In 1988, Texaco and Saudi Refining agreed to form a joint venture known as Star Enterprise in which Saudi Refining would own a 50 percent share of Texaco's refining and marketing operations in the eastern United States and Gulf Coast.
In 1997, Shell embarked on two joint ventures with Texaco in which the companies merged their marketing and refining operations. The operations in the western and midwestern United States were merged into a company called Equilon. The Star Enterprise operation and Shell's eastern and southeastern operations were merged into a company called Motiva. After Texaco merged with Chevron in 2001, Shell and Saudi Refining purchased Texaco's interests in the joint ventures. Equilon became a fully owned subsidiary of Shell, while Saudi Aramco and Shell each became equal owners of Motiva..
The Motiva joint venture was formed in 1998 and operated as a 50/50 refining and marketing joint venture between the parties from 2002-April 2017.
In March 2017, Royal Dutch Shell plc signed definitive agreements with Saudi Refining Inc. that gave full ownership of refining and marketing joint venture Motiva Enterprises, LLC to Saudi Refining.
Motiva Enterprises owns and operates the Port Arthur Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas. On May 25th, 2012, Motiva officially completed its expansion of the refinery to a capacity of 600,000 bbl/d (95,000 m3/d) making it the largest refinery in North America and the fifth largest in the world.
Motiva's products include diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aviation fuel, and lubricants which it supplies to American states in the South, Mid-Atlantic, and the Northeast. Marketing outlets include 5200 Shell and 76-branded service stations. There are 24 storage and distribution terminals.
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- "Aspects of the Refining/Marketing Joint Ventures of Shell Oil, Star Enterprises, and Texaco". Eia.doe.gov. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Houston Business Journal (8 February 2002). "Shell to brand new U.S. gas stations". Bizjournals.com. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Reeves, William D. (2003). Historic Louisiana: An Illustrated History. HPN Books. ISBN 9781893619326.