Avatar (2009 film)
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||James Cameron|
|Written by||James Cameron|
|Music by||James Horner|
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
$9 million+ (re-release)
|Box office||$2.788 billion|
Avatar (marketed as James Cameron's Avatar) is a 2009 American epic science fiction film directed, written, produced, and co-edited by James Cameron, and starring Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, and Sigourney Weaver. The film is set in the mid-22nd century, when humans are colonizing Pandora, a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system, in order to mine the mineral unobtanium, a room-temperature superconductor. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continued existence of a local tribe of Na'vi – a humanoid species indigenous to Pandora. The film's title refers to a genetically engineered Na'vi body with the mind of a remotely located human that is used to interact with the natives of Pandora.
Development of Avatar began in 1994, when Cameron wrote an 80-page treatment for the film. Filming was supposed to take place after the completion of Cameron's 1997 film Titanic, for a planned release in 1999, but according to Cameron, the necessary technology was not yet available to achieve his vision of the film. Work on the language of the film's extraterrestrial beings began in 2005, and Cameron began developing the screenplay and fictional universe in early 2006. Avatar was officially budgeted at $237 million. Other estimates put the cost between $280 million and $310 million for production and at $150 million for promotion. The film made extensive use of new motion capture filming techniques, and was released for traditional viewing, 3D viewing (using the RealD 3D, Dolby 3D, XpanD 3D, and IMAX 3D formats), and for "4D" experiences in select South Korean theaters. The stereoscopic filmmaking was touted as a breakthrough in cinematic technology.
Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, and was internationally released on December 16 and in the United States and Canada on December 18, to positive critical reviews, with critics highly praising its groundbreaking visual effects. During its theatrical run, the film broke several box office records and became the highest-grossing film of all time, as well as in the United States and Canada, surpassing Titanic, which had held those records for twelve years (and was also directed by Cameron). It also became the first film to gross more than $2 billion and the best-selling film of 2010 in the United States. Avatar was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, and won three, for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects. Following the film's success, Cameron signed with 20th Century Fox to produce three sequels, making Avatar the first of a planned tetralogy. On April 14, 2016, Cameron confirmed that there were now plans for four sequels. Avatar 2 is scheduled for release in December 2018, with the sequels following in December 2020, 2022, and 2023, respectively.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Cast
- 3 Production
- 4 Marketing
- 5 Release
- 6 Sequels
- 7 Stage adaptation
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
By 2154, humans have depleted Earth's natural resources, leading to a severe energy crisis. The Resources Development Administration (RDA for short) mines for a valuable mineral – unobtanium – on Pandora, a densely forested habitable moon orbiting the gas giant Polyphemus in the Alpha Centauri star system. Pandora, whose atmosphere is poisonous to humans, is inhabited by the Na'vi, 10-foot tall (3.0 m), blue-skinned, sapient humanoids who live in harmony with nature and worship a mother goddess called Eywa.
To explore Pandora's biosphere, scientists use Na'vi-human hybrids called "avatars", operated by genetically matched humans; Jake Sully, a paraplegic former Marine, replaces his deceased identical twin brother as an operator of one. Dr. Grace Augustine, head of the Avatar Program, considers Sully an inadequate replacement but accepts his assignment as a bodyguard. While protecting the avatars of Grace and fellow scientist Dr. Norm Spellman as they collect biological data, Jake's avatar is attacked by a thanator and flees into the forest, where he is rescued by Neytiri, a female Na'vi. Witnessing an auspicious sign, she takes him to her clan, whereupon Neytiri's mother Mo'at, the clan's spiritual leader, orders her daughter to initiate Jake into their society.
Colonel Miles Quaritch, head of RDA's private security force, promises Jake that the company will restore his legs if he gathers information about the Na'vi and the clan's gathering place, a giant tree called Hometree, on grounds that it stands above the richest deposit of unobtanium in the area. When Grace learns of this, she transfers herself, Jake, and Norm to an outpost. Over the following three months, Jake grows to sympathize with the natives. After Jake is initiated into the tribe, he and Neytiri choose each other as mates, and soon afterward, Jake reveals his change of allegiance when he attempts to disable a bulldozer that threatens to destroy a sacred Na'vi site. When Quaritch shows a video recording of Jake's attack on the bulldozer to Administrator Parker Selfridge, and another in which Jake admits that the Na'vi will never abandon Hometree, Selfridge orders Hometree destroyed.
Despite Grace's argument that destroying Hometree could damage the biological neural network native to Pandora, Selfridge gives Jake and Grace one hour to convince the Na'vi to evacuate before commencing the attack. While trying to warn the Na'vi, Jake confesses to being a spy and the Na'vi take him and Grace captive. Seeing this, Quaritch's men destroy Hometree, killing Neytiri's father (the clan chief) and many others. Mo'at frees Jake and Grace, but they are detached from their avatars and imprisoned by Quaritch's forces. Pilot Trudy Chacón, disgusted by Quaritch's brutality, carries them to Grace's outpost, but during the escape, Quaritch fires at them, hitting Grace.
To regain the Na'vi's trust, Jake connects his mind to that of Toruk, a dragon-like predator feared and honored by the Na'vi. Jake finds the refugees at the sacred Tree of Souls and pleads with Mo'at to heal Grace. The clan attempts to transfer Grace from her human body into her avatar with the aid of the Tree of Souls, but she dies before the process can be completed.
Supported by the new chief Tsu'tey, who acts as Jake's translator, Jake speaks to unite the clan and tells them to gather all of the clans to battle against the RDA. Noticing the impending gathering, Quaritch organizes a pre-emptive strike against the Tree of Souls, believing that its destruction will demoralize the natives. On the eve of battle, Jake prays to Eywa, via a neural connection to the Tree of Souls, to intercede on behalf of the Na'vi.
During the subsequent battle, the Na'vi suffer heavy casualties, including Tsu'tey and Trudy; but are rescued when Pandoran wildlife unexpectedly join the attack and overwhelm the humans, which Neytiri interprets as Eywa's answer to Jake's prayer. Jake destroys a makeshift bomber before it can reach the Tree of Souls; Quaritch escapes from his own damaged aircraft, wearing an AMP suit and breaks open the avatar link unit containing Jake's human body, exposing it to Pandora's poisonous atmosphere. Quaritch prepares to slit the throat of Jake's avatar, but Neytiri kills Quaritch and saves Jake from suffocation.
With the exceptions of Jake, Norm, Max (another scientist), and a select few others, all humans are expelled from Pandora and sent back to Earth, after which Jake is transferred permanently into his avatar with the aid of the Tree of Souls.
- Sam Worthington as Jake Sully, a disabled former Marine who becomes part of the Avatar Program after his twin brother is killed. His military background helps the Na'vi warriors relate to him. Cameron cast the Australian actor after a worldwide search for promising young actors, preferring relative unknowns to keep the budget down. Worthington, who was living in his car at the time, auditioned twice early in development, and he has signed on for possible sequels. Cameron felt that because Worthington had not done a major film, he would give the character "a quality that is really real". Cameron said he "has that quality of being a guy you'd want to have a beer with, and he ultimately becomes a leader who transforms the world".
- Stephen Lang as Colonel Miles Quaritch, the head of the mining operation's security detail. Fiercely loyal to his military code, he has a profound disregard for Pandora's inhabitants that is evident in both his actions and his language. Lang had unsuccessfully auditioned for a role in Cameron's Aliens (1986), but the director remembered Lang and sought him for Avatar. Michael Biehn, who was in Aliens, read the script and watched some of the 3-D footage with Cameron, but was ultimately not cast in the role.
- Sigourney Weaver as Dr. Grace Augustine, an exobiologist and head of the Avatar Program. She is also Sully's mentor and an advocate of peaceful relations with the Na'vi, having set up a school to teach them English.
- Michelle Rodriguez as Trudy Chacón, a combat pilot assigned to support the Avatar Program who is sympathetic to the Na'vi. Cameron had wanted to work with Rodriguez since seeing her in Girlfight.
- Giovanni Ribisi as Parker Selfridge, the corporate administrator for the RDA mining operation. While he is at first willing to destroy the Na'vi civilization to preserve the company's bottom line, he is reluctant to authorize the attacks on the Na'vi and taint his image, doing so only after Quaritch persuades him that it is necessary, and the attacks will be humane. When the attacks are broadcast to the base, Selfridge displays discomfort at the violence.
- Joel David Moore as Dr. Norm Spellman, a xenoanthropologist who studies plant and animal life as part of the Avatar Program. He arrives on Pandora at the same time as Sully and operates an avatar. Although he is expected to lead the diplomatic contact with the Na'vi, it turns out that Jake has the personality better suited to win the natives' respect.
- Dileep Rao as Dr. Max Patel, a scientist who works in the Avatar Program and comes to support Jake's rebellion against the RDA.
- Zoe Saldana as Neytiri, the daughter of the leader of the Omaticaya (the Na'vi clan central to the story). She is attracted to Jake because of his bravery, though frustrated with him for what she sees as his naiveté and stupidity. She serves as Jake's love interest. The character, like all the Na'vi, was created using performance capture, and its visual aspect is entirely computer generated. Saldana has also signed on for potential sequels.
- C. C. H. Pounder as Mo'at, the Omaticaya's spiritual leader, Neytiri's mother, and consort to clan leader Eytukan.
- Wes Studi as Eytukan, the Omaticaya's clan leader, Neytiri's father, and Mo'at's mate.
- Laz Alonso as Tsu'tey, the finest warrior of the Omaticaya. He is heir to the chieftainship of the tribe. At the beginning of the film's story, he is betrothed to Neytiri.
In 1994, director James Cameron wrote an 80-page treatment for Avatar, drawing inspiration from "every single science fiction book" he had read in his childhood as well as from adventure novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs and H. Rider Haggard. In August 1996, Cameron announced that after completing Titanic, he would film Avatar, which would make use of synthetic, or computer-generated, actors. The project would cost $100 million and involve at least six actors in leading roles "who appear to be real but do not exist in the physical world".[verification needed] Visual effects house Digital Domain, with whom Cameron has a partnership, joined the project, which was supposed to begin production in mid-1997 for a 1999 release. However, Cameron felt that the technology had not caught up with the story and vision that he intended to tell. He decided to concentrate on making documentaries and refining the technology for the next few years. It was revealed in a Bloomberg BusinessWeek cover story that 20th Century Fox had fronted $10 million to Cameron to film a proof-of-concept clip for Avatar, which he showed to Fox executives in October 2005.
In February 2006, Cameron revealed that his film Project 880 was "a retooled version of Avatar", a film that he had tried to make years earlier, citing the technological advances in the creation of the computer-generated characters Gollum, King Kong, and Davy Jones. Cameron had chosen Avatar over his project Battle Angel after completing a five-day camera test in the previous year.
|Wikinews has related news: Elvish, Klingon and Na'vi: Constructed languages gain foothold in film|
From January to April 2006, Cameron worked on the script and developed a culture for the film's aliens, the Na'vi. Their language was created by Dr. Paul Frommer, a linguist at USC. The Na'vi language has a lexicon of about 1000 words, with some 30 added by Cameron. The tongue's phonemes include ejective consonants (such as the "kx" in "skxawng") that are found in the Amharic language of Ethiopia, and the initial "ng" that Cameron may have taken from New Zealand Māori. Actress Sigourney Weaver and the film's set designers met with Jodie S. Holt, professor of plant physiology at University of California, Riverside, to learn about the methods used by botanists to study and sample plants, and to discuss ways to explain the communication between Pandora's organisms depicted in the film.
