Gargantua and Pantagruel

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The Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel
Pantagruel (Russian) p. 40.png
Illustration by Gustave Doré

Pantagruel (c. 1532)
Gargantua (1534)
The Third Book of Pantagruel (1546)
The Fourth Book of Pantagruel (1552)
The Fifth Book of Pantagruel (c. 1564)
AuthorFrançois Rabelais ("Alcofribas Nasier")
Original titleLa vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel
TranslatorThomas Urquhart, Peter Anthony Motteux
IllustratorGustave Doré (1854 edition)
CountryFrance
LanguageClassical French
GenreSatire
Publishedc. 1532 – c. 1564
Published in English1693–1694
No. of books5

The Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel (French: La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel) is a pentalogy of novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais[a], which tells of the adventures of two giants, Gargantua (/ɡɑːrˈɡæntjuə/ gar-GAN-tew-ə, French: [ɡaʁɡɑ̃tɥa]) and his son Pantagruel (/pænˈtæɡruɛl, -əl, ˌpæntəˈɡrəl/ pan-TAG-roo-el, -⁠əl, PAN-tə-GROO-əl, French: [pɑ̃taɡʁyɛl]). The text is written in an amusing, extravagant, and satirical vein, and features much crudity, scatological humor, and violence (lists of explicit or vulgar insults fill several chapters).

The censors of the Collège de la Sorbonne stigmatized it as obscene,[1] and in a social climate of increasing religious oppression in a lead up to the French Wars of Religion, it was treated with suspicion, and contemporaries avoided mentioning it.[2] According to Rabelais, the philosophy of his giant Pantagruel, "Pantagruelism", is rooted in "a certain gaiety of mind pickled in the scorn of fortuitous things" (French: une certaine gaîté d'esprit confite dans le mépris des choses fortuites).

Rabelais had studied Ancient Greek and he applied it in inventing hundreds of new words in the text, some of which became part of the French language.[3] Wordplay and risqué humor abound in his writing.

Initial publication[edit]

Although different editions divide the work in varying ways, the original book is a single novel consisting of five volumes.

Vol. Short title Full title English title Published
1 Pantagruel Les horribles et épouvantables faits et prouesses du très renommé Pantagruel Roi des Dipsodes, fils du Grand Géant Gargantua The Horrible and Terrifying Deeds and Words of the Very Renowned Pantagruel King of the Dipsodes, Son of the Great Giant Gargantua c. 1532
2 Gargantua La vie très horrifique du grand Gargantua, père de Pantagruel The Very Horrific Life of Great Gargantua, Father of Pantagruel 1534
3 The Third Book of Pantagruel Le tiers livre des faicts et dicts héroïques du bon Pantagruel The Third Book of the Heroic Deeds and Sayings of Good Pantagruel 1546
4 The Fourth Book of Pantagruel Le quart livre des faicts et dicts héroïques du bon Pantagruel The Fourth Book of the Heroic Deeds and Sayings of Good Pantagruel 1552
5 The Fifth Book of Pantagruel Le cinquiesme et dernier livre des faicts et dicts héroïques du bon Pantagruel The Fifth and Last Book of the Heroic Deeds and Sayings of Good Pantagruel c. 1564

Plot summary[edit]

Pantagruel[edit]

The full modern English title for the work commonly known as Pantagruel is The Horrible and Terrifying Deeds and Words of the Very Renowned Pantagruel King of the Dipsodes, Son of the Great Giant Gargantua and in French, Les horribles et épouvantables faits et prouesses du très renommé Pantagruel Roi des Dipsodes, fils du Grand Géant Gargantua. The original title of the work was Pantagruel roy des dipsodes restitué à son naturel avec ses faictz et prouesses espoventables.[4] Although most modern editions of Rabelais' work place Pantagruel as the second volume of a series, it was actually published first, around 1532 under the pen name "Alcofribas Nasier",[4] an anagram of François Rabelais.

Pantagruel begins with a prologue discussing an anonymous book: The Great Chronicles of the Great and Enormous Giant Gargantua (in French, Les Grandes Chroniques du Grand et Enorme Géant Gargantua); lauding it, and offering Pantagruel as a book of the same sort, though a little better.

Beginning the book proper, the narrator explains the origin of giants as a mishap involving medlars; offers the particular lineage of Pantagruel (including Hirtaly, who straddled Noah's Ark); and relates the circumstances of Pantagruel's nativity (including drought, and the death of his mother).

