|Regions with significant populations|
|Central and Southern Tamil Nadu|
The Mukkulathor people, who are also collectively known as Thevar, are native to the central and southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India. They comprise the Agamudayar, Kallar and Maravar social groups that share a common myth of origin and claim to have once been members of various ancient South Indian dynasties. They belong to the Kshatriyas  of Tamilnadu and the descendants of Great kings and Rulers of South India. They Ruled the southern part of Tamilnadu, Srilanka, Cambodia and most of the countries in Asian Continent headed by the great Chola kings. They were the most powerful clans before Alexander. 
- 1 Origins
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Politics
- 4 Martial arts
- 5 Films Potraying Thevar caste
- 6 Notable people
- 6.1 Freedom fighters, social reformers and leaders
- 6.2 Literature
- 6.3 Ministers of State Government of Tamil Nadu
- 6.4 Members of Parliament
- 6.5 Speakers of Legislative Assembly
- 6.6 Members of Legislative Assembly (M.L.A)
- 6.7 Judges
- 6.8 Civil services and Government Department Heads
- 6.9 Actors
- 6.10 Tamil Film Directors
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The terms Mukkulathor and Thevar are used synonymously. They Belong to Kshatriyas of Tamilnadu According to R. Muthulakshmi of Madurai Kamaraj University, Thevar "literally means celestial beings or divine-natured people" and Mukkulathor means "three clans united together". The three constituent communities of Agamudayar, Kallar and Maravar believe themselves to share a common myth of origin formed through being the offspring of a relationship between Indra and a celestial woman. The three groups traditionally each believe themselves to be superior to their fellow Mukkulathors.
While they share a common mythological ancestor, the three communities also claim ancestral differences. The Agamudayar consider themselves to be descendants of the Chera dynasty, while the Kallar claim descent from the Chola dynasty and the Maravars believe they are related to the Pandya dynasty.[clarification needed] The anthropologist Susan Bayly notes that both the Kallar and Maravar communities are relatively new caste entities. Both names were originally granted to people as titles by poligars (local chieftains) but the holders were not exposed to caste-defining influences such as Brahmanic Hinduism, the concept of varna and practices such as endogamy until the late 18th century. She says that the claims of distinct caste status "were clearly not ancient facts of life in the Tamil Nadu region. Insofar as these people of the turbulent poligar country really did become castes, their bonds of affinity were shaped in the relatively recent past". Thereafter, the evolution as a caste developed as a result of various influences, including increased interaction with other groups as a consequence of jungle clearances, state-building and ideological shifts.
The Mukkulathor communities live mostly in central and southern areas of Tamil Nadu, such as Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Tiruchirapalli and Thirunelveli. They have been recorded as practising female infanticide as recently as the 1990s.[a]
Although the Mukkulathor own significant amounts of land, the sociologist Hugo Gorringe noted in 2005 that "their educational and economic achievements have been negligible", with many being small farmers or agricultural labourers. The community has mostly been given the status of Backward Class (BC) by the Government of Tamil Nadu, although some subgroups are omitted. They are mostly listed as Other Backward Classes (OBC) by the National Commission for Backward Classes.
Human Rights Watch has documented allegations that the members of the government of Jayalalitha, including the chief minister herself, favoured the Mukkalathors during the 1990s, leading to them gaining influential positions in the police and in politics. The Mukkalathor community at that time was the most populous of the backward classes in the state but Dalit communities - notably, the Pallars - were becoming increasingly wealthy and aspirational.[b] The improvement of Dalit circumstances, together with a general rise in Dalit activism, led to many clashes with the Mukkulathors in rural areas. These clashes often involved the collusion of the police, who aided detention of so-called Dalit activists, assaults on people (especially women), and forcible displacement from Dalit villages.