From 2005 to 2007, Cameron worked with a handful of designers, including famed fantasy illustrator Wayne Barlowe and renowned concept artist Jordu Schell, to shape the design of the Na'vi with paintings and physical sculptures when Cameron felt that 3-D brush renderings were not capturing his vision, often working together in the kitchen of Cameron's Malibu home. In July 2006, Cameron announced that he would film Avatar for a mid-2008 release and planned to begin principal photography with an established cast by February 2007. The following August, the visual effects studio Weta Digital signed on to help Cameron produce Avatar. Stan Winston, who had collaborated with Cameron in the past, joined Avatar to help with the film's designs. Production design for the film took several years. The film had two different production designers, and two separate art departments, one of which focused on the flora and fauna of Pandora, and another that created human machines and human factors. In September 2006, Cameron was announced to be using his own Reality Camera System to film in 3-D. The system would use two high-definition cameras in a single camera body to create depth perception.
While these preparations were underway, Fox kept wavering in its commitment to Avatar because of its painful experience with cost overruns and delays on Cameron's previous picture, Titanic, even though Cameron rewrote the script to combine several characters together and offered to cut his fee in case the film flopped. Cameron installed a traffic light with the amber signal lit outside of co-producer Jon Landau's office to represent the film's uncertain future. In mid-2006, Fox told Cameron "in no uncertain terms that they were passing on this film," so he began shopping it around to other studios, and showed his proof-of-concept to Dick Cook (then chairman of the Walt Disney Studios). However, when Disney attempted to take over, Fox exercised its right of first refusal. In October 2006, Fox finally agreed to commit to making Avatar after Ingenious Media agreed to back the film, which reduced Fox's financial exposure to less than half of the film's official $237 million budget. After Fox accepted Avatar, one skeptical Fox executive shook his head and told Cameron and Landau, "I don't know if we're crazier for letting you do this, or if you're crazier for thinking you can do this ..."
|James Cameron interviewed by F. X. Feeney on writing Avatar.|
In December 2006, Cameron described Avatar as "a futuristic tale set on a planet 200 years hence ... an old-fashioned jungle adventure with an environmental conscience [that] aspires to a mythic level of storytelling". The January 2007 press release described the film as "an emotional journey of redemption and revolution" and said the story is of "a wounded former Marine, thrust unwillingly into an effort to settle and exploit an exotic planet rich in biodiversity, who eventually crosses over to lead the indigenous race in a battle for survival". The story would be of an entire world complete with an ecosystem of phantasmagorical plants and creatures, and native people with a rich culture and language.
Estimates put the cost of the film at about $280–310 million to produce and an estimated $150 million for marketing, noting that about $30 million in tax credits will lessen the financial impact on the studio and its financiers. A studio spokesperson said that the budget was "$237 million, with $150 million for promotion, end of story."
Themes and inspirations
Avatar is primarily an action-adventure journey of self-discovery, in the context of imperialism and deep ecology. Cameron said his inspiration was "every single science fiction book I read as a kid", and that he was particularly striving to update the style of Edgar Rice Burroughs's John Carter series and the deep jungles of Pandora were visualized from Disney's 37th animated film, Tarzan. He acknowledged that Avatar shares themes with the films At Play in the Fields of the Lord, The Emerald Forest, and Princess Mononoke, which feature clashes between cultures and civilizations, and with Dances with Wolves, where a battered soldier finds himself drawn to the culture he was initially fighting against.
In a 2007 interview with Time magazine, Cameron was asked about the meaning of the term Avatar, to which he replied, "It's an incarnation of one of the Hindu gods taking a flesh form. In this film what that means is that the human technology in the future is capable of injecting a human's intelligence into a remotely located body, a biological body."
The look of the Na'vi – the humanoids indigenous to Pandora – was inspired by a dream that Cameron's mother had, long before he started work on Avatar. In her dream, she saw a blue-skinned woman 12 feet (4 m) tall, which he thought was "kind of a cool image". Also he said, "I just like blue. It's a good color ... plus, there's a connection to the Hindu deities, which I like conceptually." He included similar creatures in his first screenplay (written in 1976 or 1977), which featured a planet with a native population of "gorgeous" tall blue aliens. The Na'vi were based on them.
For the love story between characters Jake and Neytiri, Cameron applied a star-crossed love theme, and acknowledged its similarity to the pairing of Jack and Rose from his film Titanic. An interviewer stated, "Both couples come from radically different cultures that are contemptuous of their relationship and are forced to choose sides between the competing communities." Cameron felt that whether or not the Jake and Neytiri love story would be perceived as believable partially hinged on the physical attractiveness of Neytiri's alien appearance, which was developed by considering her appeal to the all-male crew of artists. Though Cameron felt Jake and Neytiri do not fall in love right away, their portrayers (Worthington and Saldana) felt the characters do. Cameron said the two actors "had a great chemistry" during filming.
For the film's floating "Hallelujah Mountains", the designers drew inspiration from "many different types of mountains, but mainly the karst limestone formations in China." According to production designer Dylan Cole, the fictional floating rocks were inspired by Mount Huang (also known as Huangshan), Guilin, Zhangjiajie, among others around the world. Director Cameron had noted the influence of the Chinese peaks on the design of the floating mountains.
To create the interiors of the human mining colony on Pandora, production designers visited the Noble Clyde Boudreaux oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico during June 2007. They photographed, measured and filmed every aspect of the platform, which was later replicated on-screen with photorealistic CGI during post-production.
Cameron said that he wanted to make "something that has this spoonful of sugar of all the action and the adventure and all that" but also have a conscience "that maybe in the enjoying of it makes you think a little bit about the way you interact with nature and your fellow man". He added that "the Na'vi represent something that is our higher selves, or our aspirational selves, what we would like to think we are" and that even though there are good humans within the film, the humans "represent what we know to be the parts of ourselves that are trashing our world and maybe condemning ourselves to a grim future".
Cameron acknowledges that Avatar implicitly criticizes the United States' role in the Iraq War and the impersonal nature of mechanized warfare in general. In reference to the use of the term shock and awe in the film, Cameron said, "We know what it feels like to launch the missiles. We don't know what it feels like for them to land on our home soil, not in America." He said in later interviews, "... I think it's very patriotic to question a system that needs to be corralled ..." and, "The film is definitely not anti-American." A scene in the film portrays the violent destruction of the towering Na'vi Hometree, which collapses in flames after a missile attack, coating the landscape with ash and floating embers. Asked about the scene's resemblance to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, Cameron said he had been "surprised at how much it did look like September 11".
Principal photography for Avatar began in April 2007 in Los Angeles and Wellington, New Zealand. Cameron described the film as a hybrid with a full live-action shoot in combination with computer-generated characters and live environments. "Ideally at the end of the day the audience has no idea which they're looking at," Cameron said. The director indicated that he had already worked four months on nonprincipal scenes for the film. The live action was shot with a modified version of the proprietary digital 3-D Fusion Camera System, developed by Cameron and Vince Pace. In January 2007, Fox had announced that 3-D filming for Avatar would be done at 24 frames per second despite Cameron's strong opinion that a 3-D film requires higher frame rate to make strobing less noticeable. According to Cameron, the film is composed of 60% computer-generated elements and 40% live action, as well as traditional miniatures.
Motion-capture photography lasted 31 days at the Hughes Aircraft stage in Playa Vista in Los Angeles. Live action photography began in October 2007 at Stone Street Studios in Wellington, New Zealand, and was scheduled to last 31 days. More than a thousand people worked on the production. In preparation of the filming sequences, all of the actors underwent professional training specific to their characters such as archery, horseback riding, firearm use, and hand-to-hand combat. They received language and dialect training in the Na'vi language created for the film. Before shooting the film, Cameron also sent the cast to the Hawaiian tropical rainforests to get a feel for a rainforest setting before shooting on the soundstage.
During filming, Cameron made use of his virtual camera system, a new way of directing motion-capture filmmaking. The system shows the actors' virtual counterparts in their digital surroundings in real time, allowing the director to adjust and direct scenes just as if shooting live action. According to Cameron, "It's like a big, powerful game engine. If I want to fly through space, or change my perspective, I can. I can turn the whole scene into a living miniature and go through it on a 50 to 1 scale." Using conventional techniques, the complete virtual world cannot be seen until the motion-capture of the actors is complete. Cameron said this process does not diminish the value or importance of acting. On the contrary, because there is no need for repeated camera and lighting setups, costume fittings and make-up touch-ups, scenes do not need to be interrupted repeatedly. Cameron described the system as a "form of pure creation where if you want to move a tree or a mountain or the sky or change the time of day, you have complete control over the elements".
Cameron gave fellow directors Steven Spielberg and Peter Jackson a chance to test the new technology. Spielberg said, "I like to think of it as digital makeup, not augmented animation ... Motion capture brings the director back to a kind of intimacy that actors and directors only know when they're working in live theater." Spielberg and George Lucas were also able to visit the set to watch Cameron direct with the equipment.
To film the shots where CGI interacts with live action, a unique camera referred to as a "simulcam" was used, a merger of the 3-D fusion camera and the virtual camera systems. While filming live action in real time with the simulcam, the CGI images captured with the virtual camera or designed from scratch, are superimposed over the live action images as in augmented reality and shown on a small monitor, making it possible for the director to instruct the actors how to relate to the virtual material in the scene.
A number of innovative visual effects techniques were used during production. According to Cameron, work on the film had been delayed since the 1990s to allow the techniques to reach the necessary degree of advancement to adequately portray his vision of the film. The director planned to make use of photorealistic computer-generated characters, created using new motion capture animation technologies he had been developing in the 14 months leading up to December 2006.
Innovations include a new system for lighting massive areas like Pandora's jungle, a motion-capture stage or "volume" six times larger than any previously used, and an improved method of capturing facial expressions, enabling full performance capture. To achieve the face capturing, actors wore individually made skull caps fitted with a tiny camera positioned in front of the actors' faces; the information collected about their facial expressions and eyes is then transmitted to computers. According to Cameron, the method allows the filmmakers to transfer 100% of the actors' physical performances to their digital counterparts. Besides the performance capture data which were transferred directly to the computers, numerous reference cameras gave the digital artists multiple angles of each performance. A technically challenging scene was near the end of the film when the computer-generated Neytiri held the live action Jake in human form, and attention was given to the details of the shadows and reflected light between them.
The lead visual effects company was Weta Digital in Wellington, New Zealand, at one point employing 900 people to work on the film. Because of the huge amount of data which needed to be stored, cataloged and available for everybody involved, even on the other side of the world, a new cloud computing and Digital Asset Management (DAM) system named Gaia was created by Microsoft especially for Avatar, which allowed the crews to keep track of and coordinate all stages in the digital processing. To render Avatar, Weta used a 10,000 sq ft (930 m2) server farm making use of 4,000 Hewlett-Packard servers with 35,000 processor cores with 104 terabytes of RAM and three petabytes of network area storage running Ubuntu Linux, Grid Engine cluster manager, and 2 of the animation software and managers, Pixar's RenderMan and Pixar's Alfred queue management system. The render farm occupies the 193rd to 197th spots in the TOP500 list of the world's most powerful supercomputers. A new texturing and paint software system, called Mari, was developed by The Foundry in cooperation with Weta. Creating the Na'vi characters and the virtual world of Pandora required over a petabyte of digital storage, and each minute of the final footage for Avatar occupies 17.28 gigabytes of storage. Often, it would take each frame of the movie several hours to render. To help finish preparing the special effects sequences on time, a number of other companies were brought on board, including Industrial Light & Magic, which worked alongside Weta Digital to create the battle sequences. ILM was responsible for the visual effects for many of the film's specialized vehicles and devised a new way to make CGI explosions. Joe Letteri was the film's visual effects general supervisor.
Music and soundtrack
listen to a clip from the score of the 2009 film Avatar.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Composer James Horner scored the film, his third collaboration with Cameron after Aliens and Titanic. Horner recorded parts of the score with a small chorus singing in the alien language Na'vi in March 2008. He also worked with Wanda Bryant, an ethnomusicologist, to create a music culture for the alien race. The first scoring sessions were planned to take place in early 2009. During production, Horner promised Cameron that he would not work on any other project except for Avatar and reportedly worked on the score from four in the morning till ten at night throughout the process. He stated in an interview, "Avatar has been the most difficult film I have worked on and the biggest job I have undertaken." Horner composed the score as two different scores merged into one. He first created a score that reflected the Na'vi way of sound and then combined it with a separate "traditional" score to drive the film. British singer Leona Lewis was chosen to sing the theme song for the film, called "I See You". An accompanying music video, directed by Jake Nava, premiered December 15, 2009, on MySpace.
