Nyabinghi drums are membranophones played at a groundation ceremony in rasta culture. Nyabinghi music is played in 4/4 time on three drums:
- Thunder: It is a double-headed bass drum, played with a mallet. The strokes are an open tone on 1 and a dampened stroke on 3. Occasionally, the thunder player will syncopate the rhythm.
- Funde: The funde is the middle drum. It maintains the dominant heartbeat rhythm as the funde player makes steady, dampened strokes on 1 and 3.
- Repeater: The repeater or keteh, is the smallest and highest pitched drum. The drummer tends to play around 2 and 4, with a syncopated feel. It is seen as the carrier of spirit and fire of the music.
- Katz, David (2003). Reggae Bloodlines: In Search of the Music and Culture of Jamaica. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80496-4.