Mutulu Shakur

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Mutulu Shakur
Mutulu Shakur.jpg
BornJeral Wayne Williams
(1950-08-08) August 8, 1950 (age 68)
Baltimore, Maryland,
United States
ResidenceUnited States Penitentiary, Victorville, Adelanto, California,
United States
OccupationAcupuncturist
Criminal statusIncarcerated
Conviction(s)Violation of the federal RICO Act, participation in a racketeering enterprise, two counts of bank robbery, two counts of armed bank robbery and two counts of murder during the commission of a robbery
Criminal penalty720 months (60 years) of federal incarceration (with the possibility of parole)
FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitive
Status
AddedJuly 23, 1982
CaughtFebruary 12, 1986
Number380
Captured

Mutulu Shakur (born Jeral Wayne Williams; August 8, 1950) is an American activist and former member of the Black Liberation Army, sentenced to sixty years in prison for his involvement in a 1981 robbery of a Brinks armored truck in which a guard and two police officers were killed.

Shakur was a politically active as a teen with the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) and later the black separatist movement the Republic of New Afrika. He was stepfather to the late rap artist Tupac Shakur.[1]

Personal life[edit]

Shakur was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on August 8, 1950, as Jeral Wayne Williams. At age seven he moved to Jamaica, Queens, New York City with his mother and younger sister.[2]

By his late teens, he was politically active with the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) and later joined the Republic of New Afrika. He has four biological children and one surviving stepchild.[citation needed]

In 1970, Shakur started working with the Lincoln Detox (detoxification) Community (addiction treatment) Program, which offered drug treatment to addicts using acupuncture vs the FDA approved drug methadone. He became certified and licensed to practice acupuncture in the State of California in 1976. Eventually he became the program’s assistant director and remained associated with the program until 1978. He went on to help found and direct the Black Acupuncture Advisory Association of North America (BAAANA) and the Harlem Institute of Acupuncture.

Since his incarceration, he founded a New York-based organization named Dare 2 Struggle that released a 10-year anniversary tribute album for Tupac Shakur called A 2Pac Tribute: Dare 2 Struggle in 2006 through music industry veteran Morey Alexander's First Kut Records and Canadian activist Deejay Ra's Lyrical Knockout Entertainment. The album features artists such as Mopreme Shakur, Outlawz, and Imaan Faith. As Shakur explains it, the CD was created in order to motivate, inspire, and challenge black people to struggle against their obstacles. He also recorded a radio PSA for Deejay Ra's "Hip-Hop Literacy" campaign, encouraging reading of books about Tupac. Shakur was interviewed in the Oscar-nominated documentary Tupac: Resurrection, in which he described how he wrote a "Thug Life Handbook" with Tupac, expressing an anti-drug and anti-violence message.

Arrest and incarceration[edit]

Shakur was one of six Black Liberation Army members to carry out the Brink's robbery (1981). They stole $1.6 million in cash from a Brink's armored car at the Nanuet Mall, in Nanuet, New York, killing a Brink's guard, Peter Paige, seriously wounding another Brinks guard Joseph Trombino, and subsequently killing two Nyack police officers, Edward O'Grady and Waverly Brown (the first black member of the Nyack, New York, police department).[3] Trombino recovered from the wounds he received in this incident but was killed in 2001 in the September 11 attacks.[4]

Shakur, the alleged ringleader of the group, evaded capture for six years and thus was the last one to go on trial on charges related to the robbery. In the 1980s, Shakur and Marilyn Buck were indicted on Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) charges. While at large, on July 23, 1982, he became the 380th person added by the FBI to the Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list. He was arrested February 12, 1986, in California by the FBI. Shakur and Buck were tried in 1987 and convicted on May 11, 1988.[5]

Although federal parole was abolished pursuant to the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, Shakur's convictions were exempt because the Act's provisions didn't take effect until 1987. Thus, under the rules in effect at the time of his conviction, he was due for a mandatory parole determination after serving thirty of his original sixty-year sentence, which came in 2016.[6] However, the United States Parole Commission denied his release for unspecified grounds on April 7, 2016. Shakur's next parole eligibility review will occur in 2018,[7] and according to the Bureau of Prison, his sentence will be completed December 15, 2024.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Federal Bureau of Prisons". Bop.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
  2. ^ "Mutulu Shakur". Biography. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  3. ^ Batson, Bill. "Nyack Sketch Log: The Brink's Robbery". NyackNewsandViews.
  4. ^ "Joseph Trombino: Close Calls Never Counted". New York Times. September 17, 2001.
  5. ^ Lubasch, Arnold H. (May 12, 1988). "2 Ex-fugitives Convicted of Roles in Fatal Armored-Truck Robbery". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
  6. ^ "28 CFR 2.53 - Mandatory parole". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2016-12-28.
  7. ^ "Tupac Shakur's stepfather Mutulu Shakur denied parole". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2016-12-28.

External links[edit]