The first photo of the film was released on August 14, 2009, and Empire released exclusive images from the film in its October issue. Cameron, producer Jon Landau, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, and Sigourney Weaver appeared at a panel, moderated by Tom Rothman, at the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con on July 23. Twenty-five minutes of footage was screened in Dolby 3D. Weaver and Cameron appeared at additional panels to promote the film, speaking on the 23rd and 24th respectively. James Cameron announced at the Comic-Con Avatar Panel that August 21 will be 'Avatar Day'. On this day, the trailer was released in all theatrical formats. The official game trailer and toy line of the film were also unveiled on this day.
The 129-second trailer was released online on August 20, 2009. The new 210-second trailer was premiered in theatres on October 23, 2009, then soon after premiered online on Yahoo! on October 29, 2009, to positive reviews. An extended version in IMAX 3D received overwhelmingly positive reviews. The Hollywood Reporter said that audience expectations were coloured by "the [same] establishment skepticism that preceded Titanic" and suggested the showing reflected the desire for original storytelling. The teaser has been among the most viewed trailers in the history of film marketing, reaching the first place of all trailers viewed on Apple.com with 4 million views. On October 30, to celebrate the opening of the first 3-D cinema in Vietnam, Fox allowed Megastar Cinema to screen exclusive 16 minutes of Avatar to a number of press. The three-and-a-half-minute trailer of the film premiered live on November 1, 2009, during a Dallas Cowboys football game at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas, on the Diamond Vision screen, one of the world's largest video displays, and to TV audiences viewing the game on Fox. It is said to be the largest live motion picture trailer viewing in history.
The Coca-Cola Company collaborated with Fox to launch a worldwide marketing campaign to promote the film. The highlight of the campaign was the website AVTR.com. Specially marked bottles and cans of Coca-Cola Zero, when held in front of a webcam, enabled users to interact with the website's 3-D features using augmented reality (AR) technology. The film was heavily promoted in an episode of the Fox Network series Bones in the episode "The Gamer In The Grease" (Season 5, Episode 9). Avatar star Joel David Moore has a recurring role on the program, and is seen in the episode anxiously awaiting the release of the film. A week prior to the American release, Zoe Saldana promoted the film on Adult Swim when she was interviewed by an animated Space Ghost. McDonald's had a promotion mentioned in television commercials in Europe called "Avatarize yourself", which encouraged people to go to the website set up by Oddcast, and use a photograph of themselves to change into a Na'vi.
Avatar: A Confidential Report on the Biological and Social History of Pandora, a 224-page book in the form of a field guide to the film's fictional setting of the planet of Pandora, was released by Harper Entertainment on November 24, 2009. It is presented as a compilation of data collected by the humans about Pandora and the life on it, written by Maria Wilhelm and Dirk Mathison. HarperFestival also released Wilhelm's 48-page James Cameron's Avatar: The Reusable Scrapbook for children. The Art of Avatar was released on November 30, 2009, by Abrams Books. The book features detailed production artwork from the film, including production sketches, illustrations by Lisa Fitzpatrick, and film stills. Producer Jon Landau wrote the foreword, Cameron wrote the epilogue, and director Peter Jackson wrote the preface. In October 2010, Abrams Books also released The Making of Avatar, a 272-page book that detailed the film's production process and contains over 500 color photographs and illustrations.
In a 2009 interview, Cameron said that he planned to write a novel version of Avatar after the film was released. In February 2010, producer Jon Landau stated that Cameron plans a prequel novel for Avatar that will "lead up to telling the story of the movie, but it would go into much more depth about all the stories that we didn't have time to deal with", saying that "Jim wants to write a novel that is a big, epic story that fills in a lot of things". In August 2013 it was announced that Cameron hired Steven Gould to pen four standalone novels to expand the Avatar universe.
Cameron chose Ubisoft Montreal to create an Avatar game for the film in 2007. The filmmakers and game developers collaborated heavily, and Cameron decided to include some of Ubisoft's vehicle and creature designs in the film. James Cameron's Avatar: The Game was released on December 1, 2009, for most home video game consoles (PS3, Xbox 360, Wii, Nintendo DS, iPhone), Microsoft Windows and December 8 for PSP.
Action figures and postage stamps
Mattel Toys announced in December 2009 that it would be introducing a line of Avatar action figures. Each action figure will be made with a 3-D web tag, called an i-TAG, that consumers can scan using a web cam, revealing unique on-screen content that is special to each specific action figure. A series of toys representing six different characters from the film were also distributed globally in McDonald's Happy Meals.
Theme park attraction
In 2011, Cameron, Lightstorm, and Fox entered an exclusive licensing agreement with The Walt Disney Company to feature Avatar-themed attractions at Walt Disney Parks and Resorts worldwide, including a themed land for Disney's Animal Kingdom in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. At Disney's 2013 D23 Expo, Disney announced that the area would include two attractions. Construction on the land began in 2014 with an opening set for May 27, 2017.
Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, and was released theatrically worldwide from December 16 to 18. The film was originally set for release on May 22, 2009, during filming, but was pushed back to allow more post-production time (the last shots were delivered in November), and to give more time for theatres worldwide to install 3D projectors. Cameron stated that the film's aspect ratio would be 1.78:1 for 3D screenings and that a 2.39:1 image would be extracted for 2D screenings. However, a 3D 2.39:1 extract was approved for use with constant-image-height screens (i.e. screens which increase in width to display 2.39:1 films). During a 3D preview showing in Germany on December 16, the movie's DRM 'protection' system failed, and some copies delivered could not be watched at all in the theaters. The problems were fixed in time for the public premiere. Avatar was released in a total of 3,457 theatres in the US, of which 2,032 theatres ran it in 3D. In total 90% of all advance ticket sales for Avatar were for 3D screenings.
Internationally, Avatar opened on a total of 14,604 screens in 106 territories, of which 3,671 were showing the film in 3D (producing 56% of the first weekend gross). The film was simultaneously presented in IMAX 3D format, opening in 178 theaters in the United States on December 18. The international IMAX release included 58 theaters beginning on December 16, and 25 more theaters were to be added in the coming weeks. The IMAX release was the company's widest to date, a total of 261 theaters worldwide. The previous IMAX record opening was Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, which opened in 161 IMAX theatres in the US, and about 70 international. 20th Century Fox Korea adapted and later released Avatar in 4D version, which included "moving seats, smells of explosives, sprinkling water, laser lights and wind".
Avatar was released internationally on more than 14,000 screens. It earned $3,537,000 from midnight screenings domestically (United States and Canada), with the initial 3D release limited to 2,200 screens. The film earned $26,752,099 on its opening day, and $77,025,481 over its opening weekend, making it the second-largest December opening ever behind I Am Legend, the largest domestic opening weekend for a film not based on a franchise (topping The Incredibles), the highest opening weekend for a film entirely in 3D (breaking Up's record), the highest opening weekend for an environmentalist film (breaking The Day After Tomorrow's record), and the 40th largest opening weekend in North America, despite a blizzard that blanketed the East Coast of the United States and reportedly hurt its opening weekend results. The film also set an IMAX opening weekend record, with 178 theaters generating approximately $9.5 million, 12% of the film's $77 million (at the time) North American gross on less than 3% of the screens.
International markets generating opening weekend tallies of at least $10 million were for Russia ($19.7 million), France ($17.4 million), the UK ($13.8 million), Germany ($13.3 million), South Korea ($11.7 million), Australia ($11.5 million) and Spain ($11.0 million). Avatar's worldwide gross was US$241.6 million after five days, the ninth largest opening-weekend gross of all time, and the largest for a non-franchise, non-sequel and original film. 58 international IMAX screens generated an estimated $4.1 million during the opening weekend.
Revenues in the film's second weekend decreased by only 1.8% in domestic markets, marking a rare occurrence, earning $75,617,183, to remain in first place at the box office and recording the biggest second weekend of all time (since surpassed by Marvel's The Avengers). The film experienced another marginal decrease in revenue in its third weekend, dropping 9.4% to $68,490,688 domestically, remaining in first place at the box office, to set a third-weekend record.
Avatar crossed the $1 billion mark on the 19th day of its international release, making it the first film to reach this mark in only 19 days (a record now matched by both Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 in 2011 and The Avengers in 2012). It became the fifth film grossing more than $1 billion worldwide, and the only film of 2009 to do so. In its fourth weekend, Avatar continued to lead the box office domestically, setting a new all-time fourth-weekend record of $50,306,217, and becoming the highest-grossing 2009 release in the United States. In the film's fifth weekend, it set the Martin Luther King Day weekend record, grossing $54,401,446, and set a fifth-weekend record with a take of $42,785,612. It held the top spot to set the sixth and seventh weekend records earning $34,944,081 and $31,280,029 respectively. It was the fastest film to gross $600 million domestically, on its 47th day in theatres.
On January 31, it became the first film to earn over $2 billion worldwide, and it became the first film to gross over $700 million in the U.S. and Canada, on February 27, after 72 days of release. It remained at number one at the domestic box office for seven consecutive weeks – the most consecutive No. 1 weekends since Titanic spent 15 weekends at No.1 in 1997 and 1998 – and also spent 11 consecutive weekends at the top of the box office outside the United States and Canada, breaking the record of nine consecutive weekends set by Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest. By the end of its first theatrical release Avatar had grossed $749,766,139 in the U.S. and Canada, and $1,999,298,189 in other territories, for a worldwide total of $2,749,064,328.
Including the revenue from a re-release of Avatar featuring extended footage, Avatar grossed $760,507,625 in the U.S. and Canada, and $2,027,457,462 in other countries for a worldwide total of $2,787,965,087 with 72.7% of its total worldwide gross in international markets. Avatar has set a number of box office records during its release: on January 25, 2010, it surpassed Titanic's worldwide gross to become the highest-grossing film of all time worldwide 41 days after its international release, just two days after taking the foreign box office record. On February 2, 47 days after its domestic release, Avatar surpassed Titanic to become the highest-grossing film of all time in Canada and the United States. It became the highest-grossing film of all time in at least 30 other countries and is the first film to earn over $2 billion in foreign box office receipts. IMAX ticket sales account for $243.3 million of its worldwide gross, more than double the previous record.
Box Office Mojo estimates that after adjusting for the rise in average ticket prices, Avatar would be the 14th-highest-grossing film of all time in North America. Box Office Mojo also observes that the higher ticket prices for 3D and IMAX screenings have had a significant impact on Avatar's gross; it estimated, on April 21, 2010, that Avatar had sold approximately 75 million tickets in North American theatres, more than any other film since 1999's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. On a worldwide basis, when Avatar's gross stood at $2 billion just 35 days into its run, The Daily Telegraph estimated its gross was surpassed by only Gone with the Wind ($3.0 billion), Titanic ($2.9 billion) and Star Wars ($2.2 billion) after adjusting for inflation to 2010 prices, with Avatar ultimately winding up with $2.8 billion by the end of its run in 2010. Reuters even placed it ahead of Titanic after adjusting the global total for inflation.
Before its release, various film critics and fan communities predicted the film would be a significant disappointment at the box office, in line with predictions made for Cameron's previous blockbuster Titanic. This criticism ranged from Avatar's film budget, to its concept and use of 3-D "blue cat people". Slate magazine's Daniel Engber complimented the 3D effects, but criticized them for reminding him of certain CGI characters from the Star Wars prequel films and for having the "uncanny valley" effect. The New York Times noted that 20th Century Fox executives had decided to release Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel alongside Avatar, calling it a "secret weapon" to cover any unforeseeable losses at the box-office.
