Medieval Bulgarian army

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Medieval Bulgarian army
Participant in the wars of the Bulgarian Empire
Krum1.jpg
Khan Krum feasts with a skull cup made of Emperor Nicephorus Is head following the victory in the battle of Pliska.
Active 632  – 1422 AD
Leaders Bulgarian Emperor (Commander-in-chief)
Area of operations Balkans, Pannonia, Ukrainian Steppes
Strength c. 60,000 (9th – 10th century); 100,000[1] (13th century)
Part of Bulgarian Empire
Allies Slavs, Pechenegs, East Franks, Cumans
Opponents Byzantines, Avars, Hungarians, the Caliphate, Franks, Serbs, Rus', Crusader states, Pechenegs, Khazars, Mongols, Ottomans and others

The medieval Bulgarian army was the primary military body of the First and the Second Bulgarian Empires. During the first decades after the foundation of the country, the army consisted of a Bulgar cavalry and a Slavic infantry. The core of the Bulgarian army was the heavy cavalry, which consisted of 12,000–30,000[2] heavily armed riders. At its height in the 9th and 10th centuries, it was one of the most formidable military forces in Europe and was feared by its enemies. There are several documented cases of Byzantine commanders abandoning an invasion because of a reluctance to confront the Bulgarian army on its home territory.[3][4][5]

The army was intrinsically linked to the very existence of the Bulgarian state. Its success under Tsar Simeon I marked the creation of a wide-ranging empire, and its defeat in a prolonged war of attrition in the early 11th century meant the end of Bulgarian independence. When the Bulgarian state was reestablished in 1185, a series of capable emperors achieved a remarkable string of victories over the Byzantines and the Western Crusaders, but as the state and its army fragmented in the 13th and 14th centuries, it proved unable to halt the Ottoman advance, which resulted in the conquest of all of Bulgaria by 1422. It would not be until 1878, with the Liberation of Bulgaria, that a Bulgarian military would be restored.

History[edit]

7th-8th century[edit]

The early Bulgars were a warlike people and war was part of their everyday life, with every adult Bulgar obliged to fight. The early Bulgars were exclusively horsemen: in their culture, the horse was considered a sacred animal and received special care.

The supreme commander was the khan, who mustered the army with the help of the aristocracy. The military ranks from lowest to highest were bagain, bagatur, boil, tarkhan. The permanent army consisted of the khan's guard of select warriors, while the campaign army consisted practically of the entire nation, assembled by clans. In the field, the army was divided into right and left wings.

The Bulgars were well versed in the use of stratagems. They often held a strong cavalry unit in reserve, which would attack the enemy at an opportune moment. They also sometimes concentrated their free horses behind their battle formation to avoid surprise attacks from the rear.They used ambushes and feigned retreats, during which they rode with their backs to the horse, firing clouds of arrows on the enemy. If the enemy pursued disorganized, they would turn back and fiercely attack them. According to contemporary historians, the Bulgars "could see in the dark like bats"[6] and often fought at night.

The Bulgarian army was well armed according to the Avar model: the soldiers had a sabre or a sword, a long spear and a bow with an arrow-quiver on the back. On the saddle they hung a round shield, a mace and a lasso, which the Bulgarians called arkani. On their decorated belts the soldiers carried the most necessary objects such as flints and steel, a knife, a cup and a needle case. The heavy cavalry was supplied with metal armour and helmets. The horses were also armoured. Armour was of two types — chain-mail and plate armour. The commanders had belts with golden or silver buckles which corresponded to their rank and title.[6]

The army had iron discipline, with the officers vigorously checking if everything was ready before a battle. For a horse that was undernourished or not properly taken care of, the punishment was death. The soldiers were under threat of a death penalty when having a loose bow-string or an unmaintained sword; or even if riding a war horse in peacetime.[8]

The infantry of the newly formed state was composed mainly of Slavs, who were generally lightly armed soldiers, although their chieftains usually had small cavalry retinues. The Slavic footmen were equipped with swords, spears, bows and wooden or leather shields. However, they were less disciplined and less effective than the Bulgar cavalry.

In 680, the Byzantines under Constantine IV were crushed in the battle of Ongal and were forced to conclude a humiliating peace treaty by which they de jure acknowledged the formation of a Bulgarian state on their former territory.[9] In 718, a Bulgarian intervention was crucial in the repulsion of the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople. According to contemporaries, the Arabs feared the Bulgarian army and built trenches to protect themselves from a cavalry charge. In the decisive battle in the summer that year the Bulgarians slaughtered between 20,000 and 32,000 Arabs.[10] Apart from engaging in battle to the south, the Bulgarians had to fight the Avars to the north-west[11] and the Khazars to the north-east. After bloody fights between the Dnester and the Dneper rivers, the Khazar threat was eliminated but the founder of the Bulgarian state Khan Asparukh perished in one of the battles in 700.[12]

Krum's dynasty[edit]

On the turn of the 9th century, the Bulgarian Empire was on the rise. Following the victory over the Byzantines at Marcelae in 792, the country overcame a 50-year crisis and entered the new century stronger and consolidated. During the first years of his reign, Khan Krum destroyed the Avar Khaganate and doubled Bulgaria's territory, taking over the fertile Pannonian Plain and the salt and gold mines of Transylvania. Krum achieved major victories over the Byzantine Empire, annihilating the Byzantine armies in the battle of Pliska (811)[13] and at Versinikia (813), while capturing the important city of Sofia in 809.

