Nothosauridae

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Nothosauridae
Temporal range: Triassic
Nothosaurus.jpg
Nothosaurus raabi fossil
Fossil
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Superorder: Sauropterygia
Order: Nothosauroidea
Suborder: Nothosauria
Family: Nothosauridae
Seeley, 1889
Genera[2]
An impression of Ceresiosaurus eating a small aquatic animal

Nothosauridae are an extinct family of carnivorous aquatic sauropterygian reptiles from the Triassic time period of China, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, Switzerland, and northern Africa.[1][3]

Phylogeny[edit]

The cladogram shown below follows Rieppel (1998)'s phylogenetic analysis of nothosaurids (bold terminal taxa contain living species).[2] Most of these relations are still considered correct today,[4] but despite Rieppel (1998)'s referral of Ceresiosaurus and Silvestrosaurus to Lariosaurus, some authors still consider them separate and many additional species have been named since this analysis.[5]


 Archosauromorpha 


Prolacertiformes



Choristodera





Rhynchosauria



Trilophosaurus




Archosauriformes




 Lepidosauromorpha 

Kuehneosauridae



Lepidosauria





Testudines




Placodontia



 Pistosauroidea 

Corosaurus




Cymatosaurus



Pistosaurus




 Nothosauroidea 
 Pachypleurosauria 

Dactylosaurus



Neusticosaurus-Serpianosaurus



 Nothosauria 

Simosaurus


 Nothosauridae 

Germanosaurus




Nothosaurus





Lariosaurus balsami (type species of Lariosaurus)



Lariosaurus curionii





Ceresiosaurus




Silvestrosaurus



Lariosaurus valceresii














A species level phylogenetic analysis of Nothosauridae was performed by Liu et al. (2014), and included all known valid species of the family apart from Lariosaurus stensioi (type of Micronothosaurus), Nothosaurus cymatosauroides, and Ceresiosaurus lanzi. The resultant topology is similar to the one obtained in Rieppel (1998) if the new additions are ignored, however this analysis found both Lariosaurus and Nothosaurus to be polyphyletic in regard to each-other and all other genera of the family, making a systematic revision of these two genera necessary. Below, their results are shown with type species of named nothosaurid genera noted.[6]



Pachypleurosauria


 Nothosauria 

Simosaurus gaillardoti


 Nothosauridae 

Germanosaurus latissimus (type of Germanosaurus)



Nothosaurus zhangi



Nothosaurus haasi



Nothosaurus edingerae





Nothosaurus jagisteus




Nothosaurus mirabilis (type of Nothosaurus)



Nothosaurus tchemovi







Nothosaurus marchicus



Nothosaurus yangiuanensis





Nothosaurus giganteus




Nothosaurus juvenilis




Lariosaurus hongguoensis





Lariosaurus buzzii (type of Silvestrosaurus)



Nothosaurus winkelhorsti






Lariosaurus xingyiensis



Nothosaurus youngi






Lariosaurus calcagnii (type of Ceresiosaurus)



Lariosaurus valceresii





Lariosaurus balsami (type of Lariosaurus)



Lariosaurus curionii














See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The Paleobiology Database: Nothosauridae
  2. ^ a b Olivier Rieppel (1998). "The status of the sauropterygian reptile genera Ceresiosaurus, Lariosaurus, and Silvestrosaurus from the Middle Triassic of Europe" (PDF). Fieldiana: Geology, new series 38: 1–46. 
  3. ^ Nothosauridae
  4. ^ Lee, M. S. Y. (2013). "Turtle origins: Insights from phylogenetic retrofitting and molecular scaffolds". Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26 (12): 2729. doi:10.1111/jeb.12268. 
  5. ^ Jasmina Hugi (October 2011). "The long bone histology of Ceresiosaurus (Sauropterygia, Reptilia) in comparison to other eosauropterygians from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland/Italy)". Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 130 (2): 297–306. doi:10.1007/s13358-011-0023-6. 
  6. ^ Jun Liu, Shi-xue Hu, Olivier Rieppel, Da-yong Jiang, Michael J. Benton, Neil P. Kelley, Jonathan C. Aitchison, Chang-yong Zhou, Wen Wen, Jin-yuan Huang, Tao Xie and Tao Lv (2014). "A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery". Scientific Reports 4: Article number 7142. doi:10.1038/srep07142.