Box office analysts, on the other hand, estimated that the film would be a box office success. "The holy grail of 3-D has finally arrived," said an analyst for Exhibitor Relations. "This is why all these 3-D venues were built: for Avatar. This is the one. The behemoth." The "cautionary estimate" was that Avatar would bring in around $60 million in its opening weekend. Others guessed higher. There were also analysts who believed that the film's three-dimensionality would help its box office performance, given that recent 3D films had been successful.
Cameron said he felt the pressure of the predictions, but that pressure is good for film-makers. "It makes us think about our audiences and what the audience wants," he stated. "We owe them a good time. We owe them a piece of good entertainment." Although he felt Avatar would appeal to everyone and that the film could not afford to have a target demographic, he especially wanted hard-core science-fiction fans to see it: "If I can just get 'em in the damn theater, the film will act on them in the way it's supposed to, in terms of taking them on an amazing journey and giving them this rich emotional experience." Cameron was aware of the sentiment that Avatar would need significant "repeat business" just to make up for its budget and achieve box office success, and believed Avatar could inspire the same "sharing" reaction as Titanic. He said that film worked because, "When people have an experience that's very powerful in the movie theatre, they want to go share it. They want to grab their friend and bring them, so that they can enjoy it. They want to be the person to bring them the news that this is something worth having in their life."
After the film's release and unusually strong box office performance over its first two weeks, it was debated as the one film capable of surpassing Titanic's worldwide gross, and its continued strength perplexed box office analysts. Other films in recent years had been cited as contenders for surpassing Titanic, such as 2008's The Dark Knight, but Avatar was considered the first film with a genuine chance to do so, and its numbers being aided by higher ticket prices for 3D screenings did not fully explain its success to box office analysts. "Most films are considered to be healthy if they manage anything less than a 50% drop from their first weekend to their second. Dipping just 11% from the first to the third is unheard of," said Paul Dergarabedian, president of box-office analysis for Hollywood.com. "This is just unprecedented. I had to do a double take. I thought it was a miscalculation." Analysts predicted second place for the film's worldwide gross, but most were uncertain about it surpassing Titanic because "Today's films flame out much faster than they did when Titanic was released." Brandon Gray, president of Box Office Mojo, believed in the film's chances of becoming the highest-grossing film of all time, though he also believed it was too early to surmise because it had only played during the holidays. He said, "While Avatar may beat Titanic's revenue record, it will be tough, and the film is unlikely to surpass Titanic in attendance. Ticket prices were about $3 cheaper in the late 1990s." Cameron said he did not think it was realistic to "try to topple Titanic off its perch" because it "just struck some kind of chord" and there had been other good films in recent years. He changed his prediction by mid-January. "It's gonna happen. It's just a matter of time," he said.
Though analysts have been unable to agree that Avatar's success is attributable to one primary factor, several explanations have been advanced. First, January is historically "the dumping ground for the year's weakest films", and this also applied to 2010. Cameron himself said he decided to open the film in December so that it would have less competition from then to January. Titanic capitalized on the same January predictability, and earned most of its gross in 1998. Additionally, Avatar established itself as a "must-see" event. Gray said, "At this point, people who are going to see Avatar are going to see Avatar and would even if the slate was strong." Marketing the film as a "novelty factor" also helped. Fox positioned the film as a cinematic event that should be seen in the theatres. "It's really hard to sell the idea that you can have the same experience at home," stated David Mumpower, an analyst at BoxOfficeProphets.com. The "Oscar buzz" surrounding the film and international viewings helped. "Two-thirds of Titanic's haul was earned overseas, and Avatar [tracked] similarly ...Avatar opened in 106 markets globally and was No. 1 in all of them", and the markets "such as Russia, where Titanic saw modest receipts in 1997 and 1998, are white-hot today" with "more screens and moviegoers" than before.
According to Variety, films in 3D accumulated $1.3 billion in 2009, "a threefold increase over 2008 and more than 10% of the total 2009 box-office gross". The increased ticket price – an average of $2 to $3 per ticket in most markets – helped the film. Likewise, Entertainment Weekly attributed the film's success to 3D glasses, but also to its "astronomic word-of-mouth". Not only do some theaters charge up to $18.50 for IMAX tickets, but "the buzz" created by the new technology was the possible cause for sold-out screenings. Gray said Avatar having no basis in previously established material makes its performance remarkable and even more impressive. "The movie might be derivative of many movies in its story and themes," he said, "but it had no direct antecedent like the other top-grossing films: Titanic (historical events), the Star Wars movies (an established film franchise), or The Lord of the Rings (literature). It was a tougher sell ..."
- See also: Themes in Avatar for more reviews
The film received mostly positive reviews. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a rating of 83% based on 292 reviews, with a rating average of 7.4/10. The site's consensus reads "It might be more impressive on a technical level than as a piece of storytelling, but Avatar reaffirms James Cameron's singular gift for imaginative, absorbing filmmaking." On Metacritic — which assigns a weighted mean score, the film has a score of 83 out of 100 based on 35 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". CinemaScore polls conducted during the opening weekend revealed the average grade cinemagoers gave Avatar was "A" on an A+ to F scale. Every demographic surveyed was reported to give this rating. These polls also indicated that the main draw of the film was its use of 3D.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "extraordinary" and gave it four stars out of four. "Watching Avatar, I felt sort of the same as when I saw Star Wars in 1977," he said, adding that like Star Wars and The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, the film "employs a new generation of special effects" and it "is not simply a sensational entertainment, although it is that. It's a technical breakthrough. It has a flat-out Green and anti-war message". A. O. Scott of At The Movies also compared his viewing of the film to the first time he viewed Star Wars and he said "although the script is a little bit ... obvious," it was "part of what made it work". Todd McCarthy of Variety praised the film, saying "The King of the World sets his sights on creating another world entirely in Avatar, and it's very much a place worth visiting." Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter gave the film a positive review. "The screen is alive with more action and the soundtrack pops with more robust music than any dozen sci-fi shoot-'em-ups you care to mention," he stated. Peter Travers of Rolling Stone awarded Avatar a three-and-a-half out of four star rating and wrote in his print review "It extends the possibilities of what movies can do. Cameron's talent may just be as big as his dreams." Richard Corliss of Time magazine thought that the film was "the most vivid and convincing creation of a fantasy world ever seen in the history of moving pictures." Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times thought the film has "powerful" visual accomplishments but "flat dialogue" and "obvious characterization". James Berardinelli of ReelViews praised the film and its story, giving it four out of four stars; he wrote "In 3-D, it's immersive – but the traditional film elements – story, character, editing, theme, emotional resonance, etc. – are presented with sufficient expertise to make even the 2-D version an engrossing 2½-hour experience."
Avatar's underlying social and political themes attracted attention. Armond White of the New York Press wrote that Cameron used "villainous American characters" to "misrepresent facets of militarism, capitalism, and imperialism". Russell D. Moore of The Christian Post concluded that "propaganda exists in the film" and stated "If you can get a theater full of people in Kentucky to stand and applaud the defeat of their country in war, then you've got some amazing special effects." Some commentators sympathetic to anarcho-primitivism have even praised the film as a manifesto for their cause. Adam Cohen of The New York Times was more positive about the film, calling its anti-imperialist message "a 22nd-century version of the American colonists vs. the British, India vs. the Raj, or Latin America vs. United Fruit". Ross Douthat of The New York Times opined that the film is "Cameron's long apologia for pantheism ... Hollywood's religion of choice for a generation now", while Saritha Prabhu of The Tennessean called the film a "misportrayal of pantheism and Eastern spirituality in general", and Maxim Osipov of The Hindustan Times, on the contrary, commended the film's message for its overall consistency with the teachings of Hinduism in the Bhagavad Gita. Annalee Newitz of io9 concluded that Avatar is another film that has the recurring "fantasy about race" whereby "some white guy" becomes the "most awesome" member of a non-white culture. Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune called Avatar "the season's ideological Rorschach blot", while Miranda Devine of The Sydney Morning Herald thought that "It [was] impossible to watch Avatar without being banged over the head with the director's ideological hammer." Nidesh Lawtoo believed that an essential, yet less visible social theme that contributed to Avatar's success concerns contemporary fascinations with virtual avatars and "the transition from the world of reality to that of virtual reality.".
Critics and audiences have cited similarities with other films, literature or media, describing the perceived connections in ways ranging from simple "borrowing" to outright plagiarism. Ty Burr of the Boston Globe called it "the same movie" as Dances with Wolves. Like Dances with Wolves, Avatar has been characterized as being a "white savior" movie, in which a "backwards" native people is impotent without the leadership of a member of the invading white culture. Parallels to the concept and use of an avatar are in Poul Anderson's 1957 novelette "Call Me Joe", in which a paralyzed man uses his mind from orbit to control an artificial body on Jupiter. Cinema audiences in Russia have noted that Avatar has elements in common with the 1960s Noon Universe novels by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, which are set in the 22nd century on a forested world called Pandora with a sentient indigenous species called the Nave. Various reviews have compared Avatar to the films FernGully: The Last Rainforest, Pocahontas and The Last Samurai. NPR's Morning Edition has compared the film to a montage of tropes, with one commentator stating that Avatar was made by "mixing a bunch of film scripts in a blender". Gary Westfahl wrote that "the science fiction story that most closely resembles Avatar has to be Ursula K. Le Guin's novella "The Word for World Is Forest" (1972), another epic about a benevolent race of alien beings who happily inhabit dense forests while living in harmony with nature until they are attacked and slaughtered by invading human soldiers who believe that the only good gook is a dead gook." The science fiction writer and editor Gardner Dozois said that along with the Anderson and Le Guin stories, the "mash-up" included Alan Dean Foster's 1975 novel, Midworld. Some sources saw similarities to the artwork of Roger Dean, which featured fantastic images of floating rock formations and dragons. In 2013, Dean sued Cameron and Fox, claiming that Pandora was inspired by 14 of his images. Dean sought damages of $50m. Dean's case was dismissed in 2014, and the Hollywood Reporter noted that Cameron has won multiple Avatar idea theft cases.
Avatar received compliments from filmmakers, with Steven Spielberg praising it as "the most evocative and amazing science-fiction movie since Star Wars" and others calling it "audacious and awe inspiring", "master class", and "brilliant". Noted art director-turned-filmmaker Roger Christian is also a noted fan of the film. On the other hand, Duncan Jones said: "It's not in my top three James Cameron films. ... [A]t what point in the film did you have any doubt what was going to happen next?". Time ranked Avatar number 3 in their list of "The 10 Greatest Movies of the Millennium (Thus Far)" also earning it a spot on the magazine's All-TIME 100 list, and IGN listed Avatar as number 22 on their list of the top 25 Sci-Fi movies of all time.
Avatar won the 82nd Academy Awards for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography, and Best Visual Effects, and was nominated for a total of nine, including Best Picture and Best Director. Avatar also won the 67th Golden Globe Awards for Best Motion Picture – Drama and Best Director, and was nominated for two others. At the 36th Saturn Awards, Avatar won all ten awards it was nominated for: Best Science Fiction Film, Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress, Best Director, Best Writing, Best Music, Best Production Design and Best Special Effects.
The New York Film Critics Online honored the film with its Best Picture award. The film also won the Critics' Choice Awards of the Broadcast Film Critics Association for Best Action Film and several technical categories, out of nine nominations. It won two of the St. Louis Film Critics awards: Best Visual Effects and Most Original, Innovative or Creative Film. The film also won the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award for Production Design and Special Visual Effects, and was nominated for seven others, including Best Film and Director. The film has received numerous other major awards, nominations and honors.
Extended theatrical re-release
In July 2010, Cameron confirmed that there would be an extended theatrical re-release of the film on August 27, 2010, exclusively in 3D theaters and IMAX 3D. Avatar: Special Edition includes an additional nine minutes of footage, all of which is CG, including an extension of the sex scene and various other scenes that were cut from the original theatrical film. This extended re-release resulted in the film's run time approaching the current IMAX platter maximum of 170 minutes, thereby leaving less time for the end credits. Cameron stated that the nine minutes of added scenes cost more than $1 million a minute to produce and finish. During its 12-week re-release, Avatar: Special Edition grossed an additional $10.74 million in North America and $22.46 million overseas for a worldwide total of $33.2 million.
