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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases MTDH, 3D3, AEG-1, AEG1, LYRIC, LYRIC/3D3, metadherin
External IDs MGI: 1914404 HomoloGene: 12089 GeneCards: MTDH
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE MTDH 212250 at fs.png

PBB GE MTDH 212251 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 8: 97.64 – 97.73 Mb Chr 15: 34.08 – 34.14 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Metadherin, also known as protein LYRIC or astrocyte elevated gene-1 protein (AEG-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTDH gene.[3][4][5]


AEG-1 is involved in HIF-1alpha mediated angiogenesis. AEG-1 also interacts with SND1 and involved in RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and plays very important role in RISC and miRNA functions.[6][7]

AEG-1 induces an oncogene called Late SV40 factor (LSF/TFCP2) which is involved in thymidylate synthase (TS) induction and DNA biosynthesis synthesis.[8] Late SV40 factor (LSF/TFCP2) enhances angiogenesis by transcriptionally up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9).[9]

Clinical significance[edit]

AEG-1 acts as an oncogene in melanoma, malignant glioma, breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.[10] It is highly expressed in these cancers and helps in progression and development of these cancers. It is induced by c-Myc oncogene and plays very important role in anchorage independent growth of cancer cells.

Elevated expression of the metastasis gene metadherin (MTDH), which is overexpressed in more than 40% of breast cancers, is associated with poor clinical outcomes. MTDH has a dual role in promoting metastatic seeding and enhancing chemoresistance. MTDH is therefore a potential therapeutic target for enhancing chemotherapy and reducing metastasis.[11]

LSF/TFCP2 plays multifaceted role in chemo resistance, EMT, allergic response, inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease.[12]

AEG-1 controls many hallmarks of oncogenes and cancer. AEG-1/MTDH induces hepato steatosis in mouse liver.[13] The MTDH knockdown by artificial microRNA interference functions as a potential tumor suppressor in breast cancer.[14] Astrocyte elevated gene-1/MTDH undergoes palmitoylation in normal and abnormal physiology of the cell.[15]The microgrooved biomaterial titanium substrata can alter the expression of AEG-1 in human primary cells.[16]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: MTDH metadherin". 
  4. ^ Brown DM, Ruoslahti E (Apr 2004). "Metadherin, a cell surface protein in breast tumors that mediates lung metastasis". Cancer Cell. 5 (4): 365–74. doi:10.1016/S1535-6108(04)00079-0. PMID 15093543. 
  5. ^ Sutherland HG, Lam YW, Briers S, Lamond AI, Bickmore WA (Mar 2004). "3D3/lyric: a novel transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope, which is also present in the nucleolus". Experimental Cell Research. 294 (1): 94–105. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.11.020. PMID 14980505. 
  6. ^ Yoo BK, Santhekadur PK, Gredler R, Chen D, Emdad L, Bhutia S, Pannell L, Fisher PB, Sarkar D (May 2011). "Increased RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) activity contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepatology. 53 (5): 1538–48. doi:10.1002/hep.24216. PMC 3081619Freely accessible. PMID 21520169. 
  7. ^ Yoo BK, Emdad L, Lee SG, Su ZZ, Santhekadur P, Chen D, Gredler R, Fisher PB, Sarkar D (Apr 2011). "Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1): A multifunctional regulator of normal and abnormal physiology". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 130 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.01.008. PMC 3043119Freely accessible. PMID 21256156. 
  8. ^ Yoo BK, Gredler R, Vozhilla N, Su ZZ, Chen D, Forcier T, Shah K, Saxena U, Hansen U, Fisher PB, Sarkar D (Aug 2009). "Identification of genes conferring resistance to 5-fluorouracil". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (31): 12938–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901451106. PMC 2722317Freely accessible. PMID 19622726. 
  9. ^ Santhekadur PK, Gredler R, Chen D, Siddiq A, Shen XN, Das SK, Emdad L, Fisher PB, Sarkar D (Jan 2012). "Late SV40 factor (LSF) enhances angiogenesis by transcriptionally up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (5): 3425–32. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.298976. PMC 3270996Freely accessible. PMID 22167195. 
  10. ^ Yoo BK, Emdad L, Su ZZ, Villanueva A, Chiang DY, Mukhopadhyay ND, Mills AS, Waxman S, Fisher RA, Llovet JM, Fisher PB, Sarkar D (Mar 2009). "Astrocyte elevated gene-1 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma development and progression". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 119 (3): 465–77. doi:10.1172/JCI36460. PMC 2648696Freely accessible. PMID 19221438. 
  11. ^ Hu G, Chong RA, Yang Q, Wei Y, Blanco MA, Li F, Reiss M, Au JL, Haffty BG, Kang Y (Jan 2009). "MTDH activation by 8q22 genomic gain promotes chemoresistance and metastasis of poor-prognosis breast cancer". Cancer Cell. 15 (1): 9–20. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2008.11.013. PMC 2676231Freely accessible. PMID 19111877. 
  12. ^ Santhekadur PK, Rajasekaran D, Siddiq A, Gredler R, Chen D, Schaus SC, Hansen U, Fisher PB, Sarkar D (2012). "The transcription factor LSF: a novel oncogene for hepatocellular carcinoma" (PDF). Am J Cancer Res. 2 (3): 269–285. 
  13. ^ Srivastava J, Siddiq A, Emdad L, Santhekadur PK, Chen D, Gredler R, Shen XN, Robertson CL, Dumur CI, Hylemon PB, Mukhopadhyay ND, Bhere D, Shah K, Ahmad R, Giashuddin S, Stafflinger J, Subler MA, Windle JJ, Fisher PB, Sarkar D (Nov 2012). "Astrocyte elevated gene-1 promotes hepatocarcinogenesis: novel insights from a mouse model". Hepatology. 56 (5): 1782–91. doi:10.1002/hep.25868. PMID 22689379. 
  14. ^ Wang S, Shu JZ, Cai Y, Bao Z, Liang QM (2012). "Establishment and characterization of MTDH knockdown by artificial MicroRNA interference - functions as a potential tumor suppressor in breast cancer" (PDF). Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 13 (6): 2813–8. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.6.2813. PMID 22938464. 
  15. ^ Martin BR, Wang C, Adibekian A, Tully SE, Cravatt BF (Jan 2012). "Global profiling of dynamic protein palmitoylation". Nature Methods. 9 (1): 84–9. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1769. PMC 3248616Freely accessible. PMID 22056678. 
  16. ^ Lee MH, Kang JH, Lee SW (Apr 2012). "The significance of differential expression of genes and proteins in human primary cells caused by microgrooved biomaterial substrata". Biomaterials. 33 (11): 3216–34. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.01.034. PMID 22285466. 

Further reading[edit]