The Mukkulathors celebrate the coincident birth and death anniversary of U. Muthuramalingam Thevar (also spelled Mathuramaliga Thevar; 1908-1963) annually in October. He was a noted politician from the community and the event, known as Thevar Jayanthi, gained the approval of the Government of Tamil Nadu in 1993, which enabled the event to obtain police protection, road closures and the like. The Mukkulathors treat Muthuramalingam Thevar as a deity and it was from this time that the Jayanthi shifted from being a fairly minor affair to one of considerable significance. The Dalit surge since the 1980s was countered by the growth of the Jayanthi, which gave the Mukkulathors an opportunity to react against the Dalits and assert their own perceived superiority, historic status as rulers, and caste pride. Damodraran Karthikeyan, a journalist-turned-academic, notes the historic animosity between the two groups and that "The institutionalised nature of Thevar Jayanthi, through consciously created myths surrounding Mathuramaliga Thevar, his iconisation, canonisation and the construction of a social identity provides a point of entry to study the process of how political power is ritually constructed through social ceremony."
The Mukkulathor-Dalit antagonism was not one-sided. Dalits, too, committed violent acts.
Along with the Nadars, the Thevars, traditionally practise a Tamil martial art variously known as adi murai, chinna adi and varna ati. In recent years, since 1958, these have been referred to as Southern-style Kalaripayattu, although they are distinct from the ancient martial art of Kalaripayattu itself that was historically the style found in Kerala. This and other displays of aggression are prominent during Thevar Jayanthi.
Films Potraying Thevar caste
- Rajakumari 1947
- Kudumba Thalaivan 1962
- Vettaikaran 1964
- Kadhal vaganam 1968
- Enga Oor Raja 1968
- Thevar Magan 1992
- Kizhakku Cheemayile 1993
- Seevalaperi Pandi 1994
- Periya Marudhu 1994
- Thevar Veettu Ponnu 1992
- Pasumpon 1995
- Bharathi Kannamma 1997
- Taj Mahal 1999
- Diwan 2003
- Virumaandi 2004
- Sandakozhi 2005
- Sillunu Oru Kaadhal 2006
- Paruthiveeran 2007
- Kaalai 2008
- Vamsam 2010
- Sundarapandian 2012
- Kutti Puli 2013
- Madha Yaanai Koottam 2013
- Komban 2015
- Thilagar 2015
- Sethuboomi 2016
- Marudhu 2016
- Muthuramalingam 2017
- Arasakulam Pre Prodduction
- Veera Thevan Pre production
- Santhana Devan Upcoming
- U. Muthuramalingam Thevar-Freedom Fighter and Indian Political leader, social reformer, a descendant of Pandiya kings and known for his friendship with Nethaji Subhash Chandra Bose
- Puli Thevar- First person in India to fight and win over the British.
- Velu Nachiyar- First woman to fight against British 80 years before Jhansi Rani
- Maruthu Pandiyar brothers, The legendary Tamil warrior brothers stand as an epitome for bravery and courage in Tamil Nadu.
- P. K. Mookayya Thevar (1923–1979)
- Janaki Thevar
- Valivitta Thevar-social reformer
- Sangam Muthuvel Thevar
- S. Thondaman - Leader of Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka and had served continuously for 21 years in the Sri Lankan Cabinet from 1978.
- Senthil - Minister of Sri Lanka
- Pandithurai Thevar - Founder of fourth Tamil Sangam.
- Dr.N.Rasaiah - Writer.
- Vairamuthu - Famous Tamil poet and star lyricist.
- Konangi - Writer.
- P.Sandrakantham - Famous Tamil Writer from Malaysia. Winner of Karikalan Awards 2009.
- S. Tamil Selvan - Writer, Secretary of Tamil Nadu Murpokku Ezhuthalar Sangam.
- Kavignar Snehan - Lyricist
Ministers of State Government of Tamil Nadu
- Anbil Dharmalingam (Late)
- Alagu Thirunavukkarasu
- K.C.Mani- Minister for Cooperation
- Suba. Thangavel
- Pon. Muthuramalingam, B.A, B.L, Ex-Minister.
- Thiru Pasumpon Tha Kiruttinan (Late) - Ex-Minister
- Thiru S.D.Somasundaram- (Late) - Ex-Minister
Members of Parliament
- T. R. Baalu M.P,Sriperumbudur-
- E. M. Sudarsana Natchiappan-M.P
- Sundrarrajan -MP, (Late) pudukkottai.