Pantagruel's childhood is briefly covered, before his father sends him away to the universities, where he studies hard, and profits much, particularly after receiving an inspiring letter from his father.

Pantagruel meets the droll trickster Panurge, who asks, urgently, but in several languages which are not understood, for assistance in his wretched condition. Pantagruel eventually asks if he speaks French, and Panurge replies that he does indeed very well. Pantagruel admires him, and has him taken to his lodgings.

While Panurge rests, Pantagruel acts on the wishes of his father in the letter, acquiring a great reputation for his wisdom. He is called on to resolve an extremely obscure lawsuit, which he does, and for which he accepts a gift of good wine.

Enjoying the wine with Panurge, the latter relates how he escaped from the Turks who were cooking him, and he tells some bawdy tales. The book digresses somewhat, with the narrator interested in Panurge and his tricks. Afterwards, a great scholar comes from England, seeking Pantagruel for his reputed wisdom. The two agree to discuss some abstrusiosities, to try and satisfy the perplexed scholar; but determine to discuss without using any words. Panurge takes Pantagruel's place in the debate, satisfying the scholar with some gestures, such as making a ring with the thumb and index finger of the left hand, and a fist with the right, but with index finger extended, which is thrusted in and out of the ring made by the left.

Panurge's reputation grows, and he becomes vainglorious; he becomes sexually interested in a noblewoman who spurns him, and he causes several hundred thousand dogs to urinate on her.

Pantagruel receives a letter with news that his father has been translated to Fairyland by Morgan le Fay; and that the Dipsodes, hearing of it, have invaded his land and are besieging a city. Pantagruel and his companions depart immediately.

On landing, they are charged by six hundred and sixty knights, of which they cleverly destroy all but one; and they celebrate their wit. The surviving knight celebrates with them, before being sent to the enemy camp with a poison, which he brings to the king, who has a spoonful, which latter attacks his mouth and throat to such a degree that the king finds no alleviation from the agony but by drinking, ultimately having wine poured down his throat through a funnel. Observers are intrigued by this huge thirst, try the poison themselves, and are all likewise affected. This drinking is noised through the camp, and the whole army drink themselves to a stupor.

Meanwhile Pantagruel and company are preparing their assault, which includes a diuretic for Pantagruel, allowing him to drown the enemy army with his urine, leaving only their king, rescued by a few hundred giants.

Pantagruel kills all the giants, using a giant as a weapon. In the destruction, Epistemon, one of Pantagruel's companions, is decapitated by a sliver of smashed armour. Pantagruel is overwhelmed by grief, but Panurge patches Epistemon up, who recovers with a loud fart. His resurrection disappoints him, and he relates his brief time in Hell, which he explains is not so bad; that situations are just altered (such as Alexander the Great patching breeches, and being beaten for unsatisfactory work).

The besieged city is relieved, and residents invited to invade the Dipsodes, due to overcrowding. Meanwhile, bearing in mind what Epistemon had said, Panurge makes the captured king of the Dipsodes a crier of green sauce, marrying him off to an old strumpet who beats him.

The Dipsodes mostly surrender to Pantagruel as he and his army visit their towns. During a downpour, Pantagruel shelters his army with his tongue, and the narrator travels into Pantagruel's mouth, discovering a new world troubled by plague, caused by a noxious miasma from the depths. The narrator exits Pantagruel, to the surprise of Pantagruel, and they share news. Pantagruel becomes sick, and swallows seventeen copper spheres, each containing a man and mining equipment. The men seek the corruption, finding a mountain of ordure, which they deal with. Pantagruel vomits them up, and the narrator concludes the book, explaining that he has drunk too much to continue.

(The conclusion was extended, vilifying the censors.)

Gargantua[edit]

Gargantua and "Pilgrims eaten in salads, illustration Gustave Doré, 1873.

After the success of Pantagruel, Rabelais revisited and revised his source material. He produced an improved narrative of the life and acts of Pantagruel's father in The Very Horrific Life of Great Gargantua, Father of Pantagruel (in French, La vie très horrifique du grand Gargantua, père de Pantagruel), commonly known as Gargantua.

After a prologue with advice for the reader, the narrator refers the reader to Pantagruel for Gargantua's genealogy; the narrator, instead of repeating the genealogy, chooses to tell of its original source. A poem from the said source is offered.

