Monoclinic crystal system
||This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. (July 2011)|
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the seven lattice point groups. A crystal system is described by three vectors. In the monoclinic system, the crystal is described by vectors of unequal lengths, as in the orthorhombic system. They form a rectangular prism with a parallelogram as its base. Hence two vectors are perpendicular (meet at right angles), while the third vector meets the other two at an angle other than 90°.
Bravais lattices and point/space groups
Two monoclinic Bravais lattices exist: the primitive monoclinic and the centered monoclinic lattices, with layers with a rectangular and rhombic lattice, respectively.
The monoclinic crystal system class names, examples, Schönflies notation, Hermann-Mauguin notation, point groups, International Tables for Crystallography space group number, orbifold, type, and space groups are listed in the table below.
|Name||Schoenflies notation (Schön.)||Hermann–Mauguin notation (Intl)||orbifold (Orb.)||Coxeter notation (Cox.)|
|3–5||Sphenoidal ||C2||2||22||+||enantiomorphic polar
|6–9||Domatic ||C1h (=C1v = Cs)||2 = m||*11||[ ]||polar
|P2/m, P21/m, C2/m
P2/c, P21/c, C2/c
Sphenoidal is also monoclinic hemimorphic; Domatic is also monoclinic hemihedral; Prismatic is also monoclinic normal.
The three monoclinic hemimorphic space groups are as follows:
- a prism with as cross-section wallpaper group p2
- ditto with screw axes instead of axes
- ditto with screw axes as well as axes, parallel, in between; in this case an additional translation vector is one half of a translation vector in the base plane plus one half of a perpendicular vector between the base planes.
The four monoclinic hemihedral space groups include
- those with pure reflection at the base of the prism and halfway
- those with glide planes instead of pure reflection planes; the glide is one half of a translation vector in the base plane
- those with both in between each other; in this case an additional translation vector is this glide plus one half of a perpendicular vector between the base planes.
Specific chemical examples
An example of a monoclinic crystal is elemental sulfur (which can also occur in a rhombic form).
- Prince, E., ed. (2006). International Tables for Crystallography. International Union of Crystallography. doi:10.1107/97809553602060000001. ISBN 978-1-4020-4969-9.
- "The 32 crystal classes". Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Sulfur. Encyclopedia of Earth, eds. A.Jorgensen and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the environment, Washington DC
- Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., pp. 65 – 69, ISBN 0-471-80580-7