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment released the film on DVD and Blu-ray in the US on April 22, 2010 and in the UK on April 26. The US release was not on a Tuesday as is the norm, but was done to coincide with Earth Day. The first DVD and Blu-ray release does not contain any supplemental features other than the theatrical film and the disc menu in favor of and to make space for optimal picture and sound. The release also preserves the film's native 1.78:1 (16:9) format as Cameron felt that was the best format to watch the film. The Blu-ray disc contains DRM (BD+ 5) which some Blu-ray players might not support without a firmware update.
Avatar set a first-day launch record in the U.S. for Blu-ray sales at 1.5 million units sold, breaking the record previously held by The Dark Knight (600,000 units sold). First-day DVD and Blu-ray sales combined were over four million units sold. In its first four days of release, sales of Avatar on Blu-ray reached 2.7 million in the United States and Canada – overtaking The Dark Knight to become the best ever selling Blu-ray release in the region. The release later broke the Blu-ray sales record in the UK the following week. In its first three weeks of release, the film sold a total of 19.7 million DVD and Blu-ray discs combined, a new record for sales in that period. As of July 18, 2012, DVD sales (not including Blu-ray) totaled over 10.5 million units sold with $190,806,055 in revenue. Avatar retained its record as the top-selling Blu-ray in the US market until January 2015 when Disney's Frozen surpassed it.
The Avatar Three-Disc Extended Collector's Edition on DVD and Blu-ray was released on November 16, 2010. Three different versions of the film are present on the discs: the original theatrical cut, the special edition cut, and a collector's extended cut (with the DVD set spreading them on two discs, but the Blu-ray set presenting them on a single disc). The collector's extended cut contains 6 more minutes of footage, thus making it 16 minutes longer than the original theatrical cut. Cameron mentioned, "you can sit down, and in a continuous screening of the film, watch it with the Earth opening". He stated the "Earth opening" is an additional 4½ minutes of scenes that were in the film for much of its production but were ultimately cut before the film's theatrical release. The release also includes an additional 45 minutes of deleted scenes and other extras.
Cameron initially stated that Avatar would be released in 3D around November 2010, but the studio issued a correction: "3-D is in the conceptual stage and Avatar will not be out on 3D Blu-ray in November." In May 2010, Fox stated that the 3D version would be released some time in 2011. It was later revealed that Fox had given Panasonic an exclusive license for the 3D Blu-ray version and only with the purchase of a Panasonic 3DTV. The length of Panasonic's exclusivity period is stated to last until February 2012. On October 2010, Cameron stated that the standalone 3D Blu-ray would be the final version of the film's home release and that it was, "maybe one, two years out". On Christmas Eve 2010, Avatar had its 3D television world premiere on Sky.
In 2006, Cameron stated that if Avatar was successful, he hoped to make two sequels to the film. In 2010, he said the film's widespread success confirmed that he would do so. He included certain scenes in the first film for future story follow-ups. Cameron planned to shoot the sequels back-to-back and to begin work "once the novel is nailed down". He stated that the sequels would widen the universe while exploring other moons of Polyphemus. The first sequel would focus on the ocean of Pandora and also feature more of the rainforest. He intended to capture footage for this sequel at the bottom of the Mariana Trench using a deepwater submersible. In 2011, Cameron stated that he was just starting to design the ocean ecosystem of Pandora and the other worlds to be included in the story. The storyline, although continuing the environmental theme of the first film, would not be "strident" since the film will concentrate on entertainment.
The sequels would continue to follow the characters of Jake and Neytiri. Cameron implied that the humans would return as the antagonists of the story. Worthington and Saldana signed on to reprise their roles in the sequels. In 2010, Cameron confirmed that Sigourney Weaver and Stephen Lang were also expected to return despite the demise of their characters. The sequels were originally scheduled for release in December 2014 and 2015. In 2011, Cameron stated his intention to film the sequels at a higher frame rate than the industry standard 24 frames per second, in order to add a heightened sense of reality.
In 2012, Cameron first mentioned a possible third sequel. That year, Cameron stated that the sequels were being written as "separate stories that have an overall arc inclusive of the first film", with the second having a clear conclusion instead of a cliffhanger to the next film. Cameron expected to release Avatar 2 in 2015. In 2013, it was confirmed that there would be three sequels. Screenwriters were also announced: Josh Friedman for the first, Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver for the second, and Shane Salerno for the third. Production was re-scheduled for 2014 with the films to be released in December 2016, 2017, and 2018. Steven Gould was engaged to write four novels based on the films. Later that year, Cameron announced that the sequels would be filmed in New Zealand, with performance capture to take place in 2014. An agreement with the New Zealand government required at least one world premiere to be held in Wellington and at least NZ$500 million (approximately US$410 million at December 2013 exchange rates) to be spent on production activity in New Zealand, including live-action filming and visual effects. The New Zealand government announced it would raise its baseline tax rebate for filmmaking from 15% to 20%, with 25% available to international productions in some cases and 40% for New Zealand productions (as defined by section 18 of the New Zealand Film Commission Act 1978).
In April 2014, Cameron expected to finish the three scripts within six weeks, stating that all three sequels would be in production simultaneously and were still slated for December 2016 to 2018 releases. He stated that although Friedman, Jaffa and Silver, and Salerno are each co-writing one sequel with him, they at first all worked together on all three scripts: "I didn't assign each writer which film they were going to work on until the last day. I knew if I assigned them their scripts ahead of time, they'd tune out every time we were talking about the other movie." "We... worked out every beat of the story across all three films so it all connects as one, sort of, three-film saga." Cameron also stated that Weaver would be featured in all three sequels and that her character Grace Augustine would be alive. In March 2015, however, Weaver said that she will play a new character in the next film.
By 2015, the scheduled release dates for the sequels were each delayed by another year, with the first sequel expected to be released in December 2017; Cameron called the writing process "a complex job". In June 2015, James Horner, who was reported to be engaged to write music for the franchise, was killed in a plane crash. In December, Cameron stated that he was "doing another pass through all three scripts ... Just refining. That's in parallel with the design process. The design process is very mature at this point. We've been designing for about a year and a half. All the characters, settings and creatures are all pretty much [set]." The following month, Fox announced a further release delay.
As of February 2016, production of the sequels was scheduled to begin in April 2016 in New Zealand. In April 2016, Cameron announced at CinemaCon that there will be four Avatar sequels, all of which will be filmed simultaneously, with release dates in December 2018, 2020, 2022 and 2023, respectively. In late October 2016, Cameron stated that he is going to push for "glasses-free 3D" with the sequels.
As of January 2017, production has not commenced on the Avatar sequels.
Toruk - The First Flight is an original stage production by the Montreal-based Cirque du Soleil which premiered in November 2015 and has been touring other cities since 2016. Inspired by Avatar, the story is set in Pandora's past, involving a prophecy concerning a threat to the Tree of Souls and a quest for totems from different tribes. Audience members can download an app in order to participate in show effects. On 18 January 2016, it was announced via the Toruk Facebook page that filming for an upcoming DVD has been completed and is currently undergoing editing.
- "AVATAR [3D] (12A)". British Board of Film Classification. December 8, 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Avatar". BFI. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- Patten, D. (December 3, 2009). "'Avatar's' True Cost – and Consequences". The Wrap. Archived from the original on December 16, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- James Wigney (August 15, 2010). "Avatar director slams bandwagon jumpers". Herald Sun. Australia. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
- Box Office Mojo
- Total: "Avatar (2009)". Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- Total as of 2013: "Avatar (2009)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013.
- Special edition: "Avatar (Special Edition)". Retrieved January 10, 2012.
North America:$10,741,486; Overseas: $22,469,358
- Total: "Avatar (2009)". Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "Avatar". The-Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- French, Philip (March 14, 2010). "Avatar was the year's real milestone, never mind the results". The Observer. UK. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
- Johnston, Rich (December 11, 2009). "Review: AVATAR – The Most Expensive American Film Ever ... And Possibly The Most Anti-American One Too.". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
- Choi, Charles Q. (December 28, 2009). "Moons like Avatar's Pandora could be found". MSNBC. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
- Horwitz, Jane (December 24, 2009). "Family Filmgoer". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- This property of Unobtanium is stated in movie guides, rather than in the film. Wilhelm, Maria; Dirk Mathison (November 2009). James Cameron's Avatar: A Confidential Report on the Biological and Social History of Pandora. HarperCollins. p. 4. ISBN 0-06-189675-6.
- Winters Keegan, Rebecca (January 11, 2007). "Q&A with James Cameron". Time. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
- Jeff Jensen (January 10, 2007). "Great Expectations". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on January 24, 2007. Retrieved January 28, 2007.
- Alexander Marquardt (January 14, 2010). "Did Avatar Borrow from Soviet Sci-Fi Novels?". ABC News. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- "Synthetic actors to star in Avatar". St. Petersburg Times. August 12, 1996. Retrieved February 1, 2010.[dead link]
- Judy Hevrdejs; Mike Conklin (August 9, 1996). "Channel 2 has Monday morning team in place". Chicago Tribune.
- "Crafting an Alien Language, Hollywood-Style: Professor's Work to Hit the Big Screen in Upcoming Blockbuster Avatar". USC Marshall. University of Southern California Marshall School of Business. Archived from the original on May 26, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Avatar Language". Nine to Noon. December 15, 2009.
- Barnes, Brooks (December 20, 2009). "'Avatar' Is No. 1 but Without a Record". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 13, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Fritz, Ben (December 20, 2009). "Could 'Avatar' hit $1 billion?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 22, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Keegan, R. (December 3, 2009). "How Much Did Avatar Really Cost?". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Han Sunhee (February 5, 2010). "'Avatar' goes 4D in Korea". Variety. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
- "James Cameron's 'Avatar' Film to Feature Vocals From Singer Lisbeth Scott" (Press release). Los Angeles: PRNewswire. October 29, 2009. Archived from the original on December 6, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2009 – via Newsblaze.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (December 19, 2009). "'Avatar' takes $27 million in its first day". Variety. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- Douglas, Edward (December 21, 2009). "Avatar Soars Despite Heavy Snowstorms". ComingSoon.net. Archived from the original on December 23, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
- Reporting by Dean Goodman; editing by Anthony Boadle (December 20, 2009). ""Avatar" leads box office, despite blizzard". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 19, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Unadjusted for inflation. See also List of highest-grossing films in Canada and the United States#Adjusted for ticket-price inflation
- "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
- "'Avatar' Wins Box Office, Nears Domestic Record". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2010.[dead link]
- "List of Academy Award nominations". CNN. February 2, 2010. Archived from the original on February 5, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- "James Cameron Will Shoot Three 'Avatar' Sequels Back to Back, First Release Planned in 2016 | /Film". Slashfilm.com. 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 14, 2016). "James Cameron Expands 'Avatar' Sequels To Four, Slams Screening Room & Gets Cheers From Exhibs- CinemaCon". Deadline. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- Rottenberg, Josh. "James Cameron Talks Avatar: Brave Blue World," Entertainment Weekly No. 1081 (December 18, 2009): 48.
- Cameron, James. "Avatar" (PDF). Avatar Screenings. Fox and its Related Entities. p. 25. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- Cameron, James. "Avatar" (PDF). Avatar Screenings. Fox and its Related Entities. pp. 8 and 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 27, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010. Archived version February 9, 2010
- Conan O'Brien (December 18, 2009). "The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien". The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien. Season 1. Episode 128. NBC.
