Norwich State Hospital
Norwich Hospital District
|Location||CT 12, Norwich-Preston, Connecticut|
|Area||70 acres (28 ha)|
|Architect||Cudworth & Woodworth|
|Architectural style||Colonial Revival, Late Gothic Revival|
|NRHP Reference #||87002424|
|Added to NRHP||January 22, 1988|
The Norwich State Hospital, originally established as Norwich State Hospital for the Insane and later shortened to Norwich Hospital, is located in Preston and Norwich, Connecticut. It opened its doors in October 1904, and though the number of patients and employees were drastically reduced, it remained operational until October 10, 1996. Norwich State Hospital was a mental health facility initially created for the mentally ill and those found guilty of crimes by insanity. Throughout its years of operation, however, it also housed geriatic patients, chemically dependent patients and, from 1931 to 1939, tubercular patients. The hospital, which sits on the banks of the Thames River, began with a single building on 100 acres (40 ha) of land and expanded to, at its peak, over thirty buildings and 900 acres (360 ha).
Development of the grounds
In October, 1904 when the hospital first opened, it held ninety-five patients and was a single building. The facility quickly outgrew its meager beginnings, and by fall of 1905, it held 151 patients and had expanded its housing by adding two additional buildings. The original building was soon converted to administrative offices. In 1907, a third patient building was opened, and over the next eight years, there would be the addition of thirteen structures to the grounds. The hospital began to branch out, no longer creating housing intended only for patients, but for hospital physicians, a laboratory, an employees club, a main kitchen and various other structures to support the every-day workings of the hospital. Like most mental hospitals at that time, it was self-sufficient, and a barn, two garages, a paint shop and a greenhouse were also added. By the end of the 1930s, over twenty buildings had been added to the grounds.
To provide an identification system, each building was originally assigned a letter name. The original campus had ward buildings grouped in pairs and designated as "North" for female patients or "South" for male patients. Around 1940, each building was given a name in honor of the founding superintendents of the American Psychiatric Association and well-known mental health advocates such as Thomas Story Kirkbride and Dorothea Dix. Later buildings were named after recognized contributors to the hospital, including Connecticut governors Abraham Ribicoff and John Davis Lodge. The Ronald H. Kettle Center opened in 1960 as the new medical-surgical facility and was the largest building on the property. Built like a general hospital, it reflected the then-modern belief that mental illness could be treated biologically on a short-term stay, thus reducing the need for antiquated long-term care wards. The Ribicoff Research Center was built perpendicular to Kettle to facilitate the discovery of new treatment techniques. Gradually, as the number of patients and employees began to decrease, when a new structure was built, an older one would be closed, and by the early 1970s, only 7 of the original buildings were still in use, the others used for either storage or abandoned completely. As the process of deinstitutionalization progressed, a new law required all patients' cases to be reviewed every two years. This, along with threats of strike from the union, lead to the hospital vacating many more of its buildings in 1979. By the time the hospital closed in 1996, only a fraction of the campus was still operating. All patients were now housed in the Kettle building along with geriatric patients in Seymour. The Gallup building continued to house the Boneski Treatment Center for chemical dependency, and other buildings still in use up to closure included Administration, Lodge, Russell, Ribicoff, the Chapel, utility buildings, and employee housing facilities across the street.
Due to the large number to structures and the hundreds of acres they stood on, the majority of buildings were connected by a series of underground passageways. The main purpose of these tunnels were for the utilities, however, they were often used to transport patients from one area to another. In more recent times, the tunnels have become a means of transportation for trespassers who hope to explore the grounds of the hospital undetected by the security officers who have been hired by the state to patrol the vacant site.
Timeline of changes and patient census (1904 to 1996)
- 1904-Established as Norwich State Hospital for the Insane, patient population was 95
- 1904-Henry M. Pollock, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1905-Establishment of a training school for nurses
- 1913-Patient population was 998
- 1916-Patient population was 1,227
- 1917-Franklin Wilcox, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1918-Patient population was 1,231
- 1920-Patient population was 1,341
- 1926-Name was changed to Norwich State Hospital
- 1928-Elijah S. Burdsall, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1929-Patient population was 2,175
- 1930-Patient population was 2,422, training school for nurses closed due to inability to meet the standards of the State Board of Nurse Examiners
- 1934-Chester A. Waterman, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1939-Patient population was 2,918.
