019)0.894[5]Very high (13th)
Time zone
Labrador (Black Tickle and North)UTC-04:00
Canadian postal abbr.
NL (formerly NF)
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 codeCA-NL
FlowerPitcher plant
TreeBlack spruce
BirdAtlantic puffin
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Newfoundland and Labrador (/njfənˈlænd ænd læbrəˈdɔːr/; sometimes abbreviated as NL) is the easternmost province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres (156,500 sq mi). In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073.[6] About 94% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland (and its neighbouring smaller islands), of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula.

The province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English (Newfoundland English) as their mother tongue in the 2016 census.[7] Historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are also spoken.

Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 per cent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.

Formerly a colony and then a dominion of the British Empire, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth and final province to enter Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador.[8]


The name "New founde lande" was uttered by King Henry VII about the land explored by Sebastian and Bruce Cabot. In Portuguese it is Terra Nova, which literally means "new land" which is also the French name for the Province's island region (Terre-Neuve). The name "Terra Nova" is in wide use on the island (e.g. Terra Nova National Park). The influence of early Portuguese exploration is also reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador.[9]

Labrador's name in the Inuttitut/Inuktitut language (spoken in Nunatsiavut) is Nunatsuak (ᓄᓇᑦᓱᐊᒃ), meaning "the big land" (a common English nickname for Labrador). Newfoundland's Inuttitut/Inuktitut name is Ikkarumikluak (ᐃᒃᑲᕈᒥᒃᓗᐊᒃ) meaning "place of many shoals".


Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, and is at the north-eastern corner of North America.[10] The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, which is a large area of mainland Canada, and Newfoundland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean.[11] The province also includes over 7,000 tiny islands.[12]

Newfoundland is roughly triangular. Each side is about 400 km (250 mi) long, and its area is 108,860 km2 (42,030 sq mi).[12] Newfoundland and its neighbouring small islands (excluding French possessions) have an area of 111,390 km2 (43,010 sq mi).[13] Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N.[14][15]

Labrador is also roughly triangular in shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, and the rest belongs to Quebec. Most of Labrador's southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut on Killiniq Island. Labrador's area (including associated small islands) is 294,330 km2 (113,640 sq mi).[13] Together, Newfoundland and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area,[16] with a total area of 405,720 km2 (156,650 sq mi).[17]


The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast is the northernmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains.

Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work,[18] and as such has been designated a World Heritage Site. The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains.[11]

The north-south extent of the province (46°36′N to 60°22′N), prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province.[19]


Most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate (Dfb under the Köppen climate classification system): cool summer subtype. Newfoundland and Labrador has a wide range of climates and weather,[20] due to its geography. The island of Newfoundland spans 5 degrees of latitude, comparable to the Great Lakes.[20] The province has been divided into six climate types, but broadly Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, which is greatly influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km (62 mi) from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate.[21]

Köppen climate types of Newfoundland and Labrador

Monthly average temperatures, rainfall and snowfall for four places are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. Climate data for 56 places in the province is available from Environment Canada.[22]

The data for the graphs is the average over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground. This distinction is particularly important for St. John's, where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain, so no snow remains on the ground.

Surface water temperatures on the Atlantic side reach a summer average of 12 °C (54 °F) inshore and 9 °C (48 °F) offshore to winter lows of −1 °C (30 °F) inshore and 2 °C (36 °F) offshore.[23] Sea temperatures on the west coast are warmer than Atlantic side by 1-3 °C (approximately 2-5 °F). The sea keeps winter temperatures slightly higher and summer temperatures a little lower on the coast than inland.[23] The maritime climate produces more variable weather, ample precipitation in a variety of forms, greater humidity, lower visibility, more clouds, less sunshine, and higher winds than a continental climate.[23]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Newfoundland and Labrador[24]
Location July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
St. John's 20/11 68/52 −1/−9 30/16
Grand Falls-Windsor 23/11 73/52 –2/–12 27/9
Gander 21/11 71/51 −3/−12 26/11
Corner Brook 22/13 71/55 −3/−10 28/15
Stephenville 20/12 68/54 −2/−9 27/15
Fogo Island 19/10 66/50 –3/–9 26/16
Labrador City 19/8 66/47 –16/–27 2/–18
Happy Valley-Goose Bay 21/10 69/50 −12/−22 9/−8
Nain 15/5 59/41 −14/−23 7/−10


Early history[edit]

An artistic depiction of the Maritime Archaic culture, at the Port au Choix Archaeological Site. The Maritime Archaic peoples were the first to settle Newfoundland.

Human habitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back about 9,000 years.[25] The Maritime Archaic peoples were groups of Archaic cultures of sea-mammal hunters in the subarctic.[26] They prospered along the Atlantic Coast of North America from about 7000 BC to 1500 BC.[27] Their settlements included longhouses and boat-topped temporary or seasonal houses.[26] They engaged in long-distance trade, using as currency white chert, a rock quarried from northern Labrador to Maine.[28] The southern branch of these people was established on the north peninsula of Newfoundland by 5,000 years ago.[29] The Maritime Archaic period is best known from a mortuary site in Newfoundland at Port au Choix.[26]

The Maritime Archaic peoples were gradually displaced by people of the Dorset culture (Late Paleo-Eskimo) who also occupied Port au Choix. The number of their sites discovered on Newfoundland indicates they may have been the most numerous group of Aboriginal people to live there. They thrived from about 2000 BC to 800 AD. Many of their sites were on exposed headlands and outer islands. They were more oriented to the sea than earlier peoples, and had developed sleds and boats similar to kayaks. They burned seal blubber in soapstone lamps.[29]

Many of these sites, such as Port au Choix, recently excavated by Memorial archaeologist, Priscilla Renouf, are quite large and show evidence of a long-term commitment to place. Renouf has excavated huge amounts of harp seal bones at Port au Choix, indicating that this place was a prime location for the hunting of these animals.[29]

The people of the Dorset culture (800 BC – 1500 AD) were highly adapted to a cold climate, and much of their food came from hunting sea mammals through holes in the ice.[30] The massive decline in sea ice during the Medieval Warm Period would have had a devastating impact upon their way of life.[30]

Depiction of the Inuit of Labrador, c. 1812

The appearance of the Beothuk culture is believed to be the most recent cultural manifestation of peoples who first migrated from Labrador to Newfoundland around 1 AD.[31] The Inuit, found mostly in Labrador, are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule people, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 AD and spread eastwards across the High Arctic, reaching Labrador around 1300–1500.[32] Researchers believe the Dorset culture lacked the dogs, larger weapons and other technologies that gave the expanding Inuit people an advantage.[33] Over time, groups started to focus on resources available to them locally.

The inhabitants eventually organized themselves into small bands of a few families, grouped into larger tribes and chieftainships. The Innu are the inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, i.e. most of what is now referred to as northeastern Quebec and Labrador. Their subsistence activities were historically centred on hunting and trapping caribou, deer and small game.[34] Coastal clans also practised agriculture, fished and managed maple sugar bush.[34] The Innu engaged in tribal warfare along the coast of Labrador with the Inuit groups that had large populations.[35]

The Miꞌkmaq of southern Newfoundland spent most of their time on the shores harvesting seafood; during the winter they would move inland to the woods to hunt.[36] Over time, the Miꞌkmaq and Innu divided their lands into traditional "districts". Each district was independently governed and had a district chief and a council. The council members were band chiefs, elders and other worthy community leaders.[37] In addition to the district councils, the Miꞌkmaq tribes also had (have) a Grand Council or Santé Mawiómi, which according to oral tradition was formed before 1600.[38]

Descendants of the Beothuks[edit]

A Beothuk encampment in Newfoundland, c. 18th century

By the time European contact with Newfoundland began in the early 16th century, the Beothuk were the only indigenous group living permanently on the island.[31] Unlike other groups in the Northeastern area of the Americas, the Beothuk never established sustained trading relations with European settlers. Instead, their trading interactions were sporadic, and they largely attempted to avoid contact in order to preserve their culture.[39] The establishment of English fishing operations on the outer coastline of the island, and their later expansion into bays and inlets, cut off access for the Beothuk to their traditional sources of food.

In the 18th century, as the Beothuk were driven further inland by these encroachments, violence between Beothuk and settlers escalated, with each retaliating against the other in their competition for resources. By the early 19th century, violence, starvation, and exposure to tuberculosis had decimated the Beothuk population, and they were extinct by 1829.[31]

European contact[edit]

Recreated Norse buildings at L'Anse aux Meadows, an archaeological site dating back to 1000 CE

The oldest confirmed accounts of European contact date from a thousand years ago as described in the Viking (Norse) Icelandic Sagas. Around the year 1001, the sagas refer to Leif Ericson landing in three places to the west,[40] the first two being Helluland (possibly Baffin Island) and Markland (possibly Labrador).[41][42][43] Leif's third landing was at a place he called Vinland (possibly Newfoundland).[44] Archaeological evidence of a Norse settlement was found in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1978.[45][46]

There are several other unconfirmed accounts of European discovery and exploration, one tale by men from the Channel Islands being blown off course in the late 15th century into a strange land full of fish,[47] and another from Portuguese maps that depict the Terra do Bacalhau, or land of codfish, west of the Azores. The earliest, though, is the Voyage of Saint Brendan, the fantastical account of an Irish monk who made a sea voyage in the early 6th century. While the story became a part of myth and legend, some historians believe it is based on fact.[citation needed]

A statue of John Cabot at Cape Bonavista. The cape is officially cited as the area where Cabot landed in 1497, by the governments of Canada, and the United Kingdom.[clarification needed]

In 1496, John Cabot obtained a charter from English king Henry VII to "sail to all parts, countries and seas of the East, the West and of the North, under our banner and ensign and to set up our banner on any new-found-land" and on 24 June 1497, landed in Cape Bonavista. Historians disagree on whether Cabot landed in Nova Scotia in 1497 or in Newfoundland, or possibly Maine, if he landed at all, but the governments of Canada and the United Kingdom recognise Bonavista as being Cabot's "official" landing place. In 1499 and 1500, Portuguese mariners João Fernandes Lavrador and Pêro de Barcelos explored and mapped the coast, the former's name appearing as "Labrador" on topographical maps of the period.[48]

Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Portuguese Crown claimed it had territorial rights in the area John Cabot visited in 1497 and 1498.[49] Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502 the Corte-Real brothers, Miguel and Gaspar, explored Newfoundland and Labrador, claiming them as part of the Portuguese Empire.[50][51] In 1506, king Manuel I of Portugal created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters.[52] João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established seasonal fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521, and older Portuguese settlements may have existed.[53] Sir Humphrey Gilbert, provided with letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I, landed in St. John's in August 1583, and formally took possession of the island.[54][55]

European settlement and conflict[edit]

Sometime before 1563 Basque fishermen, who had been fishing cod shoals off Newfoundland's coasts since the beginning of the sixteenth century, founded Plaisance (today Placentia), a seasonal haven which French fishermen later used. In the Newfoundland will of the Basque seaman Domingo de Luca, dated 1563 and now in an archive in Spain, he asks "that my body be buried in this port of Plazençia in the place where those who die here are usually buried". This will is the oldest-known civil document written in Canada.[56][57]

Plaque in St. John's commemorating the English claim over Newfoundland, and the beginning of the British overseas empire

Twenty years later, in 1583, Newfoundland became England's first possession in North America and one of the earliest permanent English colonies in the New World[58][need quotation to verify] when Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed it for Elizabeth I. European fishing boats had visited Newfoundland continuously since Cabot's second voyage in 1498 and seasonal fishing camps had existed for a century prior. Fishing boats originated from Basque, England, France, and Portugal. However, this changed during the initial stages of Anglo-Spanish War, when Bernard Drake led a devastating raid on the Spanish and Portuguese fisheries in 1585. This provided an opportunity to secure the island and led to the appointment of Proprietary Governors to establish colonial settlements on the island from 1610 to 1728. John Guy became governor of the first settlement at Cuper's Cove. Other settlements included Bristol's Hope, Renews, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon (which became a province in 1623). The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638.

Explorers quickly realized the waters around Newfoundland had the best fishing in the North Atlantic.[59][need quotation to verify] By 1620, 300 fishing boats worked the Grand Banks, employing some 10,000 sailors; many continuing to come from the Basque Country, Normandy, or Brittany. They dried and salted cod on the coast and sold it to Spain and Portugal. Heavy investment by Sir George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, in the 1620s in wharves, warehouses, and fishing stations failed to pay off. French raids hurt the business, and the weather was terrible, so he redirected his attention to his other colony in Maryland.[60] After Calvert left, small-scale entrepreneurs such as Sir David Kirke made good use of the facilities.[61] Kirke became the first governor of Newfoundland in 1638. A triangular trade with New England, the West Indies, and Europe gave Newfoundland an important economic role.[citation needed] By the 1670s, there were 1,700 permanent residents and another 4,500 in the summer months.[62]

In 1655, France appointed a governor in Plaisance (Placentia), the former Basque fishing settlement, thus starting a formal French colonization period in Newfoundland[63] as well as a period of periodic war and unrest between England and France in the region. The Miꞌkmaq, as allies of the French, were amenable to limited French settlement in their midst and fought alongside them against the English. English attacks on Placentia provoked retaliation by New France explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville who during King William's War in the 1690s destroyed nearly every English settlement on the island. The entire population of the English colony was either killed, captured for ransom, or sentenced to expulsion to England, with the exception of those who withstood the attack at Carbonear Island and those in the then remote Bonavista.

After France lost political control of the area after the Siege of Port Royal in 1710, the Miꞌkmaq engaged in warfare with the British throughout Dummer's War (1722–1725), King George's War (1744–1748), Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755) and the French and Indian War (1754–1763). The French colonization period lasted until the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession: France ceded to the British its claims to Newfoundland (including its claims to the shores of Hudson Bay) and to the French possessions in Acadia. Afterward, under the supervision of the last French governor, the French population of Plaisance moved to Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island), part of Acadia which remained then under French control.

In the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), France had acknowledged British ownership of the island. However, in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), control of Newfoundland once again became a major source of conflict between Britain, France and Spain who all pressed for a share in the valuable fishery there. Britain's victories around the globe led William Pitt to insist nobody other than Britain should have access to Newfoundland. The Battle of Signal Hill was fought on September 15, 1762, and was the last battle of the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. A British force under Lieutenant Colonel William Amherst recaptured St. John's,[64] which the French had seized three months earlier in a surprise attack.

A French invasion of the Newfoundland was repulsed during the Battle of Signal Hill in 1762.

From 1763 to 1767 James Cook made a detailed survey of the coasts of Newfoundland and southern Labrador while commander of HMS Grenville. (The following year, 1768, Cook began his first circumnavigation of the world.) In 1796 a Franco-Spanish expedition again succeeded in raiding the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, destroying many of the settlements.

By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), French fishermen gained the right to land and cure fish on the "French Shore" on the western coast. (They had a permanent base on nearby St. Pierre and Miquelon islands; the French gave up their French Shore rights in 1904.) In 1783 the British signed the Treaty of Paris with the United States that gave American fishermen similar rights along the coast. These rights were reaffirmed by treaties in 1818, 1854 and 1871 and confirmed by arbitration in 1910.

The United Irish Conspiracy and Catholic Emancipation[edit]

The founding proprietor of the Province of Avalon, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, intended that it should serve as a refuge for his persecuted Roman Catholic co-religionists. But like his other colony in the Province of Maryland on the American mainland, it soon passed out of the Calvert family's control. The majority Catholic population that developed, thanks to Irish immigration, in St. John's and the Avalon Peninsula, was subjected to same disabilities that applied elsewhere under the British Crown. On visiting St. John's in 1786, Prince William Henry (the future King William IV) noted that "there are ten Roman Catholics to one Protestant",[65] and he counselled against any measure of Catholic relief.[66]

Following news of rebellion in Ireland, in June 1798 Governor Vice-Admiral Waldegrave cautioned London that the English constituted but a "small proportion" of the locally raised Royal Newfoundland Regiment. In an echo of an earlier Irish conspiracy during the French occupation of St. John's in 1762, in April 1800 the authorities had reports that upwards of 400 men had taken an oath as United Irishmen, and that eighty soldiers were committed to killing their officers and seizing their Anglican governors at Sunday service.[67]

The abortive mutiny (for which 8 were hanged) may have been less a United Irish plot, than an act of desperation in the face of brutal living conditions and officer tyranny. Many of the Irish reserve soldiers were forced to remain on duty, unable to return to the fisheries that supported their families.[68][67] Yet the Newfoundland Irish would have been aware of the agitation in the homeland for civil equality and political rights.[69] There were reports of communication with United men in Ireland from before '98 rebellion;[69] of Thomas Paine's pamphlets circulating in St. John's;[70] and, despite the war with France, of hundreds of young Waterford men still making a seasonal migration to the island for the fisheries, among them defeated rebels who are said to have "added fuel to the fire" of local grievance.[71]

When news reached Newfoundland in May 1829 that the United Kingdom Parliament had finally conceded Catholic emancipation, the locals assumed that Catholics would now pass unhindered into the ranks of public office and enjoy equality with Protestants. There was a celebratory parade and mass in St. John's, and a gun salute from vessels in the harbour. But the attorney general and supreme court justices determined that as Newfoundland was a colony, and not a province of the United Kingdom, the Roman Catholic Relief Act did not apply. The discrimination was a matter of local ordinance.

It was not until May 1832 that the British Secretary of State for the Colonies formally stated that a new commission would be issued to Governor Cochrane to remove any and all Roman Catholic disabilities in Newfoundland.[72] By then Catholic emancipation was bound up (as in Ireland) with the call for home rule.

Self-governing colony[edit]

After the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, France and other nations reentered the fish trade and an abundance of cod glutted international markets. Prices dropped, competition increased, and the colony's profits evaporated. A string of harsh winters between 1815 and 1817 made living conditions even more difficult, while fires at St. John's in 1817 left thousands homeless.[73] At the same a new wave of immigration from Ireland increased the Catholic population. In these circumstances much of the English and Protestant proprietor class tended to shelter behind the appointed, and Anglican, "naval government".[74]

A broad home-rule coalition of Irish community leaders and (Scottish and Welsh) Methodists formed in 1828. Expressing, initially, the concerns of a new middle class over taxation, it was led by William Carson, a Scottish physician, and Patrick Morris, an Irish merchant. In 1825 the British government granted Newfoundland and Labrador official colonial status and appointed Sir Thomas Cochrane as its first civil governor. Partly carried by the wave of reform in Britain, a colonial legislature in St. John's, together with the promise of Catholic emancipation, followed in 1832. Carson made his goal for Newfoundland clear: "We shall rise into a national existence, having a national character, a nation's feelings, assuming that rank among our neighbours which the political situation and the extent of our island demand".[74]

Standing as Liberals, the reformers sought to break the Anglican monopoly on government patronage and to tax the fisheries to fund the judiciary, road-building projects, and other expenses. They were opposed by the Conservatives (the "Tories"), who largely represented the Anglican establishment and mercantile interests. While Tories dominated the governor's appointed Executive Council, Liberals generally held the majority of seats in the elected House of Assembly.[75]

Economic conditions remained harsh. As in Ireland, the potato which made possible a steady growth in population failed as a result of the Phytophthora infestans blight. The number of deaths from the 1846–1848 Newfoundland potato famine remains unknown, but there was pervasive hunger. Along with other half-hearted measures to relieve the distress, Governor John Gaspard Le Marchant declared a "Day of Public Fasting and Humiliation" in hopes the Almighty may pardon their sins and "withdraw his afflicting hand."[76] The wave of post-famine emigration from Ireland notably passed over Newfoundland.

