Martin Theodore Orne

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Martin Theodore Orne, M.D., Ph.D. (October 26, 1927, Vienna, Austria – February 11, 2000, Paoli)[1][2] was a professor of psychiatry and psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.

Orne pioneered research into demand characteristics illustrating the weakness of informing participants that they are taking part in a psychology experiment and yet expecting them to act normally. He was also well known as a researcher in the field of hypnosis.


Orne received his M.D. degree from Tufts University Medical School in 1955, with a residency in psychiatry at Massachusetts Mental Health Center, and a Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University in 1958.[3]

Selected works[edit]

  • 1962: On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17, 776-783.
  • 1969: Demand characteristics and the concept of quasi-controls. In R. Rosenthal & R. Rosnow (Eds.), Artifact in behavioral research. New York: Academic Press. 143-179.
  • 1973: Communication by the total experimental situation: Why it is important, how it is evaluated, and its significance for the ecological validity of findings. In P. Pliner, L. Krames, & T. Alloway (Eds.), Communication and affect. New York: Academic Press. 157-191.
  • 1975: Hypnosis. In G. Lindzey, C. Hall, & R. Thompson (Eds.), Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers. 150-154.
  • 1980: On the construct of hypnosis: How its definition affects research and its clinical application. In G. Burrows & L. Dennerstein (Eds.), Handbook of hypnosis and psychosomatic medicine. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland. 29-51.
  • Complete web site with papers


Anne Sexton


  1. ^ Sheehy, Noel; Chapman, Antony J.; Conroy, Wendy A. (2002). Biographical Dictionary of Psychology. Retrieved 2015-06-14. 
  2. ^ Orne Obituary - DInges
  3. ^ Orne Obituary - DInges