- O.S.Manian- Ex Rajyasabha M.P
- Poondi K.Thulasi Ayya Vaandaiyar- Ex M.P
- Singaravadivelu- Ex M.P
- Rajan Chellappa- Ex M.P
- K.Maaya Thevar-From Ex M.P Usilampatti
- P.V.Rajendran- Ex.M.P
- Dr.V.Rajeshwaran- Ex.M.P
- Shri V.N.Swaminathan- Ex MP
- S.Thrunaavukarasar- M.P
- Madurai P Mohan- M.P [CPM]
- Bhavani rajendhran- Ex.M.P
- M.s.K.Sathiyendran- Ex.M.P
- S.S.Palnimanickam-M.P. Thanjavur
- N.S.V. Sithan
- T.K.S. Elangovan.
- S.Singaravadivel- Ex. M.P
- Manickthakur- M.P
- Vairavan Servai-Peravurani - 1951-56 Thanjavur MP
- Vairava Thevar-Peravurani - 1956-1961 Thanjavur MP
Speakers of Legislative Assembly
- S. Chellapandian- Former TN assembly speaker 1962-1967)
- [[R. Muthiah, Former TN assembly speaker 1991-1996)
- K. Kalimuthu- Former TN assembly speaker 2001-2006, former central minister, state minister under MGR)
- Mr.Aavudaiyappan- Present Speaker
- Malaichami Thevar- ex m.p theni dt
Members of Legislative Assembly (M.L.A)
- K.S.Murugesan- EX.M.L.A.
- Anbil Dharmaligam- Ex Minister of Tamil Ndau
- Natham Viswanathan- MLA and Ex Minister
- Anbil Poiyamozhi- Ex M.L.A
- Anbil Periyasamy- M.L.A (Trichy-I)
- Sedapatti Muthiah- (former tn assembly speaker 1991-1996)
- R.Samy- (M.L.A, Melur)
- V.R.Rajangam- Ex M.L.A
- K.N.Sekaran- (Thiruverumbur)
- Rama.Subhuram- B.Sc (M.L.A Thirumayam ).
- Thiruvadanai KR.Ramaswamy-
- A.Tharmalingam- Ex
- Atthani S.Kalaimugan
- M.S.K. Satyendran- Ex M.L.A
- Late M.S.K Rajenthiran- Ex M.L.A
- V.G.Manimegalai- Ex.M.L.A
- Anbil Poyyamozhi- (Late
- S.Gurunathan-Ex M.L.A
- Dr.C.Vijayapasker- Ex.M.L.A (P.U.K)
- Subbiahapandian- EX M.L.A
- Dindugal I Periyasamy
- O.Panner selvam- Former Chief minister of TamilNadu
- Justice RathnaVel Pandian- Supreme court Judge and Chairman of V pay commission
- Justice A.Ramamurthy- High Court of Madras (retired)
- Justice Nagamuthu- High Court of Madras
- Justice Sadayandi- pudukottai judge
Civil services and Government Department Heads
- N.Vilva Sekaran -Joint Registrar of Co. Operative society,Madurai
- Thiru K. Ganesan- I.A.S Executive Committee Chairman Principal Secretary to the Government of Tamilnadu
- Thiru. R. Arumugam- I.A.S.was the first Collector of Tuticorin District.
- Late Shri. Bhaskara Thondaiman- I.A.S.
- N.Balabhaskar- I.A.S., current Finance secretary, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, son of Shri. V.K.C.Natarajan I.A.S.
- Malaichamy- I.A.S, also served as State Election commission officer in India.
- Ponnu Swamy- DSP Vegilenence and Anti-Corruption Tamil Nadu
- Rajendran- I.A.S, Tamil Development, Hindu Religious and culture & Information public relation
- Ayyar Sollai- I.A.S
- N Balachandran- I.A.S
- S.N.Karupanan- I.A.S
- A.N.Dhyaneswaran- I.A.S
- Late Kaalai- I.P.S
- V.S.Rajhan- I.P.S
- D.S. Panjabagesan- I.P.S
- Pon Paramaguru-I.P.S
- Sivanandi.P- I.P.S
- ThamaraiKanan- IPS
- T.Panchanathan- D.S.P, Trichy
- B.Maruthupandian- DSP, EOW, Tamilnadu
- B.Sivakumar-Joint commissioner(RTD),HR&CE,Trichy.