The eleven-month pregnancy of Gargamelle (Gargantua's mother) is discussed, before moving on to a large amount of tripe, of which many partake, before moving on to drinking and gaiety. Having eaten too much of the said tripe, Gargamelle's rectum slips out, and she is given an astringent so potent that Gargantua is forced through her left ear. He immediately shouts for drink.

His infancy is largely passed over, until he is of age for fine clothing. The narrator describes the clothing, and discusses colours and signification.

Episodes of Gargantua's childhood are related, including telling Grandgousier (his father) about his bum-wiping experiments. Grandgousier is extremely impressed, and resolves to have Gargantua carefully educated.

After much education, Grandgousier considers that it is not doing Gargantua any good; and he is persuaded to compare Gargantua with a young student involved in a different sort of education. Consequently, Gargantua is entrusted to the tutor of the other student, and the three depart for Paris.

The people at Paris annoy Gargantua, so he urinates on them, drowning hundreds of thousands. He also takes away the bells of Notre-Dame.

An official delegation is sent to ask for the bells, but are immediately taken drinking, allowing for arrangements to be made before the official address, which latter is performed so amusingly badly that the speaker is given gifts.

Gargantua is eager to be taught by Ponocrates, his new tutor; but the latter urges the former to continue in his usual manner, so it can be established how his previous tutors have made him such a fool. This usual manner is demonstrated, and, with the help of a physician, Gargantua forgets everything he has learnt, and begins his new education.

Some time passes, and the narrator turns to some bakers of Lerné who are transporting some fouaces. Some shepherds politely ask these bakers to sell them some of the said fouaces, which request escalates into substantial physical violence. The beaten bakers head back to Lerné, and show their hurts to their king, Picrochole, blaming workers of Grandgousier's land. Picrochole immediately has ban and Arrière-ban proclaimed; and orders an invasion.

The pillaging leads to Seuilly, and the abbey therein. The latter is locked up well, so most of the army continue the march toward the ford at Vède, though some remain to plunder the abbey's vineyard, before being largely destroyed by a single high-quality monk (Frère Jean des Entommeures) wielding a staff of the cross. Meanwhile Picrochole and his men cross at the ford, and attack La Roche-Clermault, taking the château, and fortifying.

Grandgousier receives the news; dictates a letter summoning Gargantua; and sends a legate to Picrochole. The legate is poorly received, and returns. The matter is further investigated, and Grandgousier tries to buy peace. The payment is taken, and the delegation dismissed. Picrochole's counsellors suggest an extensive military campaign, which counsel is well received.

Gargantua, en route, sends two men ahead to reconnoitre; one of which disturbs the disordered enemy, who fear he is a devil. The two return to Gargantua, report, and all move on. Gargantua plucks up a tree (grown from a staff of Martin of Tours) for use as a weapon. His mare urinates, drowning many of the enemy at the ford. Gargantua and company arrive, are fired on from fortifications, and Gargantua smashes them with his tree.

They reach Grandgousier, and the latter orders a feast.

Some pilgrims are hiding in a garden, due to the hostilities, and Gargantua, unaware, scoops them up with some lettuce he wants. The pilgrims end up in his mouth, knock a sore spot, and are picked out of his teeth. They flee, toward further misfortune.

At the table, Grandgousier tells of the aforementioned monk, and Gargantua wants him sent for. He arrives, and delights everyone.

After some rest, all arm (including the monk against his will), and head out. The monk's helmet catches on a tree, and he spurs his horse, leaving him hanging. He is assisted, and he throws his armour away.

Picrochole receives report that devils attacked his men, and sends out a large number of scouts, who find the pilgrims, and take them as spies. Nearby, Gargantua demurs at meeting the group; but the monk charges; and the group mostly flee, fearing devils, until they realise that they are being chased by a lone monk. They take the monk, assign him a guard, and rally to charge Gargantua and company.

The monk violently escapes, and spurs on to the again-fleeing enemy; slaughters until his sword breaks; rescues the pilgrims; and takes a captain and counsellor of Picrochole.

Gargantua and his men, excluding the monk, return to Grandgousier, who asks about the monk, and orders breakfast. At breakfast, Gargantua is too dejected by the monk's absence to partake, until hearing him shout for wine. He and his company are met outside, and brought in for happy feasting. The pilgrims are questioned, and dismissed with gifts; likewise the prisoner.