Fisheries revived, and the devolution of responsibilities from London continued. In 1854 the British government established Newfoundland's first responsible government,[77] an executive accountable to the colonial legislature. In 1855, with an Assembly majority, the Liberals under Philip Francis Little (the first Roman Catholic to practise law in St. John's). formed Newfoundland's first parliamentary government (1855–1858). Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. The Islanders were preoccupied with land issues—the Escheat movement with its call to suppress absentee landlordism in favour of the tenant farmer. Canada offered little in the way of solutions.[78]

From the 1880s, as cod fishery fell into severe decline, there was large-scale emigration. While some people, working abroad, left their homes on a seasonal or temporary basis more began to leave permanently. Most emigrants (largely Catholic and of Irish descent) moved to Canada, many to find work in the steel plants and coal mines of Nova Scotia. There was also a considerable outflow to the United States and, in particular, to New England.[79]

In 1892 St. John's burned. The Great Fire left 12,000 homeless. In 1894, the two commercial banks in Newfoundland collapsed. These bankruptcies left a vacuum that was subsequently filled by Canadian chartered banks, a change that subordinated Newfoundland to Canadian monetary policies.[78]

Dominion of Newfoundland[edit]

Members of the 1st Newfoundland Regiment at the Battle of Albert, 1916

In 1907, Newfoundland acquired Dominion status[80] as a self-governing state within the association of states referred to as the British Empire or British Commonwealth. The British monarch remained the "sovereign" but the crown's authority was exercised through the Newfoundland cabinet accountable solely to the legislature in St. John's.[80]

Newfoundland's own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War. On July 1, 1916, nearly the entire regiment was wiped out at Beaumont-Hamel on the first day on the Somme.[81] The regiment, which the Dominion government had chosen to raise, equip, and train at its own expense, was resupplied and went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix "Royal". Despite people's pride in the accomplishments of the regiment, the Dominion's war debt due to the regiment, and the cost of maintaining a trans-island railway that had been intended to open the interior to logging and farming, led to increased and ultimately unsustainable government debt in the post-war era.[82]

Since the early 1800s, Newfoundland and Quebec (or Lower Canada) had been in a border dispute over the Labrador region. In 1927, the British government ruled that the area known as modern-day Labrador was to be considered part of the Dominion of Newfoundland.[80]

When in January 1919, Sinn Féin formed the Dáil Éireann in Dublin, the Irish Question and local sectarian tensions resurfaced in Newfoundland. Many Catholics of Irish descent in St. John's joined the local branch of the Self-Determination for Ireland League (SDIL).[83] Although tempered by expression of loyalty to the Empire, the League's vocal support for Irish self-government was opposed by the local Orange Order. Claiming to represent 20,000 "loyal citizens", the Order was comprised almost exclusively of Anglicans or Methodists of English descent.[84] Tensions ran sufficiently high that Catholic Archbishop Edward Roche felt constrained to caution League organisers against the hazards of "a sectarian war."[83][85]

Following the stock market crash in 1929, the international market for much of Newfoundland and Labrador's goods decreased dramatically. In 1930, the country earned $40 million from its exports; that number dropped to $23.3 million in 1933. The fishery suffered particularly heavy losses as dried cod that sold for $8.90 a quintal in 1929 fetched only half that amount by 1932.[82]

Commission of Government and Canadian Confederation[edit]

People in front of the Colonial Building protesting against economic conditions, 1932. In the next year, the government of Newfoundland collapsed, and the British government resumed direct control over Newfoundland.

Against the background of the precipitous loss in fisheries income, the level of debt Newfoundland carried from the Great War and from construction of the Newfoundland Railway proved unsustainable. In 1931, the Dominion defaulted.[82]

The solution, accepted by legislature in 1933, was to accept a de facto return to direct colonial rule.[86] In exchange for loan guarantees by the Crown and a promise that self-government would in time be re-established, the legislature in St. John's voted itself out of existence.[87]: 8–10 [88] On February 16, 1934, the Commission of Government was sworn in, ending 79 years of responsible government.[86] The Commission consisted of seven persons appointed by the British government. For 15 years, no elections took place, and no legislature was convened.[89]

When prosperity returned with World War II, agitation began to end the Commission and reinstate responsible government.[90] Instead, the British government created the National Convention in 1946, reflecting the efforts toward self-determination that arose in Europe following the war. The Convention, chaired by Judge Cyril J. Fox, consisted of 45 elected members from across the dominion and was formally tasked with advising on the future of Newfoundland.

Several motions were made by Joey Smallwood (a convention member who later served as the first provincial premier of Newfoundland[91]) to examine joining Canada by sending a delegation to Ottawa.[91] The first motion was defeated, although the Convention later decided to send delegations to both London and Ottawa to explore alternatives.[92][93] In January 1948, the National Convention voted against adding the issue of Confederation to the referendum 29 to 16, but the British, who controlled the National Convention and the subsequent referendum, overruled this move.[87] Those who supported Confederation were extremely disappointed with the recommendations of the National Convention and organized a petition, signed by more than 50,000 Newfoundlanders, demanding that Confederation with Canada be placed before the people in the upcoming referendum. As most historians agree, the British government keenly wanted Confederation on the ballot and ensured its inclusion.[94]

Three main factions actively campaigned during the lead-up to the referenda. Smallwood led the Confederate Association (CA), advocating entry into the Canadian Confederation. They campaigned through a newspaper known as The Confederate. The Responsible Government League (RGL), led by Peter Cashin, advocated an independent Newfoundland with a return to responsible government. Their newspaper was The Independent. A third, the smaller Economic Union Party (EUP), led by Chesley Crosbie, advocated closer economic ties with the United States. Though a 1947 poll found 80% of Newfoundland residents wanting to become Americans,[95] the EUP failed to gain much support and after the first referendum merged with the RGL.[96]

Joey Smallwood signing a document bringing Newfoundland into the Canadian Confederation, 1948

The first referendum took place on June 3, 1948; 44.6% of people voted for responsible government, 41.1% voted for confederation with Canada, while 14.3% voted for the Commission of Government. Since none of the choices had gained more than 50%, a second referendum with only the two more popular choices was held on July 22, 1948. The official outcome of that referendum was 52.3% for confederation with Canada and 47.7% for responsible (independent) government.[97] After the referendum, the British governor named a seven-man delegation to negotiate Canada's offer on behalf of Newfoundland. After six of the delegation signed, the British government passed the British North America Act, 1949 through the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Newfoundland officially joined Canada at midnight on March 31, 1949.[97]

As documents in British and Canadian archives became available in the 1980s, it became evident that both Canada and the United Kingdom had wanted Newfoundland to join Canada. Some have charged it was a conspiracy to manoeuvre Newfoundland into Confederation in exchange for forgiveness of Britain's war debt and for other considerations.[87]: 68  Yet, most historians who have examined the relevant documents have concluded that, while Britain engineered the inclusion of a Confederation option in the referendum, Newfoundlanders made the final decision themselves, if by a narrow margin.[98]

Following the referendum, there was a rumour that the referendum had been narrowly won by the "responsible government" side, but that the result had been fixed by the British governor.[87]: 225–26  Shortly after the referendum, several boxes of ballots from St. John's were burned by order of Herman William Quinton, one of only two commissioners who supported confederation.[87]: 224  Some have argued that independent oversight of the vote tallying was lacking, though the process was supervised by respected Corner Brook Magistrate Nehemiah Short, who had also overseen elections to the National Convention.[87]: 224–25 

The Resettlement programs, 1954-1975, and since 2002[edit]

From the early 1950s the provincial government pursued a policy of population transfer by centralizing the rural population. A resettlement of the many isolated communities scattered along Newfoundland's coasts was seen as a way to save rural Newfoundland by moving people to what were referred to as "growth centres". It was believed this would allow the government to provide more and better public services such as education, health care, roads and electricity. The resettlement policy was also expected that the move would create more employment opportunities outside of the fishery, or in spinoff industries, which meant a stronger and more modern fishing industry for those remaining in it.[99]

Three attempts of resettlement were initiated by the Government between 1954 and 1975 which resulted in the abandonment of 300 communities and nearly 30,000 people moved.[100] Denounced as poorly resourced and as an historic injustice,[99] resettlement has been viewed as possibly the most controversial government policy of the post-Confederation Newfoundland and Labrador.[100]

Many of the remaining small rural outports were hit by the 1992 cod moratorium. Loss of an important source of income caused widespread out-migration.[101] In the 21st century, the Community Relocation Policy allows for voluntary relocation of isolated settlements. Eight communities have moved since 2002.[102] At the end of 2019, the decommissioning of ferry and hydroelectricity services ended settlement on the Little Bay Islands.[103][104]

21st century: climate change[edit]

In the new century, the provincial government is anticipating the challenges of global warming. Locally average annual temperatures are variously estimated to be already between 0.8 °C[105] and 1.5 °C above historical norms[106] and the frequency of hurricanes and tropical storms have doubled in comparison to the last century. As a result, the province is experiencing increased permafrost melt, flooding, and infrastructure damage, reduced sea ice, and greater risk from new invasive species and infectious diseases.[105]

The government believes that in just fifty years (2000–2050), temperatures in Newfoundland will have risen by two and a half to three degrees in summer, three and a half to five degrees in winter, and that in Labrador warming will be even more severe. Under those conditions the winter season could shorten by as much as four to five weeks in some locations and that extreme storm events could result in an increase of precipitation by over 20 per cent or more, enhancing the likelihood and magnitude of flooding. Meanwhile, sea levels are anticipated to rise by a half meter, putting coastal infrastructure at risk. Against these hazards, the government sets the province's "vast renewable [wind, sea and hydro] energy resources" with their potential to reduce carbon emissions in the province and elsewhere.[105]

A major hydro-generation project at Muskrat Falls is scheduled for completion at the end of 2021.[107] Theoretically it could replace all the province's existing hydro-carbon sources of electricity. On the other hand, critics note that, in the decade to 2030, the government plans to double offshore oil production, significantly adding to emissions.[108]

The COVID-19 pandemic[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic in Newfoundland and Labrador is ongoing. The province announced its first presumptive case on March 14, 2020, and declared a public health emergency on March 18. Health orders, including the closure of non-essential businesses, and mandatory self-isolation for all travelers entering the province (including from within Canada) were enacted over the days that followed.[109]

As of November 10, 2021, there have been 2,019 recorded cases of persons testing positive for the virus, including sixteen deaths.[110] Restricted entry into the province lifted on July 1, 2021. Fully vaccinated travelers can now enter the province without having to isolate for 14 days. Those who are unvaccinated or partially vaccinated will have to isolate for 14 days, and are able to receive a Covid test on Days 7 through 9 of their isolation if they wish.[111]