- 1939-Governor Baldwin and the State Legislature form the Commission on the Treatment and Care of People Afflicted with Physical or Mental Disabilities. First order of business was the investigation of conditions at Norwich State Hospital.
- 1940-William A. Bryan, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1941-For the first time since opening, discharges of patients (917) exceeded the admissions of patients (626)
- 1945-Riley H. Guthrie, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1948-Ronald H. Kettle, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1953-Administratively transferred to the Department of Mental Health
- 1955-Patient population was 3,184 (highest annual average in hospital's history)
- 1960-Patient population was 2,685
- 1961-Renamed Norwich Hospital
- 1966-Morgan Martin, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1972-Patient population was 1,148
- 1978-Francis K. Hayes, M.D. became Superintendent
- 1984-Luigi Saracino became Superintendent
- 1985-Garrell S. Mullaney became Superintendent
- 1988-National Register of Historic Places listing
- 1994-Total beds were 649
- 1996-Andrew S. Phillips became Superintendent
- 1996-Norwich Hospital was officially closed and remaining patients were transferred to Connecticut Valley Hospital
|Name||Original Name||Year Constructed||Year Closed||Architecture||Sq. Ft.||Original Use||Later Uses||Notes|
|Administration Building||1908||1996||Late Gothic Revival||22,391||Administrative offices||The building has been weatherized and buttoned up to prevent further decay and is being saved for future development.|
|Central Theater, Dance Hall, Cafeteria, and Storeroom||Main Building||1908||1970's||Late Gothic Revival||79,396||Theater, cafeteria, kitchen, dance hall, storeroom||A 1950s kitchen addition was built on the back of the building that continued to be used until the hospital's closure.|
|Lippitt Building||1920||1979||Colonial Revival||22,391||Medical/surgical||Methadone clinic||The second medical/surgical building of its kind in the country.|
|Russell Occupational Therapy Building||1956||1996||Modern||106,186||Occupational therapy, recreation, rehabilitative classes||The patient canteen and security office were also housed in the Russell Building.|
|Ribicoff Research Center||1962||1996||Modern||30,635||Clinical psychiatric and pathological research laboratory|
|Pond View Building||1959||1996||Modern||Employee housing|
|Martin House||Outreach||1930's||1996||Colonial Revival||23,566||Employee housing||Outreach program, later the Martin House program||The Martin House program provided low-income housing for former psychiatric patients.|
|Pathway House||Gateway||1930's||1996||Colonial Revival||23,566||Employee housing||Gateway program, later Pathway House||Pathway House provided a psychosocial rehabilitation program.|
|Nurses' Home||1939||1996||Colonial Revival||Nurses' dormitory|
|Chapel||1963||1996||Modern||7,617||Chapel||A daycare program for children of hospital employees was opened in the newly renovated chapel in 1994.|
Patient Ward Buildings
|Name||Original Name||Year Constructed||Year Closed||Architecture||Sq. Ft.||Original Use||Later Uses||Notes|
|Ronald H. Kettle Treatment Center||1959||1997||Modern||250,000||Admissions, medical treatment, and offices||Following the hospital's closure, the Southeastern Connecticut Mental Health Authority occupied this building until 1997.|
|Lodge Building||1956||1997||Modern||96,395||Women's treatment center||Continued care facility||Although the last patients moved out in 1994, the Southeastern Connecticut Mental Health Authority occupied this building until 1997.|
|Seymour Building||1939||1996||Colonial Revival||32,156||Medical infirmary||Intensive geriatric care and admissions|
|Salmon and Awl Buildings||South and North A||1905||1971||Late Gothic Revival||24,508||Male/female maximum security forensic wards|
|Brigham and Bell Buildings||South and North B||1907||1970's||Late Gothic Revival||45,840||Male, female patient housing||Token economy program (Bell)||The last patients moved out of both buildings in 1971.|
|White and Cutter Buildings||South and North C||1910's||White: 1956, Cutter: 1967||Colonial Revival||Male, female patient housing||Storage||In 1975, Cutter was demolished and White was reduced to one story to preserve the underground utilities going to Stribling.|