The Byzantine historian Pseudo-Simeon stated that Krum sent a 30,000 strong cavalry, "the whole armoured with iron",[15] which devastated Thrace. According to inscriptions found in the region of Pliska, Preslav, Madara and Shabla in north-eastern Bulgaria, armaments for 1,713 heavy riders were available.[16] Assuming that the surviving inscriptions are around 1/10 of the total number, that makes 17,130 men only in the so-called "inner region" of Bulgaria. After comparison with the data of Pseudo-Simeon, it can be assumed that the heavy cavalry component of the Bulgarian army numbered between 17-20,000 and 30,000 men, depending on the level of mobilization.[17] During the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th centuries, Emperor Simeon the Great was able to lead in battle more than 60,000 soldiers.[18]

The Bulgarians crush the Byzantine army in the battle of Versinikia.
The Rus' invasion of Bulgaria.

Traditionally, the army's commander-in-chief was the ruler. The second in the chain of command was the kavkhan who led the army during the Emperor's absence. The third most important title in the hierarchy was the ichirgu-boil who commanded the garrison of the capital. In the field, the army was divided into three parts: center, right flank and left flank. The center was commanded by the ruler, the left flank by the kavkhan and the right flank by the ichirgu-boil.[19] Other higher military ranks included the tarkhan which was equal to the Byzantine strategos according to Steven Runciman,[20] and the higher officers were called bagain. All higher military ranks were part of the Bulgarian nobility called bolyars or boils.

Decline under Peter I[edit]

During the long years of warfare under Tsar Simeon I the Great (893-927), the country was exhausted.[21] The constant wars were unpopular enough so that 20,000 people sought refuge in Byzantium because of Simeon's "warlike rush and relentless intentions".[22] His successor Peter I concluded a favourable peace treaty with the Byzantines, but the situation inside the country saw no improvement. There were many reasons for the decline — some historians dismiss Peter I as a weak ruler, incapable of handling his own family (two of his brothers rose up against him). Furthermore, in the mid-10th century the new Bogomil heresy spread itself widely over the country.[21][23] The Bogomils preached that people must not follow secular authorities, pay taxes or enroll in the army. As a result, the Bulgarians were unable to stop the Magyars, who looted and plundered the countryside, further contributing to the grim situation of the state. When the Byzantines paid the Rus' knyaz Svyatoslav I to invade Bulgaria in 968, Peter I could send only 30,000 men against the 60,000 strong invading force.[24] During the Rus' invasion between 968 and 971 the Bulgarians de facto lost control of the north-eastern parts of their country, including the capital Preslav, and in 970, Svyatoslav massacred 300 Bulgarian nobles, the elite of the Bulgarian nation and army, in Silistra.[17][25]

Cometopuli dynasty[edit]

The fall of the north-eastern parts of the Bulgarian Empire under Byzantine rule and the decimation of its military elite had a severe impact on the Bulgarian army,[26] especially since most of the heavy cavalry which was instrumental in the earlier successes over the Byzantines was recruited exactly in that region. Contemporary sources continue to mention the existence of a Bulgarian cavalry, but it was much reduced in size and was mostly light cavalry.[27]

Consequently, the infantry's importance grew and the tactics changed to reflect the new conditions: the ambush, although employed in the past, now became the cornerstone of Bulgarian tactics — most Bulgarian victories in that period were a result of ambush and careful exploitation of the terrain.[29] During this period, the Bulgarians acquired a reputation for their skillful archers.

Despite those difficulties, Emperor Samuil resisted the Byzantine army, which reached its zenith under Basil II, for nearly half a century. In 976 the Bulgarians led by the Cometopuli brothers reconquered the north-eastern parts of the realm. The first Byzantine attempts for counter-attack were repulsed after the annihilation of a 60,000[30] force in the battle of the Gates of Trajan in 986 in which Basil II himself barely escaped. In the following decade the Bulgarians took Thessaly, destroyed the Principality of Duklja, advanced deep to the south as far as Corinth on the Peloponnese peninsula and campaigned in Dalmatia and Bosnia.

However, a major defeat at the battle of Spercheios in 996 signaled that the tide of the war had begun to change in the Byzantines' favour. From 1001 onwards, Basil II launched yearly campaigns into Bulgarian territory, methodically taking important cities such as Preslav, Pliska and Vidin, and inflicting several defeats on Samuil.[31] In addition, in 1003 Samuil was involved in a war with the Kingdom of Hungary. After years of campaigning, in 1014, in the decisive battle of Kleidion the Bulgarian army was crushed and 14,000 captured Bulgarian soldiers were blinded[32] and sent to Samuil, who died at the sight of his army on 6 October.

In the battle of Kleidion the Bulgarian army numbered around 20,000 soldiers. According some estimates the total number of the army including the squads of local militia reached a maximum level of 45,000. The Byzantine historian Georgius Monachus Continuatus wrote that the Bulgarian army had 360,000 men, a greatly exaggerated number, the actual being 10 times smaller.[33]

Asen dynasty[edit]

Emperor Ivan Asen II brought the Second Bulgarian Empire to its greatest expansion.

In 1185 the Bulgarian Empire was restored as a result of the successful Rebellion of Asen and Peter, who founded the new Asen dynasty. The long period of Byzantine rule had left its mark on the Bulgarian army — the titles during the Second Empire were mostly borrowed from Byzantium. In the absence of the Emperor the commander-in-chief was called velik (great) voivoda; the commander of smaller squads was a voivoda and a strator was the person responsible for the defense of certain regions and the recruitment of soldiers.

In the late 12th century the army numbered 40,000 men-at-arms.[34] The country was able to mobilize around 100,000 men in the first decade of the 13th century (Kaloyan reportedly offered the leader of the Fourth Crusade Baldwin I 100,000 soldiers to help him take Constantinople).[35] In that period the Bulgarian army used large numbers of Cuman cavalry which numbered between 10,000 and 30,000 riders, depending on the campaign. These were drawn from among the Cumans who inhabited Wallachia and Moldavia, and were at least nominally under the suzerainty of the Bulgarian Emperors. The army was well supplied with siege equipment, including battering rams, siege towers and catapults.