Population density of Newfoundland and Labrador


Historical populations
1825 55,719—    
1836 75,094+34.8%
1845 96,295+28.2%
1851 101,600+5.5%
1857 124,288+22.3%
1869 146,536+17.9%
1874 161,374+10.1%
1884 197,335+22.3%
1891 202,040+2.4%
1901 220,984+9.4%
1911 242,619+9.8%
1921 263,033+8.4%
1935 289,588+10.1%
Source:[112][113] and Statistics Canada

As of January 1, 2021, Newfoundland and Labrador had a population of 520,438.[114] More than half the population lives on the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland, site of the capital and historical early settlement.[115] Since 2006, the population of the province has started to increase for the first time since the early 1990s. In the 2006 census the population of the province decreased by 1.5% compared to 2001, and stood at 505,469.[116] But, by the 2011 census, the population had risen by 1.8%.[117]

The largest single religious denomination by number of adherents according to the 2011 National Household Survey was the Roman Catholic Church, at 35.8% of the province's population (181,590 members). The major Protestant denominations made up 57.3% of the population, with the largest groups being the Anglican Church of Canada at 25.1% of the total population (127,255 members), the United Church of Canada at 15.5% (78,380 members), and the Pentecostal churches at 6.5% (33,195 members), with other Protestant denominations in much smaller numbers. Non-Christians constituted only 6.8% of the population, with the majority of those respondents indicating "no religious affiliation" (6.2% of the population).[118]

According to the 2001 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Newfoundland and Labrador is English (39.4%), followed by Irish (19.7%), Scots (6.0%), French (5.5%) and First Nations (3.2%).[119] While half of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian", 38% report their ethnicity as "Newfoundlander" in a 2003 Statistics Canada Ethnic Diversity Survey.[120]

More than 100,000 Newfoundlanders have applied for membership in the Qalipu Miꞌkmaq First Nation Band, equivalent to one-fifth of the total population.[121]

At the beginning of 2021 Newfoundland and Labrador started accepting applications for a Priority Skills immigration program.[122] Focussing on highly educated, highly skilled newcomers with specialized experience in areas where demand has outpaced local training and recruitment, such as technology and ocean sciences occupations, the government hopes the program will attract 2,500 new permanent residents annually.[123]

Municipality 2006 2011 2016
St. John's 100,646 106,172 108,860
Conception Bay South 21,966 24,848 26,199
Mount Pearl 24,671 24,284 22,957
Paradise 12,584 17,695 21,389
Corner Brook 20,083 19,886 19,806
Grand Falls-Windsor 13,558 13,725 14,171
Gander 9,951 11,054 11,688
Portugal Cove-St. Philip's 6,575 7,366 8,147
Happy Valley-Goose Bay 7,519 7,572 8,109
Torbay 6,281 7,397 7,899
Table source: Statistics Canada


Newfoundland English is a term referring to any of several accents and dialects of the English language found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Most of these differ substantially from the English commonly spoken elsewhere in neighbouring Canada and the North Atlantic. Many Newfoundland dialects are similar to the dialects of the West Country in England, particularly the city of Bristol and counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Hampshire and Somerset, while other Newfoundland dialects resemble those of Ireland's southeastern counties, particularly Waterford, Wexford, Kilkenny and Cork. Still others blend elements of both, and there is also a discernible influence of Scottish English.[124] While the Scots came in smaller numbers than the English and Irish, they had a large influence on Newfoundland society.[125][126][127]

Newfoundland was also the only place outside Europe to have its own distinct name in the Irish language: Talamh an Éisc, which means 'land of the [one] fish'. The Irish language is now extinct in Newfoundland. Scots Gaelic was also once spoken in the southwest of Newfoundland, following the settlement there, from the middle of the 19th century, of small numbers of Gaelic-speaking Scots from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Some 150 years later, the language has not entirely disappeared, although it has no fluent speakers.[128]

A vestigial community of French speakers exists on Newfoundland's Port au Port Peninsula—a remnant of the "French Shore" along the island's west coast.[129]

Several aboriginal languages are spoken in the Province, representing the Algonquian (Miꞌkmaq and Innu) and Eskimo-Aleut (Inuktitut) linguistic families.[129]

Languages of the population - mother tongue (2011)

Rank Language Respondents Percentage
1. English 498,095 97.7
2. French 2,745 0.5
3. Innu-aimun 1,585 0.3
4. Chinese 1,080 0.2
5. Spanish 670 0.16
6. German 655 0.15
7. Inuktitut 595 0.1
8. Urdu 550 0.1
9. Arabic 540 0.1
10. Dutch 300 < 0.1
11. Russian 225 < 0.1
12. Italian 195 < 0.1


The Voisey's Bay Mine is one of several mines located in the province.

For many years, Newfoundland and Labrador had experienced a depressed economy. Following the collapse of the cod fishery during the early 1990s, the province suffered record unemployment rates and the population decreased by roughly 60,000.[130][131] Due to a major energy and resources boom, the provincial economy has had a major turnaround since the turn of the 21st century.[132] Unemployment rates decreased, the population stabilized and had moderate growth. The province has gained record surpluses, which has rid it of its status as a "have not" province.[133][134]

Economic growth, gross domestic product (GDP), exports, and employment resumed in 2010, after suffering the impacts of the late-2000s recession. In 2010, total capital investment in the province grew to C$6.2 billion, an increase of 23.0% compared to 2009. 2010 GDP reached $28.1 billion, compared to $25.0 billion in 2009.[135]

Service industries accounted for the largest share of GDP, especially financial services, health care and public administration. Other significant industries are mining, oil production and manufacturing. The total labour force in 2018 was 261,400 people.[136] Per capita GDP in 2017 was $62,573, higher than the national average and third only to Alberta and Saskatchewan out of Canadian provinces.[137]

Mines in Labrador, the iron ore mine at Wabush/Labrador City, and the nickel mine in Voisey's Bay produced a total of $3.3 billion worth of ore in 2010.[135] A mine at Duck Pond (30 km (19 mi)) south of the now-closed mine at Buchans), started producing copper, zinc, silver and gold in 2007, and prospecting for new ore bodies continues.[138] Mining accounted for 3.5% of the provincial GDP in 2006.[139] The province produces 55% of Canada's total iron ore.[140] Quarries producing dimension stone such as slate and granite, account for less than $10 million worth of material per year.[141]

The Hebron oil platform, before being towed out to the Grand Banks

Oil production from offshore oil platforms on the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova oil fields on the Grand Banks was of 110 million bbl (17 million m3), which contributed to more than 15 per cent of the province's GDP in 2006. Total production from the Hibernia field from 1997 to 2006 was 733 million bbl (116.5 million m3) with an estimated value of $36 billion. This will increase with the inclusion of the latest project, Hebron. Remaining reserves are estimated at almost 2 Gbbl (320 million m3) as of December 31, 2006. Exploration for new reserves is ongoing.[139] On June 16, 2009, provincial premier Danny Williams announced a tentative agreement to expand the Hibernia oil field. The government negotiated a 10 per cent equity stake in the Hibernia South expansion, which will add an estimated $10 billion to Newfoundland and Labrador's treasury.[142]

Newsprint is produced by one paper mill in Corner Brook with a capacity of 420,000 tonnes (460,000 tons) per year. The value of newsprint exports varies greatly from year to year, depending on the global market price. Lumber is produced by numerous mills in Newfoundland. Apart from seafood processing, paper manufacture and oil refining,[143] manufacturing in the province consists of smaller industries producing food,[144] brewing and other beverage production.

The fishing industry remains an important part of the provincial economy, employing roughly 20,000 and contributing over $440 million to the GDP. The combined harvest of fish such as cod, haddock, halibut, herring and mackerel was 92,961 tonnes in 2017, with a combined value of $141 million. Shellfish, such as crab, shrimp and clams, accounted for 101,922 tonnes in the same year, yielding $634 million. The value of products from the seal hunt was $1.9 million.[145] In 2015, aquaculture produced over 22,000 tonnes of Atlantic salmon, mussels and steelhead trout worth over $161 million. Oyster production is also forthcoming.[146]

Agriculture in Newfoundland is limited to areas south of St. John's, Cormack, Wooddale, areas near Musgravetown and in the Codroy Valley. Potatoes, rutabagas, turnips, carrots and cabbage are grown for local consumption. Poultry and eggs are also produced. Wild blueberries, partridgeberries (lingonberries) and bakeapples (cloudberries) are harvested commercially and used in jams and wine making.[147] Dairy production is another huge part of the Newfoundland Agriculture Industry.

Tourism is also a significant contributor to the province's economy. In 2006 nearly 500,000 non-resident tourists visited Newfoundland and Labrador, spending an estimated $366 million.[139] In 2017, non-resident tourists spent an estimated $575 million.[148] Tourism is most popular throughout the months of June–September, the warmest months of the year with the longest hours of daylight.[citation needed]

Government and politics[edit]

Newfoundland and Labrador is governed by a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Newfoundland and Labrador is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[149] The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 14 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces and the Canadian federal realm; she resides in the United Kingdom. The Queen's representative in Newfoundland and Labrador is the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador, presently Judy Foote.[150]

The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in governance is limited; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Executive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected House of Assembly. The Council is chosen and headed by the Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador, the head of government.[151] After each general election, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the leader of the political party that has a majority or plurality in the House of Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[152]

Each of the 40 Members of the House of Assembly (MHA) is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district. General elections must be called by the lieutenant governor on the second Tuesday in October four years after the previous election, or may be called earlier, on the advice of the premier, should the government lose a confidence vote in the legislature.[153] Traditionally, politics in the province have been dominated by both the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservative Party. However, in the 2011 provincial election the New Democratic Party, which had only ever attained minor success, had a major breakthrough and placed second in the popular vote behind the Progressive Conservatives.[154]



Before 1950, the visual arts were a minor aspect of Newfoundland cultural life, compared with the performing arts such as music or theatre. Until about 1900, most art was the work of visiting artists, who included members of the Group of Seven, Rockwell Kent and Eliot O'Hara. Artists such as Newfoundland-born Maurice Cullen and Robert Pilot travelled to Europe to study art in prominent ateliers.[155]

