|Cultural origins||Late 1990s, Puerto Rico|
Reggaeton (UK: / /,, US: / -/,), also known as reggaetón and reguetón (Spanish: [reɣeˈton]), is a music style that originated in Puerto Rico during the late 1990s. It has evolved from dancehall and has been influenced by American hip hop, Latin American, and Caribbean music. Vocals include rapping and singing, typically in Spanish.
Reggaeton is regarded as one of the most popular music genres in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, in countries including Puerto Rico, Panama, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Colombia, and Venezuela. Over the past decade, the genre has seen increased popularity across Latin America, as well as acceptance within mainstream Western music.
The word reggaeton (formed from the word reggae plus the augmentative suffix -tón) was first used in 1994, when Daddy Yankee and DJ Playero used the name on the album Playero 36 to describe the new underground genre emerging from Puerto Rico that synthesized hip-hop and reggae rhythms with Spanish rapping and singing. The spellings reggaeton and reggaetón are common, although prescriptivist sources such as the Fundéu BBVA and the Puerto Rican Academy of the Spanish Language recommend the spelling reguetón, as it conforms more closely with traditional Spanish spelling rules.
Often mistaken for reggae or reggae en Español, reggaeton is a younger genre which originated in the clubs of San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1991. It became known as "underground" music, due to its circulation through informal networks and performances at unofficial venues. DJ Playero and DJ Nelson were inspired by hip hop and Latin American music to produce "riddims", the first reggaeton tracks. As Caribbean and African-American music gained momentum in Puerto Rico, reggae rap in Spanish marked the beginning of the Boricua underground and was a creative outlet for many young people. This created an inconspicuous-yet-prominent underground youth culture which sought to express itself. As a youth culture existing on the fringes of society and the law, it has often been criticized. The Puerto Rican police launched a campaign against underground music by confiscating cassette tapes from music stores under penal obscenity codes, levying fines and demonizing rappers in the media. Bootleg recordings and word of mouth became the primary means of distribution for this music until 1998, when it coalesced into modern reggaeton. The genre's popularity increased when it was discovered by international audiences during the early 2000s.
The new genre, simply called "underground" and later "perreo", had explicit lyrics about drugs, violence, poverty, friendship, love and sex. These themes, depicting the troubles of inner-city life, can still be found in reggaeton. "Underground" music was recorded in marquesinas (Puerto Rican carports) and distributed in the streets on cassettes. The marquesinas were crucial to the development of Puerto Rico's underground scene because of the state's "fear of losing the ability to manipulate 'taste'". Marquesinas were often in public "housing complexes such as Villa Kennedy and Jurutungo". Despite being recorded in housing projects, most of the marquesinas were good quality (which helped increase their popularity among Puerto Rican youth of all social classes). The availability and quality of the cassettes led to reggaeton's popularity, which crossed socioeconomic barriers in the Puerto Rican music scene. The most popular cassettes in the early 1990s were DJ Negro's The Noise I and II and DJ Playero's 37 and 38. Gerardo Cruet (who created the recordings) spread the genre from the marginalized residential areas into other sectors of society, particularly private schools.
By the mid-1990s, "underground" cassettes were being sold in music stores. The genre caught up to middle-class youth, and found its way into the media. By this time, Puerto Rico had several clubs dedicated to the underground scene; Club Rappers in Carolina and PlayMakers in Puerto Nuevo were the most notable. Bobby "Digital" Dixon's "Dem Bow" production was played in clubs. Underground music was not originally intended to be club music. In South Florida, DJ Laz and Hugo Diaz of the Diaz Brothers were popularizing the genre from Palm Beach to Miami.
Underground music in Puerto Rico was harshly criticized. In February 1995, there was a government-sponsored campaign against underground music and its cultural influence. Puerto Rican police raided six record stores in San Juan, hundreds of cassettes were confiscated and fines imposed in accordance with Laws 112 and 117 against obscenity. The Department of Education banned baggy clothing and underground music from schools. For months after the raids local media demonized rappers, calling them "irresponsible corrupters of the public order."