In the first fifty years after the reestablishment of the Empire, the Bulgarians, led by skillful commanders such as Peter IV, Ivan Asen I, Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II, achieved massive military successes. After a number of successful battles between 1185 and 1204, the Byzantine Empire was effectively driven from the lands it held in the northern Balkans, and the Imperial crown and cross.[37] The army of the Crusaders, who established the new Latin Empire, were in turn annihilated in the battle of Adrianople (1205), when their Emperor was captured, and again at Rusion in 1206. The Hungarians were defeated after several fights along the valley of the Morava river in 1202. After several setbacks under Boril I (1207–1218), Ivan Asen II decisively defeated the Despotate of Epirus in the battle of Klokotnitsa, in which the much smaller Bulgarian army outmaneuvered its enemy. In 1241, the Tsar defeated a Mongol army, fighting under Batu Khan and Subutai.

Terter and Shishman dynasties[edit]

The country and the army declined after Ivan Asen II's death. His successors could not cope neither with the external nor with the internal problems. Mongol, Byzantine and Hungarian invasions were combined with separatism among the nobility and several civil wars. In 1277, a peasant named Ivailo rebelled against Emperor Constantine Tikh. In the ensuing battle the Emperor was defeated and slain, and Ivailo proclaimed himself Emperor of Bulgaria in Tarnovo. Although he managed to defeat both the Mongols and the Byzantines, a plot among the nobility forced him to seek refuge among the Mongol Golden Horde, where he was killed in 1280.[38] The army now numbered less than 10,000 men — it is recorded that Ivailo defeated two Byzantine armies of 5,000 and 10,000 men, and that his troops were outnumbered in both cases.[39]

After the end of the rebellion of Ivailo, the Bulgarians were no match for the Mongols who plundered the country undisturbed for 20 years. With the reign of Theodore Svetoslav (1300–1321), the situation of the army improved — in 1304 he defeated the Byzantines at Skafida. Under his successor the garrison of Plovdiv numbered 2,000 heavily armed footmen and 1,000 horsemen.[41] In 1330 Michael III Shishman raised a 15,000-strong army[42] to face the Serbs but was defeated at the battle of Velbazhd. Two years later the Bulgarian army numbered 11,000 men.[43]

When the Ottoman Turks invaded Bulgaria and the Balkans in the mid-14th century, the once glorious Bulgarian army was only a shadow of its former self. Feudal disunion and the widespread heretical movements such as Bogomilism, the Adamites or the Varlaamites did not allow the country to maintain a significant force. The Bulgarians relied on their fortified cities and castles for defense, but due to the lack of a common leadership, coordination amongst them was feeble and they were defeated and occupied in detail.

Initially, the Ottoman invasion was not considered as a significant threat by both Bulgarians and Byzantines. For only one decade between 1354 and 1364 the Ottomans conquered virtually the whole of Thrace seizing large cities such as Plovdiv, Beroia, Dianopolis (Yambol) and Adrianople and defeating several small Bulgarian forces.[44] The centuries-old mistrust between Bulgarians and Byzantines spoiled the negotiations between the two empires for an alliance and even led to the last Byzantine-Bulgarian war in 1364.[45] In 1371 a large Bulgarian-Serb army under Vukašin Mrnjavčević and Jovan Uglješa, two feudal lords in Macedonia, was annihilated by the Ottomans under Lala Shahin Pasha at Chernomen and soon the Bulgarian Emperor had to admit the defeat and became a vassal to the invaders.[46] Numerous Bulgarian fortresses in the Rhodope mountains, Sofia valley and eastern Bulgaria were captured one by one over the next twenty years. In 1393 the capital Tarnovo was besieged and seized by the Ottoman Turks and three years later fell Vidin - the last major Bulgarian city. Resistance to the invaders continued until 1422 when the country was fully conquered. The Ottoman invasion was a disaster for the Bulgarian army — the nobility and the leaders of the nation were killed or emigrated and civilians were not allowed to have weapons until the 19th century.

Tactics[edit]

The campaigns of the Bulgarian army in early 9th century.

The Bulgarian army employed various military tactics. It relied both on the experience of the soldiers and the peculiarities of the terrain. The Balkan mountains played a significant role in the military history of Bulgaria and facilitated the country's defense against the strong Byzantine army which conveyed the Roman military art in the Middle Ages. Most of the nine campaigns of the ambitious Emperor Constantine V to eliminate the young Bulgarian state, which suffered political crisis, failed in the mountain passes of the Balkan. In 811 the whole Byzantine army was destroyed in the Varbitsa pass and in 12th-13th centuries several other Byzantine forces shared that doom. The Bulgarians maintained many outposts and castles which guarded the passes and were able to locate an invading force and quickly inform the high command about any enemy moves.

Another widely used tactic was to make a false retreat and then suddenly attack the enemy — breaking the lines when in pursuit.[47] This trick won many victories, most notably at the battle of Adrianople in 1205 against the Crusaders. Sometimes the Bulgarians left a strong cavalry force in reserve which attacked in the sublime moment and tipped the balance in Bulgarians' favour, for instance in the battle of Anchialus in 917.[18] Ambush was another widely used and very successful strategy especially during the Cometopuli dynasty.

The Bulgarians usually avoided frontal assault and waited the enemy to attack first. After the opponent inevitably breaks his battle formation the Bulgarians would counter-attack with their heavy cavalry. In several battles the Bulgarian troops waited the Byzantines for days until the latter attack — for instance at Marcelae (792) or Versinikia (813) - and scored decisive victories.[47][49] In one of the rare occasions in which the army made a frontal attack on the enemy, the result was a defeat despite the heavy casualties the enemy suffered - battle of Anchialus (763).[50] After a successful battle the Bulgarian would pursue the enemy in depth in order to eliminate as much soldiers as possible and not to allow him to reorganize his forces quickly and effectively. For instance after the victory at Ongal in 680 the Byzantines were chased for 150–200 km. After the success at Anchialus in 917 the Byzantines were not given time to prepare their resistance properly and the result was the annihilation of their last forces in the battle of Katasyrtai.