Photograph of an artist sketching St. John's harbour and skyline, c. 1890

By the turn of the 20th century, amateur art was made by people living and working in the province. These artists included J.W. Hayward and his son Thomas B. Hayward, Agnes Marian Ayre, and Harold B. Goodridge, the last of whom worked on a number of mural commissions, notably one for the lobby of the Confederation Building in St. John's.[156] Local art societies became prominent in the 1940s, particularly The Art Students Club, which opened in 1940.[157]

After Newfoundland and Labrador joined Canada in 1949, government grants fostered a supportive environment for visual artists, primarily painters. The visual arts of the province developed significantly in the second half of the century, with the return of young Newfoundland artists whom had studied abroad. Amongst the first were Rae Perlin, who studied at the Art Students League in New York, and Helen Parsons Shepherd and her husband Reginald Shepherd, who both graduated from the Ontario College of Art.[156] The Shepherds established the province's first art school, the Newfoundland Academy of Art, in a home in downtown St. John's.[158]

Newfoundland-born painters Christopher Pratt and Mary Pratt (painter) returned to the province in 1961 to work at the newly established Memorial University Art Gallery as its first curator, later transitioning to painting full-time in Salmonier. Wesleyville's David Blackwood graduated from the Ontario College of Art in the early 1960s and achieved acclaim with his images of Newfoundland culture and history, though he no longer resides in the province. Newfoundland-born artist Gerald Squires returned in 1969.[156]

The creation of The Memorial University Extension Services and St. Michael's Printshop in the 1960s and 1970s attracted a number of visual artists to the province to teach and create art. Similarly, the school in Hibb's Hole (now Hibb's Cove), established by painter George Noseworthy, brought professional artists such as Anne Meredith Barry to the province.[159] A notable artist during this period is Marlene Creates.[156]

The Rooms is a provincial cultural facility that houses the provincial art gallery.

From 1980 to present, opportunities for artists continued to develop, as galleries such as the Art Gallery of Newfoundland and Labrador (which later became The Rooms Provincial Art Gallery), the Resource Centre for the Arts, and Eastern Edge were established. Fine arts education programs were established at post-secondary institutions such as Sir Wilfred Grenfell College in Corner Brook, the Western Community College (now College of the North Atlantic) in Stephenville, and the Anna Templeton Centre in St. John's.[160]

Newfoundland and Labrador's arts community is recognized nationally and internationally. The creation of Fogo Island Arts in 2008 on Fogo Island created a residency-based contemporary art program for artists, filmmakers, writers, musicians, curators, designers, and thinkers.[161] In 2013 and 2015, the province was represented at the Venice Biennale as Official Collateral Projects.[162] In 2015, Philippa Jones became the first Newfoundland and Labrador artist to be included in the National Gallery of Canada contemporary art biennial.[163] Other notable contemporary artists who have received national and international attention include Will Gill, Kym Greeley, Ned Pratt and Peter Wilkins.

As of 2011, a study documented approximately 1,200 artists, representing 0.47% of the province's labour force.[164]


Newfoundland and Labrador has a folk musical heritage based on the Irish, English and Scottish traditions that were brought to its shores centuries ago. Though similar in its Celtic influence to neighbouring Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador are more Irish than Scottish, and have more elements imported from English and French music than those provinces.[165] Much of the region's music focuses on the strong seafaring tradition in the area, and includes sea shanties and other sailing songs. Some modern traditional musicians include Great Big Sea, The Ennis Sisters, The Dardanelles, Ron Hynes and Jim Payne.

The Newfoundland Symphony Orchestra began in St. John's in 1962 as a 20-piece string orchestra known as the St. John's Orchestra.[166] Principals from this form a string quartet which performs regularly. A school of music at Memorial University schedules a variety of concerts and has a chamber orchestra and jazz band.[167] Two members of its faculty, Nancy Dahn on violin and Timothy Steeves on piano, perform as Duo Concertante[168] and are responsible for establishing an annual music festival in August, the Tuckamore Festival.[169] Both the school of music and Opera on the Avalon[170] produce operatic works. Memorial's Research Centre for the Study of Music, Media, and Place, houses Memorial's graduate program in ethnomusicology. A leading institution for research in ethnomusicology, the Centre offers academic lectures, scholarly residencies, conferences, symposia, and outreach activities to the province on music and culture.


The pre-confederation and current provincial anthem is the "Ode to Newfoundland", written by British colonial governor Sir Charles Cavendish Boyle in 1902 during his administration of Newfoundland (1901 to 1904). It was adopted as the official Newfoundland anthem on May 20, 1904. In 1980, the province re-adopted the song as an official provincial anthem, making this the only province in Canada to officially adopt an anthem. "The Ode to Newfoundland" is still sung at public events in Newfoundland and Labrador.


Prose fiction[edit]

Michael Crummey is a contemporary novelist from Newfoundland and Labrador.

Margaret Duley (1894–1968) was Newfoundland's first novelist to gain an international audience. Her works include The Eyes of the Gull (1936), Cold Pastoral (1939) and Highway to Valour (1941).[171] Subsequent novelists include Harold Horwood, author of Tomorrow Will Be Sunday (1966) and White Eskimo (1972), and Percy Janes, author of House of Hate (1970).[172]

Contemporary novelists[edit]

Michael Crummey's debut novel, River Thieves (2001), became a Canadian bestseller.[173] Other novels include The Wreckage (2005) and Galore (2009).[173]

Wayne Johnston's fiction deals primarily with the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often in a historical setting.[174] His novels include The Story of Bobby O'Malley, The Time of Their Lives,[175][better source needed] and The Divine Ryans,[176] which was made into a movie. The Colony of Unrequited Dreams was a historical portrayal of Newfoundland politician Joey Smallwood.[177][178]

Lisa Moore's first two books, Degrees of Nakedness (1995) and Open (2002), are short-story collections. Her first novel, Alligator (2005), is set in St. John's and incorporates her Newfoundland heritage.[179] February tells the story of Helen O'Mara, who lost her husband Cal on the oil rig Ocean Ranger, which sank off the coast of Newfoundland during a Valentine's Day storm in 1982.[180]

Other contemporary novelists include Joel Thomas Hynes, author of We'll All Be Burnt in Our Beds Some Night (2017), Jessica Grant, author of Come Thou Tortoise (2009), and Kenneth J. Harvey, author of The Town That Forgot How to Breathe (2003), Inside (2006) and Blackstrap Hawco (2008).


E. J. Pratt wrote a number of poems describing maritime life and the history of Canada.

The earliest works of poetry in British North America, mainly written by visitors and targeted at a European audience, described the new territories in optimistic terms. One of the first works was Robert Hayman's Quodlibets, a collection of verses composed in Newfoundland and published in 1628.

After World War II, Newfoundland poet E. J. Pratt described the struggle to make a living from the sea in poems about maritime life and the history of Canada. In 1923, his first commercial poetry collection, Newfoundland Verse, was released.[181] It is frequently archaic in diction, and reflects a pietistic and late-Romantic lyrical sensibility. The collection has humorous and sympathetic portraits of Newfoundland characters, and creates an elegiac mood in poems concerning sea tragedies or Great War losses.[182] With illustrations by Group of Seven member Frederick Varley, Newfoundland Verse proved to be Pratt's "breakthrough collection". He went on to publish 18 more books of poetry in his lifetime.[183] "Recognition came with the narrative poems The Witches' Brew (1925), Titans (1926), and The Roosevelt and the Antinoe (1930), and though he published a substantial body of lyric verse, it is as a narrative poet that Pratt is remembered."[184] Pratt's poetry "frequently reflects his Newfoundland background, though specific references to it appear in relatively few poems, mostly in Newfoundland Verse", says The Canadian Encyclopedia. "But the sea and maritime life are central to many of his poems, for example, "The Cachalot" (1926), which describes duels between a whale and its foes, a giant squid and a whaling ship and crew.[185]

Amongst more recent poets are Tom Dawe, Al Pittman, Mary Dalton, Agnes Walsh, Patrick Warner[186] and John Steffler. Canadian poet Don McKay has resided in St. John's in recent years.[187]


"1967 marked the opening of the St. John's Arts and Culture Centre and the first all-Canadian Dominion Drama Festival. Playwrights across Canada began writing, and this explosion was also felt in Newfoundland and Labrador. Subregional festivals saw Newfoundland plays compete—Wreakers by Cassie Brown, Tomorrow Will Be Sunday by Tom Cahill, and Holdin' Ground by Ted Russell. Cahill's play went on to receive top honours and a performance at Expo 67 in Montreal. Joining Brown and Cahill in the seventies were Michael Cook and Al Pittman, both prolific writers".[188]


Provincial symbols
Official flower Pitcher plant
Official tree Black spruce
Official bird Atlantic puffin
Official horse Newfoundland pony
Official animal Caribou
Official game bird Ptarmigan
Official mineral Labradorite
Official dogs Newfoundland Dog and
Labrador Retriever
Provincial anthem "Ode to Newfoundland"
Provincial holiday June 24 Discovery Day
Patron saint John the Baptist
Official tartan
Great seal
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg
Simple arms of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg


Newfoundland and Labrador's present provincial flag, designed by Newfoundland artist Christopher Pratt, was officially adopted by the legislature on May 28, 1980, and first flown on "Discovery Day" that year.

The blue is meant to represent the sea, the white represents snow and ice, the red represents the efforts and struggles of the people, and the gold represents the confidence of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians. The blue triangles are a tribute to the Union Flag, and represent the British heritage of the province. The two red triangles represent Labrador (the mainland portion of the province) and the island. In Pratt's words, the golden arrow points towards a "brighter future".[189]

The Newfoundland Tricolour is an unofficial flag used by a number of Newfoundlanders.

