Martin Theodore Orne
Orne pioneered research into demand characteristics illustrating the weakness of informing participants that they are taking part in a psychology experiment and yet expecting them to act normally. He was also well known as a researcher in the field of hypnosis.
Orne received his M.D. degree from Tufts University Medical School in 1955, with a residency in psychiatry at Massachusetts Mental Health Center, and a Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University in 1958.
- 1962: On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17, 776-783.
- 1969: Demand characteristics and the concept of quasi-controls. In R. Rosenthal & R. Rosnow (Eds.), Artifact in behavioral research. New York: Academic Press. 143-179.
- 1973: Communication by the total experimental situation: Why it is important, how it is evaluated, and its significance for the ecological validity of findings. In P. Pliner, L. Krames, & T. Alloway (Eds.), Communication and affect. New York: Academic Press. 157-191.
- 1975: Hypnosis. In G. Lindzey, C. Hall, & R. Thompson (Eds.), Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers. 150-154.
- 1980: On the construct of hypnosis: How its definition affects research and its clinical application. In G. Burrows & L. Dennerstein (Eds.), Handbook of hypnosis and psychosomatic medicine. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland. 29-51.
- Complete web site with papers
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