During war the Bulgarians usually sent light cavalry to devastate the enemy lands on a broad front pillaging villages and small towns, burning the crops and taking people and cattle.[51] During the Second Empire that task was usually assigned to the Cumans. The Bulgarian army was very mobile — for instance prior to the battle of Klokotnitsa for four days it covered a distance three times longer than the Epirote army for a week; in 1332 it covered 230 km for five days.[43]

Siege equipment[edit]

A drawing of a catapult.

The early Bulgarian army was not supplied with strong siege equipment . The Bulgarians used siege machines on a large scale for the first time during the reign of Khan Krum (803-814), when they employed Arab renegades to gain experience. By 814 they possessed a large number of enormous siege machines[52] - battering rams, ballistas, mangonels, catapults, siege towers, machines against battlements.[53] They were transported by 5,000 iron-covered carts, hauled by 10,000 oxen.[54] In addition, after the siege of Mesembria, the Bulgarians captured 36 copper siphons which the Byzantines used to throw the famous Greek fire.

A wide range of siege equipment was also used during the Second Empire.[55] During the siege of Adrianople in 1207, Emperor Kaloyan had 33 catapults and an engineer corps which was tasked with destroying the city walls.[56] In the beginning of the 13th century, during the siege of Varna, the Bulgarians constructed an enormous siege tower which was wider than the moat of the fortress.

Foreign and mercenary soldiers[edit]

After the Bulgarians conquered the Avar Khanate in 804-805, Avar soldiers, who were now subjects of the Bulgarian crown, were recruited in the army, especially during the campaign against Nicephorus I in 811, when the Byzantines burned down the capital, Pliska.[57] In the 9th-10th centuries the Bulgarians often resorted to the services of the Pechenegs,[58] who were probably Bulgarian federates. When the Byzantines stirred the Kievan Rus' up against the Empire, the Bulgarian diplomacy in turn used the Pechenegs against Rus'.[24][59]

During the Second Empire, foreign and mercenary soldiers became an important part of the Bulgarian army and its tactics. Since the very beginning of the rebellion of Asen and Peter, the light and mobile Cuman cavalry was effectively used against the Byzantines and later the Crusaders. For instance, fourteen thousand of them were used by Kaloyan in the battle of Adrianople.[60] The Cumans were the empire's most effective military component.[61] The Cuman leaders entered the ranks of Bulgarian nobility, and some of them received high military or administrative posts in the state.[62] During the 14th century the Bulgarian army increasingly relied on foreign mercenaries, which included Western knights, Mongols, Ossetians or came from vassal Wallachia. Both Michael III Shishman and Ivan Alexander had a 3,000-strong Mongol cavalry detachment in their armies.[43][63] In the 1350s, Emperor Ivan Alexander even hired Ottoman bands, as did the Byzantine Emperor. Russians were also hired as mercenaries.[61]

War Conflicts[edit]

Bulgarian–Arabian wars[edit]

Medieval miniature showing cavalry sallying from a city and routing an enemy army
King Tervel crowned “The Savior of Europe” by the Pope, after crushing the Arab Umayyad army at the Siege of Constantinople
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Umayyad Flag.svg Arabian Umayyad Caliphate Commander Result
Bulgar–Arab War 716 Tervel Maslama Malik Bulgarian victory
Siege of Constantinople 717 Tervel Maslama Malik Bulgarian victory
Arab Slaughter of Constantinople 718 Tervel Umar ibn Hubayra Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Byzantine wars[edit]

Khan Krum leads Bulgaria to victory at the Battle of Pliska in 811
Undefeated King Simeon the Great victorious at the Battle of Bulgarophygon in 896
The Bulgarian Army Smothers the Byzantines in The Battle of Achelous in 917
Emperor Samuil The Invincible crushes King Basil II's Byzantine army at the Battle of the Gates of Trajan in 996
King Basil II The Bulgar Slayer victoriously avenges his Byzantine army at the Battle of Kleidion in 1014
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander The double-headed Byzantine Eagle. Byzantine Commander Result
Battle of Ongal 680 Asparukh Constantine IV Bulgarian victory
Battle of Anchialus 708 Tervel Justinian II Bulgarian victory
Battle of Marcellae 756 Vinekh Constantine V Byzantine victory
Battle of the Rishki Pass 759 Vinekh Constantine V Bulgarian victory
Battle of Anchialus 763 Telets Constantine V Byzantine victory
Battle of Berzitia 774 Telerig Constantine V Byzantine victory
Battle of Marcellae 792 Kardam Constantine VI Bulgarian victory
Siege of Serdica 809 Krum Constantine V Bulgarian victory
Battle of Pliska 811 Krum Nicephorus I Bulgarian victory
Battle of Versinikia 813 Krum Michael I Rangabe Bulgarian victory
Siege of Adrianople 813 Krum Leo Phokas Bulgarian victory
Battle of Burdizon 814 Omurtag Leo Phokas Byzantine victory
Battle of Kedouktos 822 Omurtag Thomas I Byzantine victory
Battle of Boulgarophygon 896 Simeon I Leo Katakalon Bulgarian victory
Battle of Achelous 917 Simeon I Leo Phokas Bulgarian victory
Battle of Katasyrtai 917 Simeon I Leo Phokas Bulgarian victory
Battle of Pegae 922 Theodore Sigritsa Pothos Argyros Bulgarian victory
Battle of the Gates of Trajan 986 Samuil Basil II Bulgarian victory
Battle of Salonica 996 Samuil Gregory Taronites Bulgarian victory
Battle of Spercheios 996 Samuil Nikephoros Ouranos Byzantine victory
Battle of Skopie 1004 Samuil Basil II Byzantine victory
Battle of Kreta 1009 Samuil Basil II Byzantine victory
Battle of Thessalonica 1014 Nestoritsa Botaneiates Byzantine victory
Battle of Kleidion 1014 Samuil Basil II Byzantine victory
Battle of Strumitsa 1014 Gavril Radomir Botaneiates Bulgarian victory
Battle of Bitola 1015 Ivats George Gonitsiates Bulgarian victory
Battle of Setina 1017 Ivan Vladislav Basil II Byzantine victory
Battle of Dyrrhachium 1018 Ivan Vladislav Niketas Pegonites Byzantine victory
Battle of Thessalonica 1040 Peter II Delyan Michael IV Bulgarian victory
Battle of Thessalonica 1040 Alusian Michael IV Byzantine victory
Battle of Ostrovo 1041 Peter II Delyan Michael IV Byzantine victory
Uprising of Voiteh 1070 Peter III Damianos Bulgarian victory
Defeat of Voiteh 1071 Peter III Damianos Byzantine victory
Siege of Lovech 1190 Ivan Asen I Isaac II Angelos Bulgarian victory
Battle of Tryavna 1190 Ivan Asen I Isaac II Angelos Bulgarian victory
Battle of Arcadiopolis 1194 Ivan Asen I Basil Vatatzes Bulgarian victory
Battle of Serres 1196 Ivan Asen I Isaac Bulgarian victory
Siege of Varna 1201 Kaloyan Isaac Bulgarian victory
Battle of Devina 1279 Ivailo Murin Bulgarian victory
Battle of Skafida 1304 Theodore Svetoslav Michael IX Bulgarian victory
Battle of Rusokastro 1332 Ivan Alexander Andronikos III Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Crimean wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Gerae-tamga.svg Crimean Tatar Khanate Commander Result
First Tatar Invasion 1241 Kaliman I Tatarin Bulgarian victory
Second Siege of Nessebar 1244 Kaliman I Tatarin Bulgarian victory
Tatar Invasion of Dobruja 1414 Constantine II Yeremferden Crimean victory
Final Tatar Banishment 1415 Constantine II Yeremferden Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Croatian wars[edit]