What has commonly but mistakenly been called the Newfoundland tricolour "Pink, White and Green"(sic) is the flag of the Catholic Church affiliated Star of the Sea Association (SOSA). It originated in the late nineteenth century and enjoyed popularity among people who were under the impression that it was the Native Flag of Newfoundland which was created before 1852 by the Newfoundland Natives'Society. The true Native Flag (red-white-green tricolour) was widely flown into the late nineteenth century. Neither tricolour was ever adopted by the Newfoundland government.[190]

A 1976 article reported the tricolour flag was created in 1843 by then Roman Catholic Bishop of Newfoundland, Michael Anthony Fleming.[191] The colours were intended to represent the symbolic union of Newfoundland's historically dominant ethnic/religious groups: English, Scots and Irish.[191] Though popular, there is no historical evidence to support this legend. Recent scholarship suggests the green-white-pink flag was first used in the late 1870s or early 1880s by the Roman Catholic "Star of the Sea Association" a fishermen's aid and benefit organization established by the Catholic Church in 1871. It resembled the unofficial flag of Ireland. The tricolour flag remained relatively unknown outside of St. John's and the Avalon peninsula until the growth of the tourist industry since the late 20th century. It has been used as an emblem on items in gift shops in St. John's and other towns. Some tourists assume it is the Irish flag.

The "Pink, White and Green"(sic) has been adopted by some residents as a symbol of ties with Irish heritage and as a political statement. Many of the province's Protestants, who make up nearly 60% of the province's total population,[192] may not identify with this heritage. At the same time, many of the province's Catholics, approximately 37% of the total population (with at least 22% of the population claiming Irish ancestry),[125][193] think the current provincial flag does not satisfactorily represent them.[194] But, a government-sponsored poll in 2005 revealed that 75% of Newfoundlanders rejected adoption of the Tricolour flag as the province's official flag.[195]

The unofficial Flag of Labrador, used by a number of Labradorians

Labrador has its own unofficial flag, created in 1973 by Mike Martin, former Member of the Legislative Assembly for Labrador South.


Mile One Centre is an indoor arena in St. John's.

Newfoundland and Labrador has a somewhat different sports culture from the rest of Canada, owing in part to its long history separate from the rest of Canada and under British rule. Ice hockey, however, remains popular; a minor league professional team called the Newfoundland Growlers of the ECHL plays at the Mile One Centre in St. John's since the 2018–19 season. The area had an intermittent American Hockey League presence with the St. John's Maple Leafs then St. John's IceCaps until 2017, and the Newfoundland Senior Hockey League had teams around the island. Since the departure of the St. John's Fog Devils in 2008, Newfoundland and Labrador is the only province in Canada to not have a team in the major junior Canadian Hockey League (should one ever join it would be placed in the QMJHL, which hosted the Fog Devils and has jurisdiction over Atlantic Canada).

Association football (soccer) and rugby union are both more popular in Newfoundland and Labrador than the rest of Canada in general. Soccer is hosted at King George V Park, a 6,000-seat stadium built as Newfoundland's national stadium during the time as an independent dominion. Swilers Rugby Park is home of the Swilers RFC rugby union club, as well as the Atlantic Rock, one of the four regional teams in the Canadian Rugby Championship. Other sports facilities in Newfoundland and Labrador include Pepsi Centre, an indoor arena in Corner Brook; and St. Patrick's Park, a baseball park in St. John's.

Gridiron football, be it either American or Canadian, is almost nonexistent; it is the only Canadian province other than Prince Edward Island to have never hosted a Canadian Football League or Canadian Interuniversity Sport game, and it was not until 2013 the province saw its first amateur teams form.

Cricket was once a popular sport. The earliest mention is in the Newfoundland Mercantile Journal, Thursday September 16, 1824, indicating the St. John's Cricket Club was an established club at this time.[196] The St. John's Cricket club was one of the first cricket clubs in North America. Other centres were at Harbour Grace, Twillingate and Trinity. The heyday of the game was the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, at which time there was league in St. John's, as well as an interschool tournament. John Shannon Munn is Newfoundland's most famous cricketer, having represented Oxford University. After the first World War, cricket declined in popularity and was replaced by soccer and baseball. However, with the arrival of immigrants from the Indian subcontinent, cricket is once again gaining interest in the province.[197]


The Trans-Labrador Highway is the primary highway for Labrador.


Within the province, the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Transportation and Works operates or sponsors 15 automobile, passenger and freight ferry routes which connect various communities along the province's significant coastline.[198]

A regular passenger and car ferry service, lasting about 90 minutes, crosses the Strait of Belle Isle, connecting the province's island of Newfoundland with the region of Labrador on the mainland. The ferry MV Qajaq W travels from St. Barbe, Newfoundland on the Great Northern Peninsula to the port town of Blanc-Sablon, Quebec, located on the provincial border and beside the town of L'Anse-au-Clair, Labrador.[199] The MV Sir Robert Bond once provided seasonal ferry service between Lewisporte on the island and the towns of Cartwright and Happy Valley-Goose Bay in Labrador, but has not run since the completion of the Trans-Labrador Highway in 2010, allowing access from Blanc-Sablon, Quebec, to major parts of Labrador.[200] Several smaller ferries connect numerous other coastal towns and offshore island communities around the island of Newfoundland and up the Labrador coast as far north as Nain.[201]

MV Atlantic Vision is one of several ships that provides inter-provincial ferry service to Newfoundland.

Inter-provincial ferry services are provided by Marine Atlantic, a federal Crown corporation which operates auto-passenger ferries from North Sydney, Nova Scotia, to the towns of Port aux Basques and Argentia on the southern coast of Newfoundland island.[202]


The St. John's International Airport (YYT) and the Gander International Airport (YQX) are the only airports in the province that are part of the National Airports System.[203] The St. John's International Airport handles nearly 1.2 million passengers a year making it the busiest airport in the province and the eleventh busiest airport in Canada.[204] The airport is currently undergoing a major expansion of the terminal building which is scheduled to be complete in 2021.[205] The Deer Lake Airport (YDF) handles over 300,000 passengers a year.[206]


The Newfoundland Railway operated on the island of Newfoundland from 1898 to 1988. With a total track length of 906 miles (1,458 km), it was the longest 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow-gauge railway system in North America.[207]

Tshiuetin Rail Transportation operates passenger rail service on its Sept-Îles, Quebec, to Schefferville, Quebec, route, passing through Labrador and stopping in several towns.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Although the term Newfie is sometimes used in casual speech, some Newfoundlanders consider it a pejorative.