- V.A.Joseph Innocent Fire and Assistant safety officer(RTD), Tuticorin port trust
- Late P. S. Ganesan BA (FIS) Joint Director of Survey & Land Records, Chepauk Chennai 600005.
- Shivaji Ganesan the legendary Indian actor and internationally acclaimed cinema artist from Tamil cinema industry, popularly known as Nadigar Thilagam Shivaji Ganesan.
- R. Muthuraman Yesteryear Tamil film actor
- S. S. Rajendran Yesteryear Tamil film actor
- Achi Manoramma Yesteryear Tamil film actress
- O A K Thevar Yesteryear Tamil film actor
- Ramkumar Ganesan, Tamil film producer, Shivaji Productions
- Prabhu Ganesan Tamil film actor
- Karthik Muthuraman- Tamil film actor
- Actor Senthil
- Vivek, Tamil comic actor
- Actor S. S. Chandran
- J. K. Rithesh- Tamil film actor
- ActorOAK Sundar
- Actor Arunpandian
- Actor Sangili murugan
- Actor Periyakaruppu thevar
- Actor 'Kallapart' Natarajan
- Actor Late.Nagaraja cholan
- Actor,director S. J. Suryaah
- ActorShivaji Dev Ramkumar
- Actor Bala[arunachalam studios]
- Manoj Bharathiraja
- Nellai siva
- Singampuli- comic actor
- Vela Ramamoorthy
- Vijay Sethupathi
- Gautham Karthik
- Vikram Prabhu
Tamil Film Directors
- Director A.C. Thirulohachandar
- Director Bharathiraja
- Director Bala National award winner for best direction for the movie "Nan Kadavul"
- Director T.P.Gajendran
- Director Bharathi Kannan
- Director Perarasu
- Director Arivazhagan
- Director Manivannan
- Producer Sandow M. M. A. Chinnappa Thevar
- Female infanticide and foeticide have been significant practises among some communities in various areas of Tamil Nadu. The state government has sought to address these through legislated schemes as recently as 2011.
- Dalits in Tamil Nadu have become less dependent on Mukkulathors for employment due to the effects of India's system of positive discrimination and the trend towards sending relatives abroad to earn a living, notably to the Gulf States.
- Muthulakshmi, R. (1997). Female Infanticide, Its Causes and Solutions. Discovery Publishing. pp. 11–13. ISBN 978-8-17141-383-6.
- Bayly, Susan (2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6.
- Bayly, Susan (2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6.
- Pati, Rabindra Nath (2003). Socio-cultural Dimensions of Reproductive Child Health. APH Publishing. p. 123. ISBN 978-8-17648-510-4.
- "TN: Cradle Baby Scheme In Districts With Low Sex Ratio". Outlook. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-05-18.
- Gorringe, Hugo (2005). Untouchable Citizens: Dalit Movements and Democratization in Tamil Nadu. SAGE Publications India. p. 59. ISBN 978-8-13210-199-4.
- "Tamil Nadu Public Services Commission: List of Communities". Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- "Central List of OBCs - State: Tamil Nadu". National Commission for Backward Classes. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- Narula, Smita (1999). Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "untouchables". Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch. pp. 5–6, 82, 86. ISBN 978-1-56432-228-9.
- Karthikeyan, Damodraran (2016). "Contentious Spaces". In Gorringe, Hugo; Jeffery, Roger; Waghmore, Suryakant. From the Margins to the Mainstream: Institutionalising Minorities in South Asia. SAGE Publications India. pp. 187–189. ISBN 978-9-35150-624-9.
- Narula, Smita (1999). Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "untouchables". Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-56432-228-9.
- Zarilli, Philip B. (2001). "India". In Green, Thomas A. Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia. A – L. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-57607-150-2.
- Anand, S .2005. ‘Politics, Tamil Cinema Eshtyle’, Outlook 30 May 2005. Accessed 30/09/2013: http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?227523