I was cheap
- Kevin Williamson. "Paraplegic role helps Worthington find his feet". lfpress.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
- Jeff Jensen (January 10, 2007). "Great Expectations (page 2)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- "This week's cover: James Cameron reveals plans for an 'Avatar' sequel". Entertainment Weekly. January 14, 2010. Archived from the original on January 23, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- John Horn. "Faces to watch 2009: film, TV, music and Web". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 31, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2008.
- Anne Thompson (August 2, 2007). "Lang, Rodriguez armed for 'Avatar'". Variety. Retrieved August 3, 2007.
- Barnes, Jessica (March 26, 2007). "Michael Biehn Talks 'Avatar' – Cameron Not Using Cameras?". Cinematical. Archived from the original on 2010-01-12.
- Clint Morris (August 2, 2007). "Sigouney Weaver talks Avatar". Moviehole.net. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- Leslie Simmons (September 21, 2007). "'Avatar' has new player with Ribisi". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 3, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
- Cameron, James (2007). "Avatar" (PDF). Avatar Screenings. Fox and its Related Entities. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2010. Archived version May 6, 2010
- Lux, Rachel (December 14, 2009). "Close-Up: Joel David Moore". Alternative Press. Alternative Press Magazine, Inc. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2010. Archived version May 6, 2010
- Lewis Bazley (May 25, 2009). "Drag Me to Hell Review". inthenews.co.uk. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
- Brennan, David (February 11, 2007). "Avatar Scriptment: Summary, Review, and Analysis". James Cameron's Movies & Creations. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- Thompson, Anne (January 9, 2007). ""Titanic" director sets sci-fi epic for '09". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
- 20th Century Fox (January 9, 2007). "Cameron's Avatar Starts Filming in April". ComingSoon.net. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved October 10, 2009.
- "Pounder Talks Avatar". April 30, 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
- Randy McMullen; Joe Garofoli (August 9, 1996). "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". People.
- Grover, R; Lowry, T.; White, M. (January 21, 2010). "King of the World (Again)". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg. pp. 1–4. Archived from the original on January 25, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
- Harry Knowles (February 28, 2006). "Harry talks to James Cameron, Cracks PROJECT 880, the BATTLE ANGEL trilogy & Cameron's live shoot on Mars!!!". Ain't It Cool News. Archived from the original on October 13, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2006.
- John Horn (January 8, 2007). "Director Cameron to shoot again". Los Angeles Times.
- Kozlowski, Lori (January 2, 2010). "'Avatar' team brought in UC Riverside professor to dig in the dirt of Pandora". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- "Avatar Concept Designer Reveals the Secrets of the Na'vi". io9. Retrieved April 20, 2010.
- Kendricks, Neil (March 7, 2010). "Cameron, the Science Geek Who Became a Movie Titan for the Ages". U-T San Diego. Retrieved April 20, 2010.
- Crabtree, Sheigh (July 7, 2006). "Cameron comes back with CG extravaganza". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 14, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2006.
- Smith, Lynn (August 4, 2006). "Special-Effects Giant Signs on for 'Avatar'". Los Angeles Times.
- Duncan, Jody; James Cameron (October 2006). The Winston Effect. Titan Books. ISBN 1-84576-150-2.
- "Avatar Started As A Four-Month, Late-Night Jam Session At James Cameron's House". December 10, 2009.
- Waters, Jen (September 28, 2006). "Technology adds more in-depth feeling to the movie experience". The Washington Times. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- Duncan, Jody; Lisa Fitzpatrick (2010). The Making of Avatar. United States: Abrams Books. p. 52. ISBN 0-8109-9706-1.
- "Written By homepage". Archived from the original on November 30, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- James Rampton (December 20, 2006). "James Cameron: King of all he surveys". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on January 8, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Ordoña, Michael (December 13, 2009). "Eye-popping 'Avatar' pioneers new technology". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst communications Inc. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2010. Archived version April 29, 2010
- "James Cameron: Yes, 'Avatar' is 'Dances with Wolves' in space ... sorta |". Los Angeles Times. Latimesblogs. August 14, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
- Ito, Norihiro (December 25, 2009). "新作「アバター」宮崎アニメにオマージュ Ｊ・キャメロン監督 (New Film Avatar Homage to Miyazaki's Animated Film: J. Cameron)". Sankei Shimbun (in Japanese). Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2010.
- In Hinduism, the human manifestations of several deities, including Vishnu, Krishna, and Rama, have blue-colored skin. See Blue:Religion. Wadhwani, Sita (December 24, 2009). "The religious backdrop to James Cameron's 'Avatar'". CNN. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
- Svetkey, Benjamin (January 15, 2010). "'Avatar:' 11 Burning Questions". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
- Eric Ditzian, with reporting by Josh Horowitz (January 7, 2010). "James Cameron Compares His 'Avatar' And 'Titanic' Couples. The director notes the similarities between Sully and Neytiri, and Jack and Rose". MTV. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- Woerner, Meredith (July 24, 2009). "James Cameron Fought the Studio to Keep His Aliens Weird in "Avatar"". io9. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- (French) James Cameron en Chine pour faire la publicité de son film « Avatar », People daily, December 24, 2009.
- Anders, Charlie Jane (January 14, 2010). "Avatar's Designers Speak: Floating Mountains, AMP Suits And The Dragon".
- Renjie, Mao (December 24, 2009). "Stunning Avatar". Global Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- "Noble Clyde Boudreaux". Noble Corporation. Archived from the original on 2012-01-30. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "Avatar Designs Based on Drilling Rig". ComingSoon.net. January 12, 2008. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
- Press, Associated (August 18, 2009). "'Avatar Friday': fans will be shown preview of James Cameron's 3-D film". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2010. Archived version April 30, 2010
- Hoyle, Ben (December 11, 2009). "War on Terror backdrop to James Cameron's Avatar". The Australian. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- John Anderson (December 18, 2009). "Alternate World, Alternate Technology". The New York Times.
- Murphy, Mekado (December 21, 2009). "A Few Questions for James Cameron". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- Sharon Waxman (January 8, 2007). "'Titanic' Director Joins Fox on $200 Million Film". The New York Times.
- Anne Thompson (January 2010). "How James Cameron's Innovative New 3D Tech Created Avatar". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved December 15, 2009.
- Cohen, David S. (April 10, 2008). "James Cameron supercharges 3-D". Variety. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
- Anne Thompson (January 9, 2007). "Cameron sets live-action, CG epic for 2009". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 10, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
- Josh Quittner (March 19, 2009). "3-D: The Future of Movies". Time. Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
- "$200m Avatar starts filming in Wellington". The Dominion Post. October 17, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
- James Cameron and production team (January 19, 2010). 'Avatar' Creating the World of Pandora (Online web-based video). Yahoo!. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010.
- "James Cameron's Jungle Expedition For 'Avatar' Stars". Starpulse.com. November 9, 2009. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
- Sharon Waxman (January 9, 2007). "Computers Join Actors in Hybrids On Screen". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2007.
- Rachel Abramowitz (February 19, 2009). "Do the 'Avatar' actors deserve recognition?". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on March 1, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- Henry Fitzherbert (December 11, 2009). "Avatar: Director James Cameron's crowning glory". Daily Express. UK. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- Chang, Aldric (August 20, 2009). "Reading Between the Lines: First Image of James Cameron's Avatar". media-freaks.com. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Duncan, Jody (January 2010). "Avatar". Cinefex magazine. Riverside, CA: Cinefex: 86.
- Terdiman, Daniel (2013-01-23). "'Avatar' Oscars could make Weta household name". CNET. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- Aili McConnon (April 2, 2007). "James Cameron on the Cutting Edge". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on October 30, 2009. Retrieved September 23, 2009.
- Kaufman, Amy (July 25, 2009). "Jackson, Cameron Saddened by State of Film Industry (Video)". Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- "James Cameron Mixes It Up With Avatar". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- Larry Gelten (January 31, 2010). "2nd look: 'Avatar'". New York Post. Archived from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Philip Wakefield (December 19, 2009). "Close encounters of the 3D kind". The Listener. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- "Cameron Says Microsoft's Role in 'Avatar' Was Key". Microsoft. February 5, 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-01-06. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- Ericson, Jim (Jan–Feb 2010). "Overheard: AVATAR's Data Center". Information Management: 26.
- Jim Ericson (December 21, 2009). "Processing AVATAR". SourceMedia. Information Management magazine. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- "Cloudy with a chance of Linux: Canonical aims to cash in". March 26, 2010. Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
- "The Day the Earth Stood Still". March 1, 2009. Archived from the original on April 30, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
- "Jack Greasley, developer and Product Manager at The Foundry, takes CGSociety for a look around Mari, the new texture application". CG Society. May 25, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- "Exclusive: Foundry NAB Preview". FX Guide. March 29, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- Tim Masters (December 16, 2009). "Will Avatar crown James Cameron 'King of the Universe'?". BBC News. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- "The Data-Crunching Powerhouse Behind 'Avatar'". December 22, 2009. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
- "The computing power that created Avatar | Chips". Geek.com. 2009-12-24. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- Daniel Terdiman (December 19, 2009). "ILM steps in to help finish 'Avatar' visual effects". CNET.
- "Joe Letteri". Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- "Fox confirms Horner on Cameron's 'Avatar'" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 29, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- Dorey, Jim (April 2, 2008). "Na'vi Alien Language Incorporated In 'Avatar' Music Soundtrack". MarketSaw Blog. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- Lucas, Ann (Fall 2007). "Alumni News" (PDF). UCLA Department of Ethnomusicology. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-11-06. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
- Carlsson, Mikael (January 3, 2009). "Top-10 Most Anticipated Scores of 2009". Upcoming Film Scores. IMDb News. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- Owen Vaughan (November 30, 2009). "James Horner: 'Scoring Avatar has been the most difficult job I've done'". The Times. London. Retrieved February 8, 2010.(Subscription required.)
- Fukushima, Glenn (November 16, 2009). "Atlantic Unveils "AVATAR: MUSIC FROM THE MOTION PICTURE"; Official Companion Album to James Cameron's Upcoming Epic Adventure Features Music Composed & Conducted by Oscar-Winner James Horner, Plus "I See You (Theme From Avatar)," Performed by Leona Lewis". marketwire. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved November 22, 2009.
- Raup, Jordan (August 14, 2009). "First Official Photo For James Cameron's 'Avatar'". Filmstage.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved September 19, 2009.
- "New Empire Avatar Cover!". Empire. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- Rettig, Kristina (July 23, 2009). "James Cameron Previews 'Avatar'". Variety. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
- "Dolby 3D is the Official 3D Provider for Comic-Con International 2009". BusinessWire. July 23, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
- "Programming for Thursday, July 23" (php). San Diego Comic-Con International. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
- "Programming for Friday, July 24" (php). San Diego Comic-Con International. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
- "Official 'Avatar Day' Press Release". SciFiScoop.com. July 23, 2009. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
- Clark, Cindy (August 24, 2009). "'Avatar' preview dazzles audiences". USA Today. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- Michael Bodey (August 27, 2009). "Titanic director James Cameron grabs film's holy grail in new film Avatar | The Australian". Theaustralian.news.com.au. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- "CTV News | Stars gear up for a risky season in Hollywood". Ctv.ca. October 3, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- Kilday, Gregg (August 25, 2009). "A chip off the ol' iceberg? 'Avatar' run-up recalls another Cameron-captained ship". The Hollywood Reporter. p. 6. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- "AVATAR Movie Teaser is the Most Viewed Trailer Ever on Apple.com". GeekTyrant. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- Pham Thu Nga; Trong Kha (November 13, 2009). "Through a glass starkly". Thanh Nien News. Archived from the original on January 5, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "AVATAR Trailer Gets World's Largest Live Trailer Viewing on November 1". Reuters. October 29, 2009. Archived from the original on November 2, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- "Coca-Cola Zero Immerses in the World of Avatar". Progressive Grocer. November 24, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
- user. "FOX on Demand". Fox.com. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- "Space Ghost to Come out of Retirement For Interview with Avatar Star Zoë Saldana". Adult Swim. December 7, 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-05-11. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Elliott, Stuart (February 8, 2010). "Campaign Spotlight – This Campaign Is Wet (and Wild)". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Avatar: A Confidential Report on the Biological and Social History of Pandora. ISBN 978-0-06-189675-0
- James Cameron's Avatar: The Movie Scrapbook. ISBN 978-0-06-180124-2
- The Art of Avatar: James Cameron's Epic Adventure. ISBN 978-0-8109-8286-4
- The Making of Avatar. ISBN 0-8109-9706-1
- Germain, David (December 21, 2009). "Avatar creator Cameron shares alien shop talk". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
- Larry Carroll (February 12, 2010). "James Cameron Writing 'Avatar' Prequel – But Not For The Big Screen". MTV. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved February 15, 2010.