  1. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics Canada. February 2, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  2. ^ "Population by year of Canada of Canada and territories". Statistics Canada. September 26, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  3. ^ "The Legal Context of Canada's Official Languages". University of Ottawa. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  4. ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2011)". Statistics Canada. November 19, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  5. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Global Data Lab". Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  6. ^ "Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  7. ^ "Selected Demographic, Cultural, Educational, Labour Force and Income Characteristics (981), Mother Tongue (4), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (10), Age (8B) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  8. ^ "Newfoundland's name change now official". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. December 6, 2001. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
  9. ^ Hamilton, William B. (1978): The Macmillan book of Canadian place names, Macmillan of Canada, Toronto, p. 105.
  10. ^ "Geography and Climate". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
  11. ^ a b Bell, Trevor; Liverman, David. "Landscape (of Newfoundland and Labrador)". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  12. ^ a b "Atlas of Canada: Sea islands". Natural Resources Canada (Government of Canada). Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  13. ^ a b "About Newfoundland and Labrador: Land Area". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on October 3, 2006. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  14. ^ Bélanger, Claude. "Newfoundland Geography". Marianopolis College. Archived from the original on April 12, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  15. ^ "Location and Climate". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  16. ^ "Atlas of Canada: Land and Freshwater Areas". Natural Resources Canada (Government of Canada). Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  17. ^ "About Newfoundland and Labrador: Land Area". Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  18. ^ "Report on the State of Conservation of Gros Morne National Park". Parks Canada. Archived from the original on August 5, 2005. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  19. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site: Climate". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  20. ^ a b "Weather and Your Home: The Climate of Newfoundland". The Weather Network. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
  21. ^ "Climate Characteristics". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  22. ^ "Station Results - 1981-2010 Climate Normals and Averages". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  23. ^ a b c "The Climate of Newfoundland". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  24. ^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
  25. ^ Tuck, James A. "Museum Notes – The Maritime Archaic Tradition". "The Rooms" Provincial museum. Archived from the original on May 10, 2006. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  26. ^ a b c Bogucki, Peter I (1999). The Origins of Human Society. Blackwell. p. 139. ISBN 1-55786-349-0. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
  27. ^ "Museum Notes-The Maritime Archaic Tradition". By James A. Tuck-The Rooms Provincial Art Gallery. Archived from the original on May 10, 2006. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
  28. ^ Tuck, J. A. (1976). "Ancient peoples of Port au Choix". The excavation of an Archaic Indian Cemetery in Newfoundland. Newfoundland Social and Economic Studies 17. St. John's: Institute of Social and Economic Research. ISBN 0-919666-12-4.
  29. ^ a b c Ralph T. Pastore, "Aboriginal Peoples: Palaeo-Eskimo Peoples", Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage: Newfoundland and Labrador Studies Site 2205, 1998, Memorial University of Newfoundland
  30. ^ a b Wonders, William C (2003). Canada's Changing North. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 0-7735-2590-4.
  31. ^ a b c Marshall, Ingeborg (1998). A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-7735-1774-X.
  32. ^ Pritzker, Barry (2000). A Native American encyclopedia: history, culture, and peoples. Oxford University Press. p. 535. ISBN 0-19-513877-5. Inuit migration to labrador.
  33. ^ Smith, Eric Alden (1991). Inujjuamiut foraging strategies : evolutionary ecology of an arctic hunting economy. A. de Gruyter. p. 101. ISBN 0-202-01181-X.
  34. ^ a b Luebering, J E (2011). Native American History. Educational Britannica Educational. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-61530-265-9.
  35. ^ Magocsi, Paul R (2002). Aboriginal peoples of Canada: a short introduction. University of Toronto Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-8020-3630-9.
  36. ^ Hornborg, Anne-Christine (2007). Mi'kmaq landscapes: from animism to sacred ecology. Burlington, VT : Ashgate. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7546-6371-3.
  37. ^ William, Baillie Hamilton (1996). Place names of Atlantic Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8020-0471-7.
  38. ^ Wicken, William (2002). Mi'kmaq Treaties on Trial: History, Land and Donald Marshall Junior. University of Toronto Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8020-0718-X.
  39. ^ Holly, Jr., Donald H. (2000). "The Beothuk on the Eve of Their Extinction". Arctic Anthropology. 37 (1): 79–95. PMID 17722364.
  40. ^ Pálsson, Hermann (1965). The Vinland sagas: the Norse discovery of America. Penguin Classics. p. 28. ISBN 0-14-044154-9. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  41. ^ J. Sephton, (English, translation) (1880). "The Saga of Erik the Red". Icelandic Saga Database. Retrieved August 11, 2010.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  42. ^ "Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga". National Museum of Natural History, Arctic Studies Centre- (Smithsonian Institution). 2008. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
  43. ^ Diamond, Jared M (2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail Or Succeed. Penguin Books. p. 207. ISBN 0-14-303655-6. Retrieved April 16, 2010. Vikings Settle Helluland Markland.
  44. ^ Haugen, Einar (Professor emeritus of Scandinavian Studies, Harvard University). "Was Vinland in Newfoundland?". (Originally published in "Proceedings of the Eighth Viking Congress, Arhus. August 24–31, 1977". Edited by Hans Bekker-Nielsen, Peter Foote, Olaf Olsen. Odense University Press. 1981. Archived from the original on May 15, 2001. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
  45. ^ "L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site". UNESCO World Heritage Centre (United Nations). 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  46. ^ "L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada". Parks Canada. 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  48. ^ Bailey W. Diffie & George D. Winius (1977). Foundations of the Portuguese empire. University of Minnesota Press. p. 464. ISBN 0-8166-0782-6. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  49. ^ "John Cabot's voyage of 1498". Memorial University of Newfoundland (Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage). 2000. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  50. ^ Vigneras, L.-A. (1979) [1966]. "Corte-Real, Miguel". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  51. ^ Diffie, Bailey W; Winius, George D (1977). Foundations of the Portuguese empire. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 464–465. ISBN 0-8166-0782-6. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  52. ^ Sauer, Carl Ortwin, 1889-1975. (1971). Sixteenth century North America : the land and the people as seen by the Europeans. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-01854-0. OCLC 215780.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  53. ^ Freeman-Grenville (1975). Chronology of world history: a calendar of principal events from 3000 BC to. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 387. ISBN 0-87471-765-5.
  54. ^ Brian Cuthbertson, "John Cabot and His Historians: Five Hundred Years of Controversy." Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society 1998 1: 16–35. ISSN 1486-5920.
  55. ^ See Samuel Eliot Morison, The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages (1971)
  56. ^ Dawson, Joanna. "The 1563 Basque Will". Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  57. ^ Barkham, Michael M. "The Oldest Original Civil Document Written in Canada: The Last Will of Basque Sailor Domingo de Luca a, Placentia, Newfoundland, 1563" (PDF). Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  58. ^ Sugden, John (1990). Sir Francis Drake. Barrie & Jenkins. p. 118. ISBN 0-7126-2038-9.
  59. ^ Grant C. Head, Eighteenth Century Newfoundland: A Geographer's Perspective (1976)
  60. ^ Fraser, Allan M. (1979) [1966]. "Calvert, Sir George". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  61. ^ Compare: Moir, John S. (1979) [1966]. "Kirke, Sir David". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. In 1639 Sir David, as the first governor of Newfoundland, took possession of Baltimore's "Mansion House" and the other property at Ferryland.
  62. ^ Gordon W. Handcock, "So Longe as There Comes Noe Women": Origins of English Settlement in Newfoundland (1989)
  63. ^ "History of Placentia". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
  64. ^ "No. 10251". The London Gazette. October 9, 1762. p. 2.
  65. ^ Memorial University, Note 87: PWH to King, 21 September 1786, Later Correspondence of George III, Vol. 1, 251.
  66. ^ Newfoundland, Memorial University of. "Department of Religious Studies". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  67. ^ a b Mannion, John (January 1, 2000). ""... Notoriously disaffected to the Government..." British allegations of Irish disloyalty in eighteenth-century Newfoundland". Newfoundland and Labrador Studies. ISSN 1715-1430.
  68. ^ Fitzgerald, John Edward (2001). "The United Irish Uprising in Newfoundland, 1800". Heritage: Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  69. ^ a b ""The entire island is United..."". History Ireland. February 7, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  70. ^ Fitzgerald (2001), p. 25
  71. ^ Pedley, Rev. Charles (1863). The History of Newfoundland from the Earliest Times to 1860. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green. p. 210.
  72. ^ John P. Greene (1999), Between Damnation and Starvation: Priests and Merchants in Newfoundland Politics, 1745–1855, McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 9780773518803.
  73. ^ Higgins, Jenny (2009). "Reform Movement". Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage.
  74. ^ a b Thomsen, Robert Chr. (2005). "Democracy, Sectarianism and Denomi(-)nationalism: The Irish in Newfoundland". Nordic Irish Studies. 4: 13–27, 16. ISSN 1602-124X. JSTOR 30001517.
  75. ^ Higgins, Jenny (2009). "Liberals, Conservatives and Sectarianism". Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  76. ^ Castelle, George (2019). "The Newfoundland Potato Famine, 1846-48: An Account from the Colony's Newspapers". Journal of Newfoundland and Labrador Studies, 34 (2). St. John's, Newfoundland, pp. 304, 314-315
  77. ^ Webb, Jeff. "Representative Government, 1832–1855". Retrieved October 17, 2008.
  78. ^ a b Belshaw, John Douglas (2020). "2:13 The Other Dominion". Canadian History: Post-Confederation (2nd ed.) – via BCcampus Open Publishing.
  79. ^ Higgins, Jenny (2008). "19th Century Migration". Heritage: Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  80. ^ a b c "Newfoundland & Labrador and Canadian Federalism – History of Newfoundland & Labrador". Mapleleafweb. Archived from the original on June 2, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  81. ^ Cadigan, Sean Thomas (2009). Newfoundland and Labrador: a history. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-4465-5.
  82. ^ a b c Higgins, Jenny (2007). "Events Leading up to the Great Depression". Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  83. ^ a b Mannion, Patrick. "The Self-Determination for Ireland League of Canada and Newfoundland". Century Ireland. RTE. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  84. ^ Mannion, Patrick (January 2015). "Contested nationalism: The "Irish question" in St. John's, Newfoundland, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1919-1923". Acadiensis. 44 (2): 27–49 – via UNB Libraries.
  85. ^ "Lindsay Crawford of Trade Council". The New York Times (19). June 4, 1945.
  86. ^ a b "Collapse of Responsible Government, 1929–1934". Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  87. ^ a b c d e f Malone, Greg (2012). Don't Tell the Newfoundlanders: The True Story of Newfoundland's Confederation with Canada. Toronto: Alfred A Knopf Canada. ISBN 978-0-307-40133-5.: 145 
  88. ^ Peter Neary, Newfoundland in the North Atlantic World, 1929-1949 (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1988), especially chapter 2
  89. ^ "The Commission of Government, 1934–1949". Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
  90. ^ Gene Long, Suspended State: Newfoundland Before Canada (1999)
  91. ^ a b "The Newfoundland National Convention". Retrieved December 3, 2010.
  92. ^ Joseph Roberts Smallwood, I chose Canada: The Memoirs of the Honourable Joseph R. "Joey" Smallwood (1973) p. 256
  93. ^ Richard Gwyn, Smallwood: The Unlikely Revolutionary (1972)
  94. ^ David MacKenzie, Inside the Atlantic Triangle: Canada and the Entrance of Newfoundland into Confederation, 1939-49 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986), 192
  95. ^ Michael J. Trinklein (May 2, 2010). "Altered states: The strange history of efforts to redraw the New England map". Boston Globe.
  96. ^ "The 1948 Referendums" Archived February 11, 2006, at, Library and Archives Canada
  97. ^ a b "Newfoundland Joins Canada) and Newfoundland and Confederation (1949)". Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
  98. ^ Jeff Webb, "Confederation, Conspiracy and Choice: A Discussion," Newfoundland Studies 14, 2 (1998): 170-87.
  99. ^ a b Whiffen, Glen. "Newfoundland and Labrador's forced resettlement a historic injustice, brothers say | The Telegram". Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  100. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, Volume four, p. 585, ISBN 0-9693422-1-7.
  101. ^ "Far from a temporary move: N.L.'s cod moratorium is 25 years old". CBC News. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  102. ^ "An emotionally fraught decision: Should residents of remote Newfoundland outports resettle?". nationalpost. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  103. ^ "Nfld. & Labrador: Little Bay Islands votes unanimously to resettle". CBC News. February 14, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  104. ^ "The people of this remote Canadian island village are taking government money to clear out. One couple is staying". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  105. ^ a b c Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Municipal Affairs and Environment: Climate Change Branch (2019). The Way Forward: On Climate Change in Newfoundland and Labrador (PDF). St. Johns.
  106. ^ "Turn Back the Tide | Impacts of Climate Change". Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  107. ^ "First power flows from Muskrat Falls, in major project milestone". CBC News. September 23, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
  108. ^ Goudie, Zach (May 2, 2019). "What's the plan? Explaining the N.L. climate change strategy". CBC News.
  109. ^ "N.L. announces strict measures, including jail time, to halt the spread of COVID-19". CTV News. March 18, 2020. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  110. ^ "Home". COVID-19. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  111. ^
  112. ^ "Census of Newfoundland and Labrador, 1935, vol. 1 : population by districts and settlements :: NL Books - Reference Sources, Directories, Etc". Retrieved April 1, 2020.
  113. ^ "Population urban and rural, by province and territory - Newfoundland and Labrador". May 1, 2008. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  114. ^ "Population stood at 520,438 as of January 1, 2021". Finance. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  115. ^ "Annual Demographic Estimates:Subprovincial Areas" (PDF). Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
  116. ^ "Population and dwelling counts (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
  117. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statistics Canada. January 30, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
  118. ^ "NHS Profile, Newfoundland and Labrador, 2011". Statistics Canada. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  119. ^ "Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory (2006 Census)". July 28, 2009. Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  120. ^ "The Daily, Monday, September 29, 2003. Ethnic Diversity Survey". Archived from the original on March 17, 2008.
  121. ^ "Surge in Newfoundland native band has Ottawa stunned, skeptical" – via The Globe and Mail.
  122. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador to open new immigration program for skilled workers | Canada Immigration News". December 30, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  123. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador eyeing up to 350 Invitations to Apply annually under Priority Skills NL". Canada Immigration and Visa Information. Canadian Immigration Services and Free Online Evaluation. December 31, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  124. ^ "Scottish in NL".
  125. ^ a b "2006 Statistics Canada National Census: Newfoundland and Labrador". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009. Archived from the original on January 15, 2011.
  126. ^ "West Country".
  127. ^ Newfoundland Historical Society, A Short History of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's, NL, Boulder Publications, 2008.
  128. ^ "Language".
  129. ^ a b Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador
  130. ^ "Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (Newfoundland and Labrador)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
  131. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador Fisheries". Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  132. ^ McCarthy, Shawn (December 17, 2011). "Labour shortage looms in Newfoundland and Labrador". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  133. ^ "The Economic Review 2011" (PDF). Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 2011. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  134. ^ "Have-not is no more: N.L. off equalization". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 3, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  135. ^ a b "Economic Review 2010" (PDF). Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
  136. ^ "Labour force characteristics by province, territory and economic region, annual (x 1,000)". Statistics Canada.
  137. ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, provincial and territorial, annual (x 1,000,000)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  138. ^ "Buchans mine". Filing Services Canada Inc. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2006.
  139. ^ a b c "Economic Research and Analysis 2007". Economics and Statistics Branch, Department of Finance, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Office of the Queens Printer. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  140. ^ Bell, Trevor; Liverman, David. "Mineral Resources". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  141. ^ "Geological survey: Dimension stone in Newfoundland and Labrador". Natural Resources, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  142. ^ "CBC News – Nfld. & Labrador – $10B Hibernia South deal reached: Williams". June 16, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  143. ^ "Project Review". Newfoundland and Labrador Refining Corporation. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  144. ^ "Purity Factories (Newfoundland food)". Retrieved October 26, 2007.
  145. ^ "Landings and Landed Value 2017 Preliminary" (PDF). Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  146. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador 2014 and 2015 aquaculture Industry Highlights" (PDF). Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. December 31, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  147. ^ "Rodriques Winery". Retrieved October 26, 2007.
  148. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador tourism spending reached $1.13B in 2016". The Telegram. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
  149. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage (February 2009). Canadian Heritage Portfolio (PDF) (2nd ed.). Queen's Printer for Canada. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-100-11529-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  150. ^ Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. "Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador > Role and Duties". Queen's Printer for Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  151. ^ "Dunderdale becomes 1st woman to lead N.L." CBC. December 3, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
  152. ^ Library of Parliament. "The Opposition in a Parliamentary System". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  153. ^ "An Act To Amend The House of Assembly Act and the Elections Act, 1991". Queen's Printer for Newfoundland and Labrador. December 13, 2004. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  154. ^ Moore, Oliver (October 12, 2011). "'Orange wave' credited with slimming Tory majority in Newfoundland". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  155. ^ Mireille Eagan."Before Category," PAGES, vol. 1 no. 1, (The Rooms), 2013. p. 37
  156. ^ a b c d "Visual Arts".
  157. ^ "Without a Suitable Gallery, Club Tries to Encourage Nfld. Art," The Daily News, (June 23, 1950).
  158. ^ "Reginald Shepherd".
  159. ^ Mireille Eagan."Before Category," PAGES, vol. 1 no. 1, (The Rooms), 2013. p. 43
  160. ^ Mireille Eagan."Before Category," PAGES, vol. 1 no. 1, (The Rooms), 2013. p. 43-44
  161. ^ "About - Fogo Island Arts".
  162. ^ "Newfoundland Accepted by Venice Biennale - Canadian Art".
  163. ^ "Magazine".
  164. ^ "Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada's Provinces and Territories - Hill Strategies". Archived from the original on July 7, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  165. ^ "Traditional Music". Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  166. ^ "About -".
  167. ^ "School of Music".
  168. ^ "Duo Concertante". Duo Concertante.
  169. ^ "Tuckamore Chamber Music Festival".
  170. ^ "Opera on the Avalon". Archived from the original on November 27, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  171. ^ Patrick O'Flaherty, The Rock Observed: Studies in the Literature of Newfoundland. (University of Toronto Press, 1979).
  172. ^ Patrick O'Flaherty, The Rock Observed
  173. ^ a b "Michael Crummey". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  174. ^ "Wayne Johnston". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  175. ^ "Welcome to Wayne Johnston's website".
  176. ^ "Welcome to Wayne Johnston's website".
  177. ^ "Newfoundland author featured on cover of New York Times Book Review". Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  178. ^ Battersby, Eileen. "A World Elsewhere". The Irish Times. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  179. ^ "Lisa Moore". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  180. ^ (July 27, 2010). "Lisa Moore nominated for Booker Prize", CBC News. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  181. ^ "E. J. Pratt:Biography," Canadian Poetry Online, University of Toronto Libraries. Web, March 17, 2011.
  182. ^ Susan Gingell, "E. J. Pratt Biography - (1882–1964)", Encyclopedia of Literature, 8534., Web, March 26, 2011.
  183. ^ Brian Trehearne ed., "E. J. Pratt 1882-1964," Canadian Poetry 1920 to 1960 (Toronto: McLelland & Stewart, 2010), 21. Google Books, Web, March 20, 2011.
  184. ^ Nicola Vulpe, "Pratt, E.J. 1882–1964," Reader's Guide to Literature in English., Web, March 26, 2011.
  185. ^ "Edwin John Pratt". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  186. ^ Patrick Warner.
  187. ^ McKay, Don. "Don McKay - Brick Books".
  188. ^ "Playwrights".
  189. ^ "About Newfoundland and Labrador - Provincial Flag". Retrieved March 22, 2017.
  190. ^ "THE PROVINCES Chap XIX: Newfoundland". Retrieved June 22, 2010.
  191. ^ a b The Monitor, July 1976, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newfoundland
  192. ^ "Statistics Canada: Population by religion, by province and territory (2001 Census)". Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
  193. ^ "Religions in Canada: Newfoundland and Labrador". Retrieved June 22, 2010.
  194. ^ Carolyn Lambert, "Emblem of our Country", Newfoundland and Labrador Studies, Volume 23, Number 1, 2008.
  195. ^ Mark Quinn, "Push for old Newfoundland flag fails to cause ripple, poll finds", The Globe and Mail, October 29, 2005, A16
  196. ^ "History – Cricket Newfoundland and Labrador".
  197. ^ Cricket Newfoundland and Labrador
  198. ^ "Summary of Services Available". Department of Transportation and Works. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  199. ^ "Meet the Qajaq, set to sail the Strait of Belle Isle in 2019". CBC. Retrieved October 31, 2021.
  200. ^ "Minister Announces Changes to Labrador Marine Service". Department of Transportation and works. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  201. ^ "Routes, Schedules and Rates". Department of Transportation and works. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  202. ^ "Marine Atlantic". Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  203. ^ "National Airports Policy – Airports in the national airports category". Transportation Canada. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
  204. ^ "Passengers enplaned and deplaned on selected services – Top 50 airports". Statistics Canada. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
  205. ^ "Airport Authority Unveils its 10-year Vision for Airport Improvements". St. John's International Airport Authority. Archived from the original on June 20, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  206. ^ "Airport Ends Year With Modest Growth" (PDF). Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  207. ^ "Railway:Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved February 6, 2008.