|Stribling and Dix Buildings||South and North D||1911||Stribling: 1979, Dix: 1956||Colonial Revival||20,086||Violent male, female patient housing||Storage|
|Earle and Butler Buildings||South and North E||1912||Earle: 1990's, Butler: 1970's||Colonial Revival||29,248||Epileptic male, female patient housing||Maintenance building (Earle), trade school (Butler)||The last patients moved out of both buildings in 1956.|
|Stedman and Woodward Buildings||South and North F||1913||1980's||Colonial Revival||31,472||Male, female patient housing||Housekeeping (Stedman), finance and control classes (Woodward)||The last patients moved out of both buildings in 1971.|
|Gallup and Mitchell Buildings||South H and North G (see note)||1926||Gallup: 1996, Mitchell: 1970's||Colonial Revival||46,069||Well-behaved male, female patient housing||Boneski Treatment Center (Gallup), Valiance House (Mitchell)||The Eugene T. Boneski Treatment Center occupied the Gallup Building from 1987 to 1996. A conflicting source labels Gallup and Mitchell as South and North G, however, two other sources group Galt and Mitchell together.|
|Galt Building||South G||1922||1980's||Colonial Revival||35,762||Geriatric male patient housing||Firehouse||The last patients moved out in 1971.|
|Ray Building||North H||1926||1996||Colonial Revival||26,606||Geriatric female patient housing||Print shop||The last patients moved out in 1979. Ray is identical to Kirkbride.|
|Kirkbride Building||South K||1926||1996||Colonial Revival||26,606||Geriatric male patient housing||Red Cross shelter||The last patients moved out in 1979. Kirkbride is identical to Ray. Despite its name, the building was not designed under the Kirkbride Plan.|
|Bryan Building||1936||1979||Colonial Revival||26,606||Geriatric patient housing||Adolescent clinic||The building was originally the New London County Temporary Home, but was purchased by the hospital and dedicated in 1949.|
|The Pines||1921||Tubercular patient housing||Originally called the "Tubercular Pavilion," the building was closed and demolished after the Seymour Building opened.|
- Fifteen physician's cottages, a power house, kitchen, and laundry building were constructed in the 1950s.
- Numerous cottages, a trade school, firehouse, carpenter and maintenance shop, club house, staff house, greenhouse, and garages were constructed on the campus.
- Numerous farm buildings were demolished in the 1970s after the hospital discontinued its agricultural therapy.
The hospital was listed on the National Register in 1988. The NRHP listing included 40 contributing buildings and two contributing structures on 70 acres. It includes work by architects Cudworth & Woodworth. It includes Colonial Revival and Late Gothic Revival architecture.
The district was deemed historically significant as illustrating a historic view of mental health treatment.
In 1996, when Norwich State Hospital was closed, the State Department of Public Works (DPW) became responsible for the property. In 2005, after several unsuccessful attempts to sell the property, The DPW proposed the sale of 419 acres (170 ha) of the former hospital's campus to the town of Preston, and 61 acres (25 ha) to the town of Norwich for one dollar. Both towns were given three years to close the transfer of the property.
In March, 2009, the town of Preston purchased 390 acres (160 ha) of the property offered to them by the state. In spring of 2009, the Preston Redevelopment Agency was created to oversee the development of the newly acquired property. According to the sale agreement, the state would provide for the security presence, maintenance and insurance of the property until March, 2010, at which point the town of Preston would take responsibility for the cost of these, as well as begin the property cleanup.
Since the DPW first made an offer to the town of Preston to purchase a portion of the Norwich State Hospital, several proposals have been submitted for the use of the property. One of the earliest proposals was submitted by Utopia Studios, and was approved in May 2006. Utopia promised an entertainment complex consisting of a theme park, 4,200 hotel rooms, a performing arts school and a movie studio. The projected cost of this project was around $1.6 billion and was viewed favorably by the voters. However, in November of the same year, the proposal was canceled by the town due to Utopia missing several key deadlines and, most importantly, failing to place $53 million in escrow as agreed.