Grandgousier reluctantly prepares for violence. The returned prisoner is killed through order of Picrochole, and thrown out for the beasts. Disaffection grows.

Gargantua leads a well-orchestrated assault, and Picrochole flees. Gargantua addresses Picrochole's defeated men, with clemency; and clears up what else remains to do. Festivities and gift-giving ensue, including the establishment of the Abbey of Thélème for the monk.

An enigma is uncovered and interpreted.

The Third Book[edit]

Rabelais then returned to the story of Pantagruel himself in the last three books. In The Third Book of Pantagruel (in French, Le tiers-livre de Pantagruel; the original title is Le tiers livre des faicts et dicts héroïques du bon Pantagruel[4]), the narrative style changes to a parody of the philosophical dialogue, where the earthy Panurge gets the last word. He sermonizes against moral restraint and in favor of indebtedness, yet accepts Pantagruel's offer to repay all of his creditors.

Now financially solvent for the first time, Panurge stops wearing his long codpiece and seeks advice about whom to marry. Various auguries (opening Virgil to a random page, inducing prophetic dream through half-hearted fasting) and councillors – the Sibyl of Panzoust, the mute Goatnose, the old poet Raminagrobis, Friar John, a group of learned doctors and lawyers, and a fool – all agree that if he marries, his wife will cheat on him, beat him, and rob him. But he egregiously reinterprets their prophecies in a more favorable light.

In a brief interlude, Pantagruel defends Judge Brindlegoose, who has pronounced sentence by rolling dice for 40 years, on the grounds that he is an old idiot and therefore favored by Fortune. As a last attempt to settle the question of marriage, Pantagruel and Panurge take a sea voyage to consult the Oracle of Bacbuc ("Divine Bottle"). Their ship is well-provisioned with the phallic herb Pantagruelion, for which Rabelais gives a ribald natural history.

The Fourth Book[edit]

Dingdong and Panurge

The sea voyage continues for the whole of The Fourth Book of Pantagruel (in French, Le quart-livre de Pantagruel; the original title is Le quart livre des faicts et dicts héroïques du bon Pantagruel[4]). The whole book can be seen as a comical retelling of the Odyssey, or of the story of Jason and the Argonauts. In The Fourth Book, perhaps his most satirical, Rabelais criticizes the arrogance and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church, the political figures of the time, and popular superstitions, and he addresses several religious, political, linguistic, and philosophical issues.

The group sails to East Asia and buys many exotic animals. Panurge quarrels with the sheep merchant Dingdong, and takes his revenge by drowning him and his flock. They pass by the islands of the Bailiffs, whose peasants charge to be beaten. During a terrible storm at sea, Panurge is paralyzed with fear but feigns insufferable bravura afterwards. After slaying a sea-monster and being informed of the death of the giant Lent, they arrive at Wild Island, where the half-sausage inhabitants (called Chitterlings) mistake Pantagruel for their enemy Lent and attack.

The battle is stopped by a divine winged pig, who excretes mustard on the battlefield. They proceed to Ruach, whose people eat air, to barren Pope-Figland where a farmer and his wife outwit the devil, and to the arrogantly Catholic Papimania, where the people worship the Pope and his Decretals. After sailing through a cloud of frozen words and sounds, they come to an island that worships Gaster, the god of food. The book ends when Pantagruel fires a salute at the island of the Muses, and Panurge befouls himself for fear of the sound, and of the "celebrated cat Rodilardus".

The Fifth Book[edit]

The Fifth Book of Pantagruel (in French, Le cinquième-livre de Pantagruel; the original title is Le cinquiesme et dernier livre des faicts et dicts héroïques du bon Pantagruel[4]) was published posthumously around 1564, and chronicles the further journeyings of Pantagruel and his friends. At Ringing Island, the company find birds living in the same hierarchy as the Catholic Church.

On Tool Island, the people are so fat they slit their skin to allow the fat to puff out. At the next island they are imprisoned by Furred Law-Cats, and escape only by answering a riddle. Nearby, they find an island of lawyers who nourish themselves on protracted court cases. In the Queendom of Whims, they uncomprehendingly watch a living-figure chess match with the miracle-working and prolix Queen Quintessence.