Bulgaria conquering a majority of the Croatian territory along with bordering Charlemagne's Frankish Empire in 814
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Croatia CoA 1990.svg Croatian Commander Result
First Bulgar–Croat War 854 Boris I Trpimir Truce
Battle of the Bosnian Highlands 926 Alogobotur Tomislav Croatian victory
Second Bulgar–Croat War 927 Simeon I Tomislav Bulgarian victory
Third Bulgar–Croat War-Alliance 1000 Samuil Svetoslav Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Cuman wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Coat of arms of Cumania.svg Cumanian Commander Result
First Cumanian Conflict 1140 Gradihna Sevinch Bulgarian victory
Second Cumanian Conflict 1145 Radoslav Sevinch Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Frankish wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg Frankish Commander Result
Bulgar–Frankish War 827 Omurtag Louis the Pious Bulgarian victory
Naval Battle of the Danube 827 Omurtag Louis the Pious Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Frankish War 828 Omurtag Louis the Pious Bulgarian victory
Naval Battle of the Drava 828 Omurtag Louis the Pious Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Frankish Alliance 829 Omurtag Louis the Pious Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Genoan wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Armoiries Gênes.svg Genoan Commander Result
First Battle of Dobruja 1379 Dobrotitsa Luciano Doria Bulgarian victory
Second Battle of Dobruja 1382 Dobrotitsa Nicolò Guarco Bulgarian victory
Battle of Pera 1387 Ivanko Nicolò Guarco Truce

Bulgarian–Hungarian wars[edit]

The Bulgarian army flees to Silistra after a Hungarian defeat in 894
After all of Europe pleaded God for mercy from the ravaging Magyar Hungarians, a sickened King Simeon answered the call by brutally slaughtering many of the Magyars at the Battle of Southern Buh. ultimately forcing the Magyars to permanently settle in Central Europe
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Coa Hungary Country History Imre (1196-1204).svg Hungarian Commander Result
Bulgar–Hungar wars 862 Boris I Rastislav Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 883 Boris I Svatoplak Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 892 Boris I Svatoplak Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 893 Boris I Arpad Hungarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 894 Boris I Arpad Hungarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 895 Simeon I Arpad And Levente Bulgarian victory
Battle of Southern Buh 896 Simeon I Arpad And Levente Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 932 Peter I Bogat Hungarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 934 Peter I Zombor Hungarian victory
Battle of the Northern Danube 980 Ahtum Stephen I Hungarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 1202 Kaloyan Emeric Hungarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 1203 Kaloyan Emeric Bulgarian victory
Battle of the Vidin 1365 Ivan Stratsimir Louis I Hungarian victory
Bulgar–Hungar wars 1367 Ivan Alexander Louis I Bulgarian victory
Final Defeat of Hungaria 1369 Ivan Stratsimir Louis I Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Khazar wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Magen David Adom.svg Khazar Khaganate Commander Result
Khazar Invasion Old Great Bulgaria 662 Kubrat Ziebel Khazar victory
Fall of Old Great Bulgaria 665 Kubrat Böri Shad Khazar victory
First Northern Bulgar Invasion 668 Asparukh Kaban Bulgarian victory
Second Northern Bulgar Invasion 670 Asparukh Kaban Bulgarian victory
Battle of Danube & Death of Aspurukh 701 Asparukh Busir Khazar victory
Destruction of Southern Khazaria 702 Tervel Busir Bulgarian victory
Final Khazar Banishment 825 Omurtag Bulan Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Kievan Rus wars[edit]