In 2008, two developers, Northlang Investment Corporation and Preston Gateway Partners LLC, sought for approval to develop the land. The town accepted Northland's proposal for a billion-dollar luxury resort, but in November 2008, this plan was ended as well. Since then, eight additional developers have submitted proposals to develop the property, but as of March 2010 no agreement has been reached.
The property, which has become known as the Preston Riverwalk, had been considered for a project by the town's parks and recreation department. This would have included a public access park for bird-watching, fishing and various other outdoor activities. On May 13, 2016, the Mohegan Tribe reached an agreement with Town of Preston to purchase the land. According to the Hartford Courant (http://www.courant.com/business/hc-mohegan-norwich-state-hospital-20160513-story.html), the land will be used "for office, retail, entertainment, recreation and possibly housing." It will not become tribal land, meaning that whatever is built there will be a source of state and local tax revenue.
The Norwich State Hospital is listed on both the state and national historic register as a place of architectural and historical significance and thus many of the buildings, grounds, and infrastructure can not be removed (or even cleaned of medical waste material) without exception from both state and federal historical authorities. Nonetheless, demolition of the property started in spring of 2011 with the collapse of the tunnels surrounding Administration. Later that year, Salmon, Awl, and the cafeteria-theater buildings were demolished, followed by Ribicoff, the power plant, chapel, and a few cottages in 2012. As of June 2014, all buildings on the campus have been demolished except for the Kettle, Lodge, Seymour, and Russell Buildings, which are in the process of abatement and demolition, and the Mitchell, Gallup, Lippitt, Ray, and Pathway Buildings, which present special concerns and were expected to be demolished later in 2014.[needs update] The Administration Building has been weatherized and buttoned up to prevent further decay and will be saved for future development.
Demolition of the site was ongoing in November 2014; the exposed interior including the stairwell of the Kettle building was featured in The Day.
Episodes two and four of season one of VH1's Celebrity Paranormal Project were filmed at the mental hospital though most likely to protect the place it was referred to as Warson Asylum for the Criminally Insane during both episodes.
The Norwich State Hospital was featured in the TV series Life After People, in the episode titled "Crypt of Civilization", which aired on January 19, 2010.
- National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- "Connecticut State Library", 11/12/2009, "", 06/06/2010
- "Connecticut State Library", 11/12/2009, "", 06/06/2010
- Corey Sipe, "Associated Content", 11/02/2006
- Corey Sipe, "Associated Content", 11/02/2006, 06/06/2010
- Norwich State Hospital History to 1972, "", 06/06/2010
- Opacity, "Norwich State Hospital", "", 06/06/2010
- Greg Smith, "Norwich Bulletin", 08/15/2007, "",06/06/2010
- Carini, Esta, et al. The Mentally Ill in Connecticut: Changing Patterns of Care and the Evolution of Psychiatric Nursing 1636-1972. Hartford : State of Connecticut, Dept. of Mental Health, 1974.
- Insurance maps of Norwich. New York: Sanborn Map Company, 1920-1951.
- Bruce Clouette; Matthew Roth & John Herzan (March 24, 1987). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Norwich Hospital" (PDF). National Park Service. and accompanying photos
- Connecticut State Department of Public Works, "Opacity", 11/03/2005, "", 06/06/2010
- Terrance Adams, "Hartford : Connecticut General Assembly, Office of Legislative Research", 01/13/2010, "", 06/06/2010
- The Day, "Opacity", 03/13/2010, "", 06/16/2010
- Adam Bowles, "Norwich Bulletin", 07/21/2005, "", 06/16/2010
- Martin, Day (November 18, 2014). "Not much left of former Norwich Hospital building". The Day. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- MacIntyre , April (2010-05-04). Syfy's Ghost Hunters finale, Norwich State preview. Monsters & Critics. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- Extensive documentation of abandoned campus
- Salmon (male forensic) building Photoessay on the building reserved for male patients deemed "not guilty by reason of insanity" in court.
- Beautiful photographs from Norwich State Hospital (2007)
- Norwich State Hospital at Creepy Connecticut
- Exploration Photos at EastGhost
- Historic Insane Asylums.Inhumane Therapy. ASPD's.