Passing by the abbey of the sexually prolific Semiquavers, and the Elephants and monstrous Hearsay of Satin Island, they come to the realms of darkness. Led by a guide from Lanternland, they go deep below the earth to the oracle of Bacbuc. After much admiring of the architecture and many religious ceremonies, they come to the sacred bottle itself. It utters the one word "trinc". After drinking liquid text from a book of interpretation, Panurge concludes wine inspires him to right action, and he forthwith vows to marry as quickly and as often as possible.

The last volume's attribution to Rabelais is debatable. The Fifth Book was not published until nine years after his death and includes much material that is clearly borrowed (such as from Lucian's True History and Francesco Colonna's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili[5]) or of lesser quality than the previous books. In the notes to his translation of Gargantua and Pantagruel, Donald M. Frame proposes that the Fifth Book may have been formed from unfinished material that a publisher later patched together. This interpretation has been largely supported by Mireille Huchon in "Rabelais Grammairien",[6] the first book to provide a rigorous grammatical analysis of the matter.

J. M. Cohen, in his Introduction to the Penguin Classics edition, indicates that chapters 17–48 were so out-of-character as to be seemingly written by another person, with the Fifth Book "clumsily patched together by an unskilful editor."[7]

Analysis[edit]

Bakhtin's analysis of Rabelais[edit]

Pantagruel01.jpg
Gargantua02.jpg
An example of the giants' shift in body size, above where people are the size of Pantagruel's foot, and below where Gargantua is hardly twice the height of a human.

Mikhail Bakhtin's book Rabelais and His World explores Gargantua and Pantagruel and is considered a classic of Renaissance studies.[8] Bakhtin declares that for centuries Rabelais' book had been misunderstood. Throughout Rabelais and His World, Bakhtin attempts two things. First, to recover sections of Gargantua and Pantagruel that in the past were either ignored or suppressed. Secondly, to conduct an analysis of the Renaissance social system in order to discover the balance between language that was permitted and language which was not.[9]

Through this analysis, Bakhtin pinpoints two important subtexts in Rabelais' work: the first is carnivalesque which Bakhtin describes as a social institution, and the second is grotesque realism, which is defined as a literary mode. Thus, in Rabelais and His World, Bakhtin studies the interaction between the social and the literary, as well as the meaning of the body.[9]

Bakhtin explains that carnival in Rabelais' work and age is associated with the collectivity, for those attending a carnival do not merely constitute a crowd. Rather the people are seen as a whole, organized in a way that defies socioeconomic and political organization.[10] According to Bakhtin, "[A]ll were considered equal during carnival. Here, in the town square, a special form of free and familiar contact reigned among people who were usually divided by the barriers of caste, property, profession, and age".[11]

At carnival time, the unique sense of time and space causes the individual to feel he is a part of the collectivity, at which point he ceases to be himself. It is at this point that, through costume and mask, an individual exchanges bodies and is renewed. At the same time there arises a heightened awareness of one's sensual, material, bodily unity and community.[10]

Bakhtin says also that in Rabelais the notion of carnival is connected with that of the grotesque. The collectivity partaking in the carnival is aware of its unity in time as well as its historic immortality associated with its continual death and renewal. According to Bakhtin, the body is in need of a type of clock if it is to be aware of its timelessness. The grotesque is the term used by Bakhtin to describe the emphasis of bodily changes through eating, evacuation, and sex: it is used as a measuring device.[12]

Translations[edit]

Thomas Urquhart first translated the work into English in the mid-17th century, although his translation was incomplete, and Peter Anthony Motteux completed the translation of the fourth and fifth books. The Urquhart/Motteux version is far from literal, but Urquhart's work was described by J. M. Cohen in the preface to his 1955 translation as "more like a brilliant recasting and expansion than a translation", although Motteux's contribution was criticised as "no better than competent hackwork... [W]here Urquhart often enriches, he invariably impoverishes". The Urquhart/Motteaux translation is out of copyright, and so it has been used for many reprinted editions, including that of Britannica's Great Books of the Western World.

William Francis Smith (1842–1919) made a new translation in 1893, trying to match Rabelais' sentence forms exactly, which renders the English obscure in places. For example, the convent prior exclaims against Friar John when the latter bursts into the chapel,

What will this drunken Fellow do here? Let one take me him to prison. Thus to disturb divine Service!

Smith's version includes copious notes.