The Rus' invasion being repulsed by a Byzantine–Bulgarian alliance
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Alex K Sviatoslav.svg Rus Commander Result
Battle of Silistra 968 Peter I Sviatoslav I Rus victory
Bulgar–Rus wars 968 Boris I Sviatoslav I Rus victory
Battle of Pereyaslavets 969 Boris I Sviatoslav I Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Rus Northern Alliance 970 Boris I Sviatoslav I Rus victory
Siege of Dorostolon 971 Boris II Sviatoslav I Bulgarian victory
Rus Banishment 997 Samuil Sviatoslav I Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Latin wars[edit]

A medieval fortress
Tsarevets Castle, capital of Bulgaria under King Kaloyan The Crusader Slayer. where the Bulgarians brutally annihilated the 4th Crusade, capturing Latin Crusader King Baldwin I in the process and locking him in his tower till his death in 1205
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Blason Empire Latin de Constantinople.svg Latin Crusader Commander Result
Battle of Adrianople 1205 Kaloyan Baldwin I Bulgarian victory
Battle of Serres 1205 Kaloyan Henry I Bulgarian victory
Battle of Rusion 1206 Kaloyan Thierry de Termonde Bulgarian victory
Battle of Rodosto 1206 Kaloyan Henry I Bulgarian victory
Battle of Messinopolis 1207 Boril Boniface Bulgarian victory
Battle of Beroia 1207 Boril Henry I Bulgarian victory
Battle of Philippopolis 1208 Boril Henry I Latin victory
Siege of Constantinople 1235 Ivan Asen II John of Brienne Two Year Truce

Bulgarian–Mongol wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Mongol Commander Result
Battle of Samara Bend 1223 Gabdula Chelbir Genghis Khan Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Mongol War 1241 Ivan Asen II Batu Khan Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Mongol War 1242 Kaliman Asen I Batu Khan Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Mongol War 1271 Kaliman Asen II Nogai Khan Mongol victory
Bulgar–Mongol War 1278 Ivailo Nogai Khan Bulgarian victory
Siege of Silistra 1279 Ivailo Nogai Khan Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Mongol War 1299 George I Nogai Khan Mongol victory
First Mongol Banishment 1300 Theo Svetoslav Toqta Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Mongol War 1332 Ivan Stefan Uzbeg Khan Bulgarian victory
Final Banishment of Mongol Horde 1341 Ivan Stefan Uzbeg Khan Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Nicean wars[edit]

Map of the numerous Latin kingdoms in result of the Latin Crusader sack of Constantinople
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Byzantine imperial flag, 14th century, square.svg Nicean Commander Result
Siege of Constantinople 1235 Ivan Asen II John of Brienne Two Year Truce
Battle of Adrianople 1254 Micheal I Theodore II Lascaris Nicean victory
First Battle of Northern Anatolia 1256 Micheal I Theodore II Lascaris Bulgarian victory
Second Battle of Northern Anatolia 1257 Micheal I Theodore II Lascaris Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Ottoman wars[edit]

Bulgarian Duke Momchil The Ottoman Obliterator (Turk Destroyer) victoriously crushing the Ottoman offense a year after his famous destruction of the Ottoman fleet in the naval massacre of Portogalos in 1344
The Bulgarian Empire, split into its numerous Bulgar states, on the eve of the century-long war with the Ottoman Turks
A depiction from a medieval manuscript
The defeat at the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, was the major turning point in the near-hundred-year war with the Ottoman Empire
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Commander Result
Naval Massacre of Porto Galo 1344 Momchil Murad I Bulgarian victory
Rhodope Bulgar Ambush 1345 Momchil Murad I Bulgarian victory
Battle of Peritor 1345 Momchil Umur Beg Ottoman victory
Bulgar–Ottoman wars 1352 Ivan Alexander Umur Beg Ottoman victory
Bulgar–Ottoman wars 1354 Ivan Alexander Umur Beg Ottoman victory
Battle of Ihtiman 1355 Michael Asen Umur Beg Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Ottoman wars 1359 Michael Asen Umur Beg Ottoman victory
Bulgar–Ottoman wars 1353 Michael Asen Umur Beg Ottoman victory
Bulgar–Ottoman wars 1364 Michael Asen Umur Beg Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Ottoman wars 1371 Ivan Shishman Murad I Ottoman victory
Bulgar–Ottoman Peace Treaty 1373 Ivan Shishman Murad I Ottoman victory
First Siege of Rakovista 1374 Ivan Shishman Davud Pasha Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Ottoman wars 1375 Ivan Shishman Davud Pasha Bulgarian victory
Siege of Tsepina 1375 Ivan Shishman Davud Pasha Bulgarian victory
Second Siege of Rakovista 1375 Ivan Shishman Davud Pasha Ottoman victory
Siege of Batkun 1376 Ivan Shishman Davud Pasha Ottoman victory
Ottoman Rhodope Invasion 1376 Ivan Shishman Lala Shahin Pasha Bulgarian victory
Battle of Zarenitza 1376 Ivan Shishman Lala Shahin Pasha Bulgarian victory
Battle of Zagrad 1376 Ivan Shishman Lala Shahin Pasha Bulgarian victory
Battle of Gradishte 1377 Ivan Shishman Lala Shahin Pasha Bulgarian victory
Battle of Chiltepes 1378 Ivan Shishman Sara Baba Bulgarian victory
Battle of Karakulas 1378 Ivan Shishman Sara Baba Bulgarian victory
Battle of Imeretdere 1379 Ivan Shishman Sara Baba Bulgarian victory
Massacre of Momina Voda 1380 Ivan Shishman Sara Baba Bulgarian victory
Siege of Zlatitsa Valley 1380 Ivan Stratsimir Murad I Ottoman victory
First Siege of Sofia 1381 Ban Yanuka Lala Shahin Pasha Bulgarian victory
Second Siege of Sofia 1382 Ban Yanuka Murad I Ottoman victory
Battle of Pirot 1384 Ivan Shishman Murad I Ottoman victory
Battle of Naissus 1386 Ivan Shishman Murad I Ottoman victory
Battle of Plocnik 1387 Ivan Stratsimir Lala Shahin Pasha Bulgarian victory
Battle of Ovech 1387 Ivan Stratsimir Lala Shahin Pasha Ottoman victory
Siege of Shumen 1388 Ivan Stratsimir Lala Shahin Pasha Ottoman victory
Battle of Madara 1389 Ivan Stratsimir Lala Shahin Pasha Ottoman victory
Siege of Varna 1389 Ivan Stratsimir Murad I Bulgarian victory
First Siege of Tutrakan 1390 Ivan Stratsimir Murad I Bulgarian victory
Second Siege of Tutrakan 1391 Ivan Stratsimir Lala Shahin Pasha Ottoman victory
First Siege of Nicopolis 1392 Ivan Shishman Murad I Bulgarian victory
Second Siege of Nicopolis 1392 Ivan Shishman Bayezid I Ottoman victory
Siege of Tarnovo 1393 Evtimiy Süleyman Çelebi Ottoman victory
Capture of Vidin 1396 Ivan Stratsimir Bayezid I Bulgarian victory
Ottoman Retake of Vidin 1398 Ivan Stratsimir Bayezid I Ottoman victory
Anti-Ottoman Revolt 1413 Constantine II Mehmed I Bulgarian victory
Final Fall of Bulgarian Empire 1422 Constantine II Murad II Ottoman victory