- Lewis, Andy (August 22, 2013). "James Cameron Spins Off 'Avatar' Book Series". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Woerner, Meredith (June 2, 2009). "James Cameron's Na'vi Banshees Take Flight In The Avatar Video Game". io9. Archived from the original on June 5, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
- "'Avatar' in four different formats". The Independent. London. December 12, 2009. Archived from the original on December 15, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Fox Licensing unveils Avatar licensing programme, Licensing.biz. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "Mattel is Master Toy Licensee for Cameron's Avatar". ComingSoon.net. February 13, 2009. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
- "Avatar Happy Meal Toys". happymeal.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- "McDonald's Brings Customers to Another Planet in Partnership With James Cameron's Movie Masterpiece AVATAR". McDonald's Press Release via PR Newswire. Accessed August 23, 2015
- Sharma, Garima (February 17, 2010). "Stamp-ed!". The Times of India. India. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
- Cody, Anthony (22 September 2011). "Disney to build Avatar attractions at its theme parks". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- Levy, Dani (February 7, 2017). "Disney's 'Avatar'-Themed Land Opening Date Revealed, Star Wars Land Coming in 2019". Variety. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- "Avatar International Release Dates". foxinternational.com. Archived from the original on October 5, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- Dave McNary (July 13, 2007). "Hollywood films' dating game". Variety. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- Pamela McClintock, Michael Fleming (December 11, 2007). "Fox shifts 'Avatar,' 'Museum'". Variety. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
- "James Cameron Q & A Podcast from Aliens / The Abyss Event!". MarketSaw. May 30, 2009. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
- "Avatar (2009) – Technical specifications". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- "DRM-Chaos verhindert 3D-Vorpremieren von Avatar". heise.de. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Gwin, Scott (December 18, 2009). "Cinema Blend: Over 350 Avatar Screenings Already Sold Out".
- "'Avatar' dominates int'l boxoffice". December 20, 2009. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010.
- "Avatar is king of the world with $165.2m overseas launch". December 20, 2009.
- "James Cameron's Avatar Posts Record Opening Weekend Box Office Results in IMAX(R) Theatres". Yahoo!. December 21, 2009. Retrieved October 13, 2010.[dead link]
- "ScreenCrave: Avatar Breaks IMAX's Wide Release Record". December 16, 2009.
- "Bollywood film-makers vie for larger screen pie". The Economic Times. India. September 25, 2011. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
- "The Numbers News—Avatar Scores $3.5 Million at Midnight Screenings, Big Opening Day in Australia". The-Numbers. Nash Information Services. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
- "Avatar 2009 box office". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- "All Time 3D Opening Weekends". Boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- "All Time Environmentalist Opening Weekends". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "AVATAR (2009) International Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
- "WORLDWIDE OPENINGS". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2011.
- Britt, Russ (January 4, 2010). "Can Cameron break his own box-office record? 'Avatar' unprecedented in staying power, international sales". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "Weekend Box Office Results for December 25–27, 2009". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 1, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 2nd Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on December 2, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Subers, Ray (May 13, 2012). "Weekend Report: 'Avengers' Shatters More Records, 'Shadows' Mostly Sucks". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
- "Weekend Box Office Results for January 1–3, 2010". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 3rd Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- "Avatar fastest film to break $1 billion mark". Hindustan Times. India. January 5, 2010. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Subers, Ray (May 13, 2012). "Around-the-World Roundup: 'Avengers' Reaches $1 Billion Worldwide". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- "2009 Worldwide Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 4th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Cheng, Andria (January 10, 2010). "Avatar becomes top-grossing U.S. film released in 2009". MarketWatch. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "Top Grossing Movies for Martin Lurther King Holiday Weekends". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 5th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
- "Top Weekends – 6th". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
- "Top Weekends – 7th". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
- Subers, Ray. "The Avengers Hits $600 Million", June 26, 2012
- Deprez, Esme E. (January 31, 2010). "'Avatar' Tops Box Office, Passes $2 Billion Worldwide (Update1)". Business Week. Bloomberg L. P. Archived from the original on April 22, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- "Avatar (2009) – Dail Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Weekend Report: 'Avatar' Reigns with Record MLK Gross". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (March 1, 2010). "Weekend Report: 'Shutter Island' Hangs On, 'Cop Out,' 'Crazies' Debut Decently". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on April 10, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- Cieply, Michael (January 26, 2010). "He Doth Surpass Himself: 'Avatar' Outperforms 'Titanic'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
- Segers, Frank (January 25, 2010). "'Avatar' breaks 'Titanic' worldwide record". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
- "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (February 3, 2010). "'Avatar' Claims Highest Gross of All Time". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on February 7, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
- "'Avatar' passes 'Titanic' in domestic earnings". MSNBC. Associated Press. February 3, 2010. Archived from the original on February 7, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (January 26, 2010). "'Avatar' Is New King of the World". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (February 8, 2010). "Weekend Report: 'Dear John' Delivers, 'Avatar' Flies High Again". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (February 21, 2010). "Weekend Report: 'Shutter Island' Lights Up". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on February 24, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- "Avatar beats Mamma Mia's UK box office record". Indie London. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- Hutton, Michelle (February 28, 2010). "AVATAR Becomes Biggest Blockbuster Ever in Korea". Alt Film Guide. Archived from the original on March 2, 2010. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- Irish Film and Television Network (March 2, 2010). "'Avatar' Sinks 'Titanic' To Take Irish Box Office Crown". Irish Film Research. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Brent Lang (January 3, 2015). "'Star Wars: The Force Awakens' Shattering Imax Records". Variety. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- Corliss, Richard (January 10, 2010). "Another Avatar Weekend: Pandorans Defeat Vampires". Time. Archived from the original on January 12, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- "*Adjusted to the estimated 2010 average ticket price of $7.46""All Time Box Office Adjusted for Ticket Price Inflation". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Subers, Ray (April 21, 2010). "'Avatar' Strikes DVD on Earth Day". Box Office Mojo. Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on April 25, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Shone, Tom (February 3, 2010). "Oscars 2010: How James Cameron took on the world". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Segers, Frank (February 22, 2010). ""Avatar" top film overseas for 10th weekend". Reuters News Service. ABC News. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- Levin, Josh (December 10, 2009). "Here Come the Cats With Human Boobs. Is Avatar destined to flop?". Slate. Archived from the original on December 17, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Carroll, Jason (November 23, 2009). "CNN's Jason Carroll interviews director James Cameron about his new film "Avatar". (Video.)". CNN. Archived from the original on December 19, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Gwin, Scott (December 21, 2009). "Why Avatar's Headed For Blockbuster Mediocrity". Cinema Blend. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- Engber, Daniel (August 22, 2009). "Avatar = "Apocalypto" + George Lucas". Slate. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009. Retrieved December 22, 2009.
- Ceply, Michael (November 8, 2009). "A Movie's Budget Pops From the Screen". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Rosenberg, Adam (December 17, 2009). "How Will 'Avatar' Fare At The Box Office? Experts Weigh In. One box-office analyst says James Cameron's 3-D epic has a shot to break $100 million this weekend". MTV. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Wells, Jeffery (December 9, 2009). "Avatar Adjustments". Hollywood Elsewhere. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2009.
- Blair, Iain (December 8, 2009). "Avatar's Cameron shrugs off buzz – and promises a sequel". SciFiWIRE.com. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
- "'Avatar' Hits $1 Billion Mark, Eyes 'Titanic' Record". omg!. Yahoo! News. January 3, 2010. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- Tramontana, Stephen (January 5, 2010). "Why Avatar will not beat Titanic". Manolith.com. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
- Ditzian, Eric (January 4, 2010). "Will 'Avatar' Top James Cameron's 'Titanic' Box-Office Record?". MTV. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- Jacks, Brian (January 16, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: James Cameron Says 'Avatar' Will Beat 'Titanic' To Become Biggest Of All Time". Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- Boucher, Geoff (August 25, 2010). "James Cameron: I want to compete with 'Star Wars' and Tolkien". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
- Ball, Sarah (January 6, 2010). "Why 'Avatar' Could Out-Earn 'Titanic'. James Cameron is king of the box office again, but will his latest eclipse his Titanic success?". Newsweek. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- Vary, Adam B. (January 2, 2010). "Box Office Report: 'Avatar' is No. 1 again, soars past $1 billion worldwide". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- "Avatar". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved Sep 26, 2012.
- "Avatar (2009): Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
- Miller, Neil (December 21, 2009). "Avatar Opens to Big Returns, But Staying Power is the Key". CraveOnline "FilmSchoolRejects.com". Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
- Ebert, Roger (December 11, 2009). "Avatar". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
- Scott, A. O. (December 20, 2009). "Avatar film review". At The Movies. Retrieved May 27, 2010.[dead link] See parts of video of this television review at 3:00 and 3:52.
- McCarthy, Todd (December 10, 2009). "Avatar Review". Variety. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Honeycutt, Kirk (December 10, 2009). "Avatar- Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Travers, Peter (December 14, 2009). "Avatar review". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- Corliss, Richard (December 14, 2009). "Corliss Appraises Avatar: A World of Wonder". Time. Archived from the original on December 17, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- Turan, Kenneth (December 17, 2009). "Review: 'Avatar'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 20, 2009. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
- Berardinelli, James (December 17, 2009). "Avatar review". ReelViews.net. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- White, Armond (December 15, 2009). "Blue in the Face". New York Press. Archived from the original on December 17, 2009. Retrieved December 15, 2009.
- See also last paragraph of the above section Avatar Themes and inspirations.
- Moore, Russell D. (December 21, 2009). "Avatar: Rambo in Reverse". The Christian Post.
- AbdelRahim, Layla. "Avatar: An Anarcho-Primitivist Picture of the History of the World". Infoshop News. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- Zerzan, John. "Radio talk show on 02-10-2010 and later dates". John Zerzan: Anti-civilization theorist, writer and speaker. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- Cohen, Adam (December 25, 2009). "Next-Generation 3-D Medium of 'Avatar' Underscores Its Message". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
- Douthat, Ross (December 21, 2009). "Heaven and Nature". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
- Prabhu, Saritha (January 22, 2010). "Movie storyline echoes historical record". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
- Osipov, Maxim (December 27, 2009). "What on Pandora does culture or civilisation stand for?". Hindustan Times. India. Archived from the original on 2011-12-03. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- Newitz, Annalee (December 18, 2009). "When Will White People Stop Making Movies Like "Avatar"". io9. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
- Phillips, Michael (January 7, 2010). "Why is 'Avatar' a film of 'Titanic' proportions?". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- Devine, Miranda (January 2, 2010). "Hit by the leftie sledgehammer". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
- Lawtoo, Nidesh, "Avatar Simulation in 3 Ts: Techne, Trance, Transformation." Science Fiction Studies 125. 41.1 March 2015
- Burr, Ty (December 17, 2009). "Avatar". Boston Globe. NY Times Co. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Barnard, Linda (January 11, 2010). "Is Avatar weighted down by white man's burden?". Toronto Star.