Also well annotated is an abridged but vivid translation of 1946 by Samuel Putnam, which appears in a Viking Portable edition that was still in print as late as 1968. Putnam omitted sections he believed of lesser interest to modern readers, including the entirety of the fifth book. The annotations occur every few pages, explain obscure references, and fill the reader in as to original content excised by him.

John Michael Cohen's modern translation, first published in 1955 by Penguin, "admirably preserves the frankness and vitality of the original", according to its back cover, although it provides limited explanation of Rabelais' word-plays and allusions.

An annotated translation of Rabelais' complete works by Donald M. Frame was published posthumously in 1991. In a translator's note, he says: "My aim in this version, as always, is fidelity (which is not always literalness): to put into standard American English what I think R would (or at least might) have written if he were using that English today."[13]

Penguin published a translation by M. A. Screech in 2006 which incorporates textual variants; and brief notes on sources, puns, and allusions. In a translator's note, he says: "My aim here for Rabelais (as for my Penguin Montaigne) is to turn him loyally into readable and enjoyable English." [14]

List of English translations[edit]

  1. Thomas Urquhart (1653) and Peter Anthony Motteux (1694)
  2. Thomas Urquhart (1653) and Peter Anthony Motteux (1694), revised by John Ozell (1737)
  3. William Francis Smith (1893)
  4. Thomas Urquhart (1653) and Peter Anthony Motteux (1694), revised by Alfred Wallis (1897)
  5. Samuel Putnam (1948)
  6. J. M. Cohen (1955)
  7. Burton Raffel (1990)
  8. Donald M. Frame (1991)
  9. Michael Andrew Screech (2006)

Illustrations[edit]

The most famous and reproduced illustrations for Gargantua and Pantagruel were done by French artist Gustave Doré and published in 1854.[15] Several appear in this article. Over 400 additional drawings were done by Doré for the 1873 second edition of the book. An edition published in 1904 was illustrated by W. Heath Robinson.[16] Another set of illustrations was created by French artist Joseph Hémard and published in 1922.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rabelais, François (1952). "Biographical Note". Rabelais. Great Books of the Western World. 24. Robert Maynard Hutchins (editor-in-chief), Mortimer J. Adler (associate editor), Sir Thomas Urquhart (translator), Peter Motteux (translator). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  2. ^ Le Cadet, Nicolas (2009) Marcel De Grève, La réception de Rabelais en Europe du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle, Cahiers de recherches médiévales et humanistes, Comptes rendus (par année de publication des ouvrages), 2009, [En ligne], mis en ligne le 20 avril 2010. Consulté le 22 novembre 2010.
  3. ^ Bakhtin, Mikhail. Rabelais and his World. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1984. p. 110.
  4. ^ a b c d e Rabelais, François; Jacques Boulenger (1955). Rabelais Oeuvres Complètes. France: Gallimard. p. 1033.
  5. ^ Marcel Francon, "Francesco Colonna's 'Poliphili Hypnerotomachia' and Rabelais", The Modern Language Review, Vol. 50, No. 1 (January 1955), pp. 52–55
  6. ^ "Rabelais grammairien. De l'histoire du texte aux problèmes d'authenticité", Mirelle Huchon, in Etudes Rabelaisiennes XVI, Geneva, 1981
  7. ^ p. 26
  8. ^ Clark and Holquist, p. 295
  9. ^ a b Clark and Holquist, pp. 297–299
  10. ^ a b Clark and Holquist, p. 302
  11. ^ Bakhtin, p. 10
  12. ^ Clark and Holquist, p. 303
  13. ^ Rabelais, François (1999). The Complete Works of François Rabelais: translated from the French by Donald M. Frame; with a foreword by Raymond C. La Charité. Translated by Donald M. Frame. University of California Press. p. xxvi. ISBN 9780520064010.
  14. ^ Rabelais, François (2006). Gargantua and Pantagruel: Translated and edited with an Introduction and Notes by M. A. Screech. Translated by M. A. Screech. Penguin Books Ltd. p. xliv. ISBN 9780140445503.
  15. ^ J. Bry Ainé, Paris, 1854.
  16. ^ The Works of Mr. Francis Rabelais. London: Grant Richards, 1904; reprinted by The Navarre Society, London, 1921.
  17. ^ Crès, Paris, 1922.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Authenticity of fifth book is doubted.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]