Bulgarian–Pecheneg wars[edit]

Bulgaria bordering the vast Pecheneg Khanate before a decisive Bulgarian victory led by King Boris II
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Heraldic Shield Orange.svg Pecheneg Khanate Commander Result
First Pecheneg Invasion 967 Peter I Kurya Pecheneg victory
Second Pecheneg Invasion 969 Boris II Kurya Bulgarian victory
Third Pecheneg Invasion 970 Boris II Kurya Bulgarian victory
Final Pecheneg Banishment 971 Boris II Kurya Bulgarian victory
Battle of Levounion 1091 Peter III Emir Chaka Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Savoyan wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Arms of the House of Savoy.svg Duchy of Savoy Commander Result
First Black Sea Naval Invasion 1365 Ivan Alexander Amadeus VI Savoyan victory
Capture of Varna 1366 Ivan Alexander Amadeus VI Savoyan victory
Second Black Sea Naval Invasion 1366 Ivan Alexander Amadeus VI Bulgarian victory
Third Black Sea Naval Invasion 1367 Ivan Alexander Amadeus VI Bulgarian victory
Destruction of the Fleet of Savoy 1370 Ivan Alexander Amadeus VI Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Seljuk wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Seljuqs Eagle.svg Seljuk Sultanate Commander Result
First Battle of Manzikert 1054 Peter II Tughril Bulgarian victory
Second Battle of Manzikert 1071 Peter II Alp Arslan Seljuk victory
Second Siege of Nicea 1113 Peter III Kilij Arslan I Bulgarian victory
Battle of Antioch 1211 Ivan Asen II Kaykhusraw I Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Serbian wars[edit]

The invincible Bulgarian Empire in the process of conquering a majority of the Serbian kKingdom
A page from a medieval manuscript
The Serbs pleading the Byzantines for a formed alliance against the unstoppable Bulgarian state, before being conquered for a second time
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Serbian Cross.svg Serbian Commander Result
Bulgar–Serb War 839 Omurtag Vlastimir Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 842 Presian Vlastimir Serbian victory
First Bulgar–Serb Alliance 853 Vladimir-Rasate Mutimir Serbian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 917 Simeon I Petar Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 921 Simeon I Pavle Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 922 Zaharija Pavle Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 924 Marmais and Sigritsa Zaharija Serbian victory
Full Conquer of Serbia 925 Simeon I Zaharija Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 998 Samuil Jovan Vladimir Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 1202 Kaloyan Emeric Serbian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 1203 Kaloyan Emeric Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 1290 Darmen and Kudelin Stefan Dragutin Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Serb War 1291 Darmen and Kudelin Stefan Milutin Serbian victory
Battle of Velbazhd 1330 Michael Shishman Stefan Dečanski Serbian victory
Second Bulgar–Serb Alliance 1331 Ivan Stefan Stefan Dečanski Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Thessalonician wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Fessaloniki.png Thessalonician Commander Result
Battle of Klokotnitsa 1230 Ivan Asen II Theodore Komnenos Bulgarian victory
Battle of Southern Thrace 1232 Ivan Asen II Theodore Komnenos Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Trebizond wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Blason Rennes.svg Trebizond Commander Result
First Battle of Northern Anatolia 1270 Dobrotitsa Andronikos III Bulgarian victory
Second Battle of Northern Anatolia 1280 Dobrotitsa Andronikos III Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Turkic wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Gok1.png Gokturk Khaganate Commander Result
First Rebellion-Old Great Bulgaria Creation 622 Kubrat Ilterish Qaghan Bulgarian victory
Final Gokturk Repulsion 632 Kubrat Ilterish Qaghan Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Venetian wars[edit]

Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Naval Jack of Italy.svg Venetian Commander Result
First Siege of Nessebar 1257 Michael II Reniero Zeno Bulgarian victory
Second Siege of Nessebar 1260 Constantine I Reniero Zeno Bulgarian victory

Bulgarian–Wallachian wars[edit]

Bulgaria reconquering lands held by the Ottomans and Byzantines, before a Wallachian attack from the north in 1384
Battle Year Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgarian Commander Coat of arms of Wallachia.svg Wallachian Commander Result
Bulgar–Wallachian War 1384 Ivan Sratsimir Dan I Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Wallachian War 1385 Ivan Shishman Dan I Bulgarian victory
Bulgar–Wallachian War 1386 Ivan Shishman Dan I Bulgarian victory