- Sirota, David (February 21, 2013). "Oscar loves a white savior". Salon. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
- Davis, Lauren (October 26, 2009) Did James Cameron Rip Off Poul Anderson's Novella? io9. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
- Westfahl, Gary (December 20, 2009). "All Energy Is Borrowed: A Review of Avatar". Locus Publications. LocusMag.com. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved December 29, 2009.
- Harding, Luke (January 13, 2010). "James Cameron rejects claims Avatar epic borrows from Russians' sci-fi novels". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. Archived from the original on January 16, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- Schwartzberg, Joel (January 4, 2010). "What Did 'Avatar' Borrow from 'FernGully'?". IVillage. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- Quinn, Karl (December 17, 2009). "Don't just watch Avatar, see it". The Age. Australia. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Movie News: Avatar to Follow a Pocahontas Narrative". Reelzchannel.com. August 6, 2009. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
- "Avatar: James Cameron deserves the Worst Lefty Award 2009" (Blog). The Daily Telegraph. UK. December 24, 2009.
- Neda Ulaby, Zoe Chace (January 6, 2010). "'Avatar' And Ke$ha: A Denominator In Common?". NPR Morning Edition. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
- Westfahl, Gary (December 20, 2009). "All Energy Is Borrowed: A Review of Avatar". Locus Online. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- Dozois, Gardner (2010). "Summation: 2009". The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Seventh Annual Collection. Macmillan. p. xxxv. ISBN 0-312-60898-5. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
- "Did Prog Rock's Greatest Artist Inspire Avatar? All Signs Point To Yes". io9. December 14, 2009.
- Handy, Bruce (October 30, 2009). "Avatar's Unexpected Influences: Psychedelic Cover Art, Disney, and ... Furries?". Vanity Fair.
- "James Cameron sued by artist Roger Dean over Avatar". BBC News. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- Couch, Aaron. James Cameron Wins Avatar Idea Theft Lawsuit Against Artist", The Hollywood Reporter, September 17, 2014
- "Roger Christian talks zombies, Prometheus & Battlefield Earth - | movies, TV, videogames, crowd-funding — Shadowlocked: find the future!". Shadowlocked. 2012-03-21. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- Sciretta, Peter (December 21, 2009). "The Buzz: Filmmakers react to Avatar". Archived from the original on January 25, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
- Corliss, Richard (May 17, 2012). "The 10 Greatest Movies of the Millennium (Thus Far)". Time. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Corliss, Richard (May 17, 2012). "Rethinking the Movie Masterpieces: Richard Corliss Expands TIME's List of Cinematic Greats". Time. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Top 25 Sci-Fi Movies of All Time". IGN. September 17, 2010. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
- "Golden Globe 2010 Winners". Moviefone. January 17, 2010. Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- Davis, Don (December 14, 2009). "N.Y. Online Critics like 'Basterds'". Variety. Retrieved December 15, 2009.
- Child, Ben (December 15, 2009). "Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds dominates Critics' Choice awards". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved December 15, 2009.
- Robinson, Anna (December 21, 2009). "St. Louis Film Critics Awards 2009". Alt Film Guide. Retrieved December 22, 2009.
- "2010 BAFTA Awards", chiff.com. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- Gregg Kilday (July 8, 2010). "'Avatar: Special Edition' for 3D theaters". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 11, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010.[dead link]
- Jim Dorey (August 7, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: James Cameron Interview! Talks AVATAR Re-release, Sequels, 3D Conversions & Working With Del Toro!". MarketSaw. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- Kara Warner (August 11, 2010). "'Avatar' Director James Cameron Talks 'Alien Kink Scene'". MTV. Archived from the original on August 14, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- "Avatar Blu-ray 2 Disc Set". 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- "James Cameron's Avatar: Combi Pack (Blu-ray & DVD) (2009) (Blu-ray)". Play.com. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "Avatar Earth Day RELEASE: James Cameron Film Comes Out On DVD, Inspires 'Home Tree' Earth Day 2010". The Huffington Post. April 21, 2010. Archived from the original on April 27, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- Juan Calonge (March 25, 2010). "Makers of Avatar Unveil Blu-ray Launch". Blu-ray.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "Some 'Avatar' Fans Struggle With Blu-Ray". Yahoo! Movies. April 30, 2010. Archived from the original on May 3, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- "This is why early adopting sucks: 'Avatar' doesn't play on some Samsung BR players". CrunchGear. April 23, 2010. Archived from the original on April 26, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- "'Avatar' shatters sales records – and inspires an armed heist in Mexico City". Los Angeles Times. April 23, 2010. Archived from the original on April 25, 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
- Fritz, Ben (April 25, 2010). "'Avatar' is already the bestselling Blu-ray ever". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 8, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- King, Mike (April 26, 2010). "Movie Talk:James Cameron, King of DVD sales". Yahoo Movies. Archived from the original on May 5, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "Avatar breaks UK Blu-ray sales record". BBC News. April 28, 2010. Archived from the original on May 1, 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "Avatar Fastest Selling DVD After Three Weeks". ABC News. May 11, 2010. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "Avatar – DVD Sales". The Numbers. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- "All-Time Best-Selling Blu-ray Titles in the United States". The Numbers. January 25, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Fleming, Ryan (October 7, 2010). "Avatar three-disc extended collectors set due in November". Digital Trends. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- Russell, Mike (August 26, 2010). "Interview with James Cameron on 'Avatar' re-release, BP oil spill – and much more". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on August 29, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Update: Cameron Talks Avatar Blu-ray/DVD Releases and Sequel". Comingsoon.net. February 19, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- Trenholm, Rich (November 1, 2010). "Avatar gets 3D Blu-ray release, comes with free Panasonic 3DTV". CNET UK. Archived from the original on November 4, 2010. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Calonge, Juan (October 21, 2010). "Cameron: Avatar CE Blu-ray Is Last Version – Save for 3D". Blu-ray.com. Archived from the original on October 26, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- "Digital TV – Sky to give 'Avatar' 3D world premiere". Digital Spy. December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- "Avatar 3DTV world premiere on Sky 3D – Pocket-lint". Pocket-link.com. December 1, 2010. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- "Sky Secures Avatar 3D TV World Premier". IT Pro Portal. December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- "Avatar on Blu-ray 3D". YouTube. 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- "Avatar 3D Blu-ray: Limited 3D Edition". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- Carroll, Larry (June 29, 2006). "'Titanic' Mastermind James Cameron's King-Size Comeback: Two Sci-Fi Trilogies". MTV. Retrieved October 18, 2006.
- Rosenberg, Adam (January 8, 2010). "'Avatar' Sequel Confirmed By James Cameron ... And Here's What We'd Like To See". MTV. Archived from the original on January 16, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
- "James Cameron Planning 'Avatar' Trilogy". Yahoo!. January 14, 2010. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- Rosenberg, Adam (August 7, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: 'Avatar' Sequels Could Shoot Back-To-Back, Story Hints In Upcoming Novel". MTV. Archived from the original on August 14, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- Day, Patrick Kevin (April 20, 2010). "James Cameron: The 'Avatar' sequel will dive into the oceans of Pandora". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 23, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- Harlow, John (September 12, 2010). "James Cameron commissions deep sea sub to film footage for Avatar sequel". The Australian. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- "Cameron: New 'Avatar 2' Details". ABC news. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- Eric Ditzian (December 21, 2009). "James Cameron Talks 'Avatar' Sequel Plans". MTV. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
- Eric Ditzian (February 18, 2010). "James Cameron Says 'Everyone's Highly Motivated' For 'Avatar' Sequel". MTV. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- "BBC News – Sigourney Weaver Avatar 2 role confirmed". BBC News. September 18, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
- "James Cameron Has Found Avatar's Darth Vader: It's Stephen Lang". Deadline.com. 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- Pamela McClintock (October 27, 2010). "James Cameron sets 'Avatar' 2 & 3 as next films". Variety. Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
- Carolyn Giardina (March 30, 2011). "James Cameron 'Fully Intends' to Make 'Avatar 2 and 3' at Higher Frame Rates". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Carolyn Giardina (March 30, 2011). "James Cameron 'Fully Intends' to Make 'Avatar 2 and 3' at Higher Frame Rates". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- Brian Gallagher (May 7, 2012). "James Cameron to Make Avatar 4 Instead of Battle Angel". MovieWeb. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Keegan, Rebecca (2012-09-10). "James Cameron: 'Avatar' sequels 'a daunting writing task'". Los Angeles Times.
- Fleming, Mike (2013-08-01). "'Avatar' Sequels Upped To Three; Fox, James Cameron Set Trio of Writers to Spearhead". Deadline.com. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- "Fox & James Cameron Announce 'Avatar' Novels Based On Movie & Upcoming Sequels". Deadline.com. 2013-08-22. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
- Joyce, Steven; Finlayson, Chris (16 December 2013). "Three Avatar films to be made in New Zealand". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Jared Larson (December 16, 2013). "Trilogy of Avatar Sequels to Be Made in New Zealand". IGN. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
- "James Cameron. AMA". reddit.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- Lieberman, David (12 April 2014). "James Cameron on 'Avatar' Sequel Timetable Following Rupert Murdoch's Comments". deadline.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "James Cameron Talks Avatar Sequels". Empire. 26 November 2014.
- "James Cameron Opens Up About 'Avatar' Sequels". Inquisitr. 28 November 2014.
- "James Cameron Used 'Dark Angel' Experience to Write 'Avatar' Sequels". ScreenRant. June 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- "Avatar 2 Movie Spoilers, Release Date: Sigourney Weaver Alive, Will Play Crucial Role in New Trilogy". BreatheCast. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- "Avatar 2 Will See Sigourney Weaver Play a Brand New Character".
- Brent Lang (January 14, 2015). "James Cameron Pushes Back 'Avatar' Sequels By a Year". Variety. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- "James Cameron Says 'Avatar' Sequel Delayed Until 2017". The Hollywood Reporter. Associated Press. January 14, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- Chestang, Raphael (June 24, 2015). "How James Horner Created the Unforgettable Titanic Theme Song, 'My Heart Will Go On'". ET Online. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- "James Cameron wants to prove Avatar success wasn't 'some big fluke'". Entertainment Weekly. December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 19, 2015.
- Cunningham, Todd (January 21, 2016). "James Cameron's Avatar 2 Won't Be Ready for Christmas 2017 (Exclusive)". The Wrap. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- "Avatar 2". My Entertainment World. Retrieved February 11, 2016.(subscription required)
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 14, 2016). "20th Century Fox CinemaCon: 'Avatar' Sequels, 'Deadpool 2', 'Greatest Showman On Earth' Updates, Vanilla Ice Raps, 'Assassin's Creed', 'Birth Of A Nation' & More". Deadline.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 14, 2016). "James Cameron Expands 'Avatar' Sequels To Four, Slams Screening Room & Gets Cheers From Exhibs- CinemaCon". Deadline.
- Nordine, Michael (October 30, 2016). "James Cameron Pushing for 3D Advances and Higher Frame Rates for 'Avatar' Sequels". IndieWire. Archived from the original on October 31, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- "'Avatar 2' release date news: Filming yet to commence; James Cameron 'is experimenting,' says Sigourney Weaver". Ecumenical News.
- "That's a wrap! Filming for the upcoming... - TORUK - The First Flight - Facebook".
- Armstrong, Jeffrey (2010). Spiritual Teachings of the Avatar: Ancient Wisdom for a New World. New York: Atria Books. ISBN 978-1-58270-281-0. A detailed analysis of the film's parallels with the teachings of the Vedas.
- Duncan, Jody; Fitzpatrick, Lisa (2010). The Making of Avatar. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-9706-6. OCLC 555654027.
- Lawtoo, Nidesh (2015). "Avatar Simulation in 3Ts: Techne, Trance, Transformation." Modern Fiction Studies 125 41.1 pp. 132–150.
- Mahoney, Kevin Patrick (2010). The Ultimate Fan's Guide to Avatar, James Cameron's Epic Movie (Unauthorized). London: Punked Books. ISBN 978-0-9533172-5-7.