Further reading[edit]

  • Cadigan, Sean Thomas (2009). Newfoundland and Labrador: a history. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-4465-5.
  • Hiller, James; Neary, Peter (1994). Twentieth-century Newfoundland: explorations. Breakwater. ISBN 1-55081-072-3.
  • Clarke, Sandra (2010). Newfoundland English. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2616-8.
  • Wilson, Donald; Ryan, Stanley (1990). Legends of Newfoundland & Labrador. Jesperson. ISBN 0-921692-40-4.
  • Atlas of Newfoundland and Labrador by Department of Geography Memorial University of Newfoundland, Breakwater Books Ltd; ISBN 1-55081-000-6; (1991)
  • Bavington, Dean L.Y. Managed Annihilation: An Unnatural History of the Newfoundland Cod Collapse (University of British Columbia Press; 2010) 224 pages. Links the collapse of Newfoundland and Labrador cod fishing to state management of the resource.
  • Cadigan, Sean T. Newfoundland and Labrador: A History U. of Toronto Press, 2009. Standard scholarly history
  • Casey, G.J. Casey and Elizabeth Miller, eds., Tempered Days: A Century of Newfoundland Fiction St. John's: Killick Press, 1996.
  • Earle, Karl Mcneil. "Cousins of a Kind: The Newfoundland and Labrador Relationship with the United States" American Review of Canadian Studies Vol: 28. Issue: 4. 1998. pp: 387–411.
  • Fay, C. R. Life and Labour in Newfoundland University of Toronto Press, 1956
  • Department of Finance, Economic Research and Analysis. "The Economic Review 2010" Dec. 2010
  • Jackson, Lawrence. Newfoundland & Labrador Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd; ISBN 1-55041-261-2; (1999)
  • Gene Long, Suspended State: Newfoundland Before Canada Breakwater Books Ltd; ISBN 1-55081-144-4; (April 1, 1999)
  • R. A. MacKay; Newfoundland; Economic, Diplomatic, and Strategic Studies Oxford University Press, 1946
  • Patrick O'Flaherty, The Rock Observed: Studies in the Literature of Newfoundland University of Toronto Press, 1979
  • Joseph Smallwood ed. The Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador St. John's: Newfoundland Book Publishers, 1981–, 2 vol.
  • This Marvelous Terrible Place: Images of Newfoundland and Labrador by Momatiuk et al., Firefly Books; ISBN 1-55209-225-9; (September 1998)
  • True Newfoundlanders: Early Homes and Families of Newfoundland and Labrador by Margaret McBurney et al., Boston Mills Pr; ISBN 1-55046-199-0; (June 1997)
  • Biogeography and Ecology of the Island of Newfoundland: Monographiae Biologicae by G. Robin South (Editor) Dr W Junk Pub Co; ISBN 90-6193-101-0; (April 1983)

External links[edit]