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Note that the works Byzantine authors are usually from their Bulgarian edition ГИБИ (Гръцки Извори за Българската История - Greek Sources for the Bulgarian History)
  1. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 166 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  2. ^ Димитров, Б. Българите — първите европейци, с. 41, УИ "Св. Климент Охридски", София, ISBN 954-07-1757-4
  3. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 111 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  4. ^ Leo Diakonos, ibid., pp. 62-63 — Leo Diakonos wrote: "...to bring his armies to those dangerous places and to send them to the Bulgarians who would slaughter them as cattle, because it is said that the Romans often got into the bad places of Bulgaria and were met by their doom. That is why he decided to retreat with his army and marched back to Byzantium."
  5. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 158 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  6. ^ a b Cited in Халенбаков, О. Детска енциклопедия България: Държавата - 681 г., с. 13
  7. ^ Maurice's Strategikon, translated by George T. Dennis, p. 117
  8. ^ Cited in Халенбаков, О. Детска енциклопедия България: Държавата - 681 г., с. 12
  9. ^ Петров П. Хр., Към въпроса за образуването на първата българска държава, Славянска филология, V, София, 1963, стр. 89—112
  10. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 26 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  11. ^ Zlatarski, V. History of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages, p. 214 Sofia, 1971,
  12. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 19 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  13. ^ Steven Lowe. "Bulgaria: Beginning". Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  14. ^ Cited in Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 19 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  15. ^ Symeon Magister, ibid., p. 616
  16. ^ Венедиков, София, с. 53-54
  17. ^ a b Иванов, И. КЪМ ВЪПРОСА ЗА БЪЛГАРСКАТА ВОЕННА МОЩ ПРЕЗ ПОСЛЕДНАТА ЧЕТВЪРТ НА X И НАЧАЛОТО НА XI ВЕК. ЗАЩО БЪЛГАРИЯ ЗАГУБИ ДВУБОЯ С ВИЗАНТИЯ?
  18. ^ a b Battle of Anchialus
  19. ^ Бешелиев, В. Прабългарски епиграфски паметници, с. 37
  20. ^ Steven Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, London 1930, p. 286
  21. ^ a b Steven Lowe. "Bulgaria: First Bulgarian Empire". Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  22. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе), Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 104 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  23. ^ Nicolaus Papa. Response, p. 1015
  24. ^ a b Cedrenus: II, p. 383
  25. ^ Драгиев, Ч. Детска енциклопедия България: Години на изпитание, с. 14
  26. ^ Божилов, 1979; c. 122
  27. ^ Zlatarski, V. History of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages, p. 600 Sofia, 1971,
  28. ^ Ioannis Geometrae Carmina varia. Migne, Patrol. gr., t. 106, col. 934
  29. ^ Skylitzes-Cedrenus, pp. 278, 285, 288
  30. ^ При Самуил стигаме до Коринт и Далмация
  31. ^ Steven Lowe. "Bulgaria: Basil the Bulgar-Slayer". Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  32. ^ Ioannes Scylitzes, Historia, р. 458
  33. ^ Nikolov, Centralism and Regionalism in Early Medieval Bulgaria , p. 131
  34. ^ Emperor Peter IV offered a 40,000-strong army to Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor against the Byzantines in return of recognition of his Imperial title — Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 145 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  35. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 166 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  36. ^ Geoffrey de Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople p. 94
  37. ^ See Andreev, pp. 154-155 - In the battle of Tryavna in 1190 the Bulgarians captured the Imperial treasure of the Byzantine Emperors including the crown, the golden cups of the nobility and the Imperial cross made up of solid gold with a piece of the Holy Cross built in inside. A Byzantine priest threw it into the river so that it would be never found it but it was soon recovered by the Bulgarians. Throughout the 13th century that treasure was shown off during processions and celebrations in Tarnovo as described by the Byzantine historian George Acropolites.
  38. ^ Steven Lowe. "Bulgaria: Second Bulgarian Empire". Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  39. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 227 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  40. ^ Cited in Халенбаков, О. Детска енциклопедия България: Залезът на царете, с. 16
  41. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 253 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  42. ^ Cantacuzenos, I, p. 429. 19
  43. ^ a b c Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 269 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  44. ^ Angelov, D. Certains aspects de la conquete des peuples balkaniques par des turks — BSI, 1956, 162, p. 237
  45. ^ Ioannes Cantacuzenus. Historiarum... 3, p.362
  46. ^ Синодник царя Борила, с. 89
  47. ^ a b Haldon J.F., Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World, 565–1204, L., 1999, p. 211
  48. ^ Cited in Халенбаков, О. Детска енциклопедия България: Залезът на царете, с. 18
  49. ^ Beševliev V., Die protobulgarische Periode der bulgarischen Geschichte, Amsterdam, 1980, S. 253–254
  50. ^ Georgius Monachos, p. 762
  51. ^ For instance Niketas Choniates wrote: "Surrounded from all sides like bees on wax, he [the Emperor] (Isaac II Angelos), did not know to whom of the suffering from attacks by the enemy to help first, to whom to delay help..." - see Zlatarski, The Bulgarian state during the Asen dynasty, pp. 73-74
  52. ^ Zlatarski, V. History of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages, p. 361, Sofia, 1971
  53. ^ Symeon Magister, ed. Bon., 617
  54. ^ Symeon Magister, ibid., p. 617
  55. ^ Nicetas Choniata. Historia, p. 835
  56. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 172 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  57. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 47 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  58. ^ Steven Lowe. "The Magyars of Hungary". Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  59. ^ Zlatarski, V. History of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages, pp. 359-360, Sofia, 1971
  60. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, p. 167 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  61. ^ a b David Nicolle, Angus McBride: Hungary and the Fall of Eastern Europe 1000-1568, Osprey Publishing, 1988, p.24
  62. ^ Andreev, J. The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (Balgarskite hanove i tsare, Българските ханове и царе, Veliko Tarnovo, 1996, pp. 167-169 ISBN 954-427-216-X
  63. ^ Nic. Gregoras. I, р. 455. 7-9.

References[edit]