In 1995, DJ Negro released The Noise 3 with a mockup label reading, "Non-explicit lyrics". The album had no cursing until the last song. It was a hit, and underground music continued to seep into the mainstream. Senator Velda González of the Popular Democratic Party and the media continued to view the movement as a social nuisance.
During the mid-1990s, the Puerto Rican police and National Guard confiscated reggaeton tapes and CDs to get "obscene" lyrics out of the hands of consumers. Schools banned hip hop clothing and music to quell reggaeton's influence. In 2002, Senator González led public hearings to regulate the sexual "slackness" of reggaeton lyrics. Although the effort did not seem to negatively affect public opinion about reggaeton, it reflected the unease of the government and the upper social classes with what the music represented. Because of its often sexually-charged content and its roots in poor, urban communities, many middle- and upper-class Puerto Ricans found reggaeton threatening, "immoral, as well as artistically deficient, a threat to the social order, apolitical".
Despite the controversy, reggaeton slowly gained acceptance as part of Puerto Rican culture— helped, in part, by politicians (including González) who began to use reggaeton in election campaigns to appeal to younger voters in 2003. Puerto Rican mainstream acceptance of reggaeton has grown and the genre has become part of popular culture, including a 2006 Pepsi commercial with Daddy Yankee and PepsiCo's choice of Ivy Queen as musical spokesperson for Mountain Dew.[unreliable source?] Other examples of greater acceptance in Puerto Rico are religiously- and educationally-influenced lyrics; Reggae School is a rap album produced to teach math skills to children, similar to School House Rock. Reggaeton expanded when other producers, such as DJ Nelson and DJ Eric, followed DJ Playero. During the 1990s, Ivy Queen's 1996 album En Mi Imperio, DJ Playero's Playero 37 (introducing Daddy Yankee) and The Noise: Underground, The Noise 5 and The Noise 6 were popular in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Don Chezina, Tempo, Eddie Dee, Baby Rasta & Gringo and Lito & Polaco were also popular.
The name "reggaeton" became prominent during the early 2000s, characterized by the dembow beat. It was coined in Puerto Rico to describe a unique fusion of Puerto Rican music. Reggaeton is currently popular throughout Latin America. It increased in popularity with Latino youth in the United States when DJ Joe and DJ Blass worked with Plan B and Sir Speedy on Reggaeton Sex, Sandunguero and Fatal Fantasy.
In 2004, reggaeton became popular in the United States and Europe. Tego Calderón was receiving airplay in the U.S., and the music was popular among youth. Daddy Yankee's El Cangri.com became popular that year in the country, as did Héctor & Tito. Luny Tunes and Noriega's Mas Flow, Yaga & Mackie's Sonando Diferente, Tego Calderón's El Abayarde, Ivy Queen's Diva, Zion & Lennox's Motivando a la Yal and the Desafío compilation were also well-received. Rapper N.O.R.E. released a hit single, "Oye Mi Canto". Daddy Yankee released Barrio Fino and a hit single, "Gasolina". Tego Calderón recorded the singles "Pa' Que Retozen" and "Guasa Guasa". Don Omar was popular, particularly in Europe, with "Pobre Diabla" and "Dale Don Dale". Other popular reggaeton artists include Tony Dize, Angel & Khriz, Nina Sky, Dyland & Lenny, RKM & Ken-Y, Julio Voltio, Calle 13, Héctor Delgado, Wisin & Yandel and Tito El Bambino. In late 2004 and early 2005 Shakira recorded "La Tortura" and "La Tortura – Shaketon Remix" for her album, Fijación Oral Vol. 1 (Oral Fixation Vol. 1), popularizing reggaeton in North America, Europe and Asia. Musicians began to incorporate bachata into reggaeton, with Ivy Queen releasing singles ("Te He Querido, Te He Llorado" and "La Mala") featuring bachata's signature guitar sound, slower, romantic rhythms and emotive singing style. Daddy Yankee's "Lo Que Paso, Paso" and Don Omar's "Dile" are also bachata-influenced. In 2005 producers began to remix existing reggaeton music with bachata, marketing it as bachaton: "bachata, Puerto Rican style".
2006–2017: Topping the charts
In May 2006, Don Omar's King of Kings was the highest-ranking reggaeton LP to date on the U.S. charts, debuting atop the Top Latin Albums chart and peaking at number seven on the Billboard 200 chart. Omar's single, "Angelito", topped the Billboard Latin Rhythm Radio Chart. He broke Britney Spears' in-store-appearance sales record at Downtown Disney's Virgin music store.
In June 2007, Daddy Yankee's El Cartel III: The Big Boss set a first-week sales record for a reggaeton album, with 88,000 copies sold. It topped the Top Latin Albums and Top Rap Albums charts, the first reggaeton album to do so on the latter. The album peaked at number nine on the Billboard 200, the second-highest reggaeton album on the mainstream chart.
The third-highest-ranking reggaeton album was Wisin & Yandel's Wisin vs. Yandel: Los Extraterrestres, which debuted at number 14 on the Billboard 200 and number one on the Top Latin Albums chart later in 2007. In 2008 Daddy Yankee soundtrack to his film, Talento de Barrio, debuted at number 13 on the Billboard 200 chart. It peaked at number one on the Top Latin Albums chart, number three on Billboard's Top Soundtracks and number six on the Top Rap Albums chart. In 2009, Wisin & Yandel's La Revolución debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200, number one on the Top Latin Albums and number three on the Top Rap Albums charts.
2017–present: 'Despacito' Effect
In 2017, the music video for "Despacito" by Luis Fonsi featuring Daddy Yankee reached over a billion views in under three months. As of January 2018, the music video is the most viewed YouTube video of all-time. With its 3.3 million certified sales plus track-equivalent streams, "Despacito" became one of the best-selling Latin singles in the United States. The success of the song and its remix version led Daddy Yankee to become the most listened-to artist worldwide on the streaming service Spotify on 9 July 2017, being the first Latin artist to do so. He later became the fifth most listened-to male artist and the sixth overall of 2017 on Spotify. In June 2017, "Despacito" was cited by Billboard's Leila Cobo as the song that renewed interest in the Latin music market from recording labels in the United States. Julyssa Lopez of The Washington Post stated that the successes of "Despacito" and J Balvin's "Mi Gente and" is "the beginning of a new Latin crossover era." Stephanie Ho of Genius website wrote that "the successes of 'Despacito' and 'Mi Gente' could point to the beginning of a successful wave for Spanish-language music in the US." Ho also stated that "as 'Despacito' proves, fans don't need to understand the language in order to enjoy the music", referring to the worldwide success of the song, including various non-Spanish-speaking countries.
The dembow riddim was created by Jamaican dancehall producers during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Also known as "son bow", dembow consists of a kick drum, kickdown drum, palito, snare drum, timbal, timballroll and (sometimes) a high-hat cymbal. Dembow's percussion pattern was influenced by dancehall and other West Indian music (soca, calypso and cadence); this gives dembow a pan-Caribbean flavor. Steely & Clevie, creators of the Poco Man Jam riddim, are usually credited with the creation of dembow. At its heart is the 3+3+2 (tresillo) rhythm, complemented by a bass drum in 4/4 time.
The riddim was first highlighted by Shabba Ranks in "Dem Bow", from his 1991 album Just Reality. To this day, elements of the song's accompaniment track are found in over 80% of all reggaeton productions. During the mid-1980s, dancehall music was revolutionized by the electronic keyboard and drum machine; subsequently, many dancehall producers used them to create different dancehall riddims. Dembow's role in reggaeton is a basic building block, a skeletal sketch in percussion.
Reggaeton dembow also incorporates Bam Bam, Hot This Year, Poco Man Jam, Fever Pitch, Red Alert, Trailer Reloaded and Big Up riddims, and several samples are often used. Newer reggaeton hits incorporate a lighter, electrified version of the riddim. Examples are "Pa' Que la Pases Bien" and "Quiero Bailar", which uses the Liquid riddim.
Lyrics and themes
Reggaeton lyrical structure resembles that of hip hop. Although most reggaeton artists recite their lyrics rapping (or resembling rapping) rather than singing, many alternate rapping and singing. Reggaeton uses traditional verse-chorus-bridge pop structure. Like hip hop, reggaeton songs have a hook which is repeated throughout the song. Latino ethnic identity is a common musical, lyrical and visual theme.
Unlike hip-hop CDs, reggaeton discs generally do not have parental advisories. An exception is Daddy Yankee's Barrio Fino en Directo (Barrio Fino Live), whose live material (and with Snoop Dogg in "Gangsta Zone") were labeled explicit. Artists such as Alexis & Fido circumvent radio and television censorship by sexual innuendo and lyrics with double meanings. Some songs have raised concerns about their depiction of women. Although reggaeton began as a mostly-male genre, the number of women artists has been a slowly increasing and include the "Queen of Reggaeton", Ivy Queen, Mey Vidal, K-Narias, Adassa, La Sista and Glory.
Sandungueo, or perreo, is a dance associated with reggaeton which emerged during the early 1990s in Puerto Rico. It focuses on grinding, with one partner facing the back of the other (usually male behind female). Another way of describing this dance is "back-to-front", where the woman presses her rear into the pelvis of her partner to create sexual stimulation. Since traditional couple dancing is face-to-face (such as square dancing and the waltz), reggaeton dancing initially shocked observers with its sensuality but was featured in several music videos. It is known as daggering, grinding or juking in the U.S.
Over the past decade, reggaeton has received mainstream recognition in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, where the genre originated from, in countries including Puerto Rico, Cuba, Panama, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Colombia and Venezuela, where it is now regarded as one of the most popular music genres. Reggaeton has also seen increased popularity in the wider Latin America region, including in Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Ecuador and Peru.
In Cuba, reggaeton came to incorporate elements of traditional Cuban music, leading to the hybrid Cubaton. Two bands credited with popularizing Cubaton are Máxima Alerta (founded in 1999) and Cubanito 20.02. The former is notable for fusing Cubaton with other genres, such as son Cubano, conga, cumbia, salsa, merengue, and Cuban rumba, as well as styles and forms such as rap and ballads, whereas the latter's music is influenced more by Jamaican music. The government of Cuba imposed restrictions on reggaeton in public places in 2012. In March 2019, the government went a step further; they banned the "aggressive, sexually explicit and obscene messages of reggaeton" from radio and television, as well as performances by street musicians.
The first name of reggaeton in Brazil was the Señores Cafetões group, who became known in 2007 with the track "Piriguete" - which at the time was mistakenly mistaken by Brazilians for hip hop and Brazilian funk because reggaeton was still a genre almost unknown in the country. In Brazil, this musical genre only reached a reasonable popularity around the middle of the decade of 2010. The first great success of the genre in the country was the song "Yes or no" by Anitta with Maluma. One of the explanations for reggaeton has not reached the same level of popularity that exists in other Latin American countries is due to the fact that Brazil is a Portuguese-speaking country, which has historically led it to become more isolationist than other Latin American countries in the musical scene. The musical rhythm only became popular in the country when it reached other markets, like the American. The genre is now overcoming the obstacle of language. Some of the biggest names in the Brazilian music market have partnered with artists from other Latin American countries and explored the rhythm.
The New York-based rapper N.O.R.E. (also known as Noreaga) produced Nina Sky's 2004 hit "Oye Mi Canto", which featured Tego Calderón and Daddy Yankee, and reggaeton became popular in the U.S. Daddy Yankee then caught the attention of many hip-hop artists with his song "Gasolina", and that year XM Radio introduced its reggaeton channel, Fuego (XM). Although XM Radio removed the channel in December 2007 from home and car receivers, it can still be streamed from the XM Satellite Radio website. Reggaeton is the foundation of a Latin-American commercial-radio term, hurban, a combination of "Hispanic" and "urban" used to evoke the musical influences of hip hop and Latin American music. Reggaeton, which evolved from dancehall and reggae, and with influences from hip hop has helped Latin-Americans contribute to urban American culture and keep many aspects of their Hispanic heritage. The music relates to American socioeconomic issues (including gender and race), in common with hip hop.
Although reggaeton is less popular in Europe than it is in Latin America, it appeals to Latin American immigrants (especially in Spain). A Spanish media custom, "La Canción del Verano" ("The Song of the Summer"), in which one or two songs define the season's mood, was the basis of the popularity of reggaeton songs such as Panamanian rapper Lorna's "Papi Chulo (Te Traigo el Mmm)" in 2003 and "Baila Morena" by Héctor & Tito and Daddy Yankee's "Gasolina" in 2005.
In the Philippines, reggaeton artists primarily use the Filipino language instead of Spanish or English. One example of a popular local reggaeton act is Zamboangueño duo Dos Fuertes, who had a dance hit in 2007 with "Tarat Tat", and who primarily uses the Chavacano language in their songs.
In 2020, Malaysian rapper Namewee released the single and music video 'China Reggaeton' featuring Anthony Wong. It is the first time reggaeton is sung in the Chinese language (Mandarin and Hakka) and accompanied by traditional Chinese instruments like Erhu, Pipa and Guzheng, creating a fusion of reggaeton and traditional Chinese musical styles.
Despite the great popularity of the genre as a whole, reggaeton has also attracted criticism due to its constant references to sexual and violent themes. A very recent example of this was given by Mexican singer-songwriter Aleks Syntek who made a public post on social media complaining that such music was played on Mexico City's airport in the morning with children present. Many other singers have also expressed dismay over the genre, including vallenato singer Carlos Vives and Heroes Del Silencio singer Enrique Bunbury. Some activists also state that reggaeton music gives way to misogynistic and sadistic messages.
Some reggaeton singers have decided to counteract such accusations. One notable example is singer Flex, who has committed himself to sing songs with romance messages, a sub genre he dubbed “romantic style”.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reggaeton.|
|Look up reggaeton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- "Reggaeton". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "reggaeton". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "reggaeton". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "reggaeton". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "Reguetón" Archived 3 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Fundéu BBVA. Retrieved 20 January 2012. "The adaptation 'reguetón' is appropriate and already has a certain use. Therefore it is the recommended form. If the original form is used, it would be written in italics, although since it is a mix of an English word and a Spanish one, there are reasons to write it with tilde and without it (problem solved by the completely adapted form)."
- "Origins of Reggaeton Music". Pimsleur.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
- "The rise of reggaeton". The Stanford Daily. 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- "The reggaeton revolution is here, and Nicky Jam saw it coming". NBC News. Archived from the original on 17 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- "Dj Playero coloca la evidencia de que Daddy Yankee y él fueron los creadores de la palabra "Reggaeton"". Rapeton.com (in Spanish). 10 December 2015. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
- "Ya No Sería 'Reggaetón' Sino 'Reguetón'" Archived 17 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. El Mundo. Retrieved 20 January 2012. "The music genre Puerto Ricans Daddy Yankee, Don Omar and Calle 13 are spreading through the world has a name; it is pronounced 'reguetón', but there is no consensus of how to write it in Spanish; the Puerto Rican Academy of the Spanish Language will propose that it be written how it is said."
- Corbett, Sara (5 February 2006). "The King of Reggeatón". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- Mayra Santos, "Puerto Rican Underground", Centro vol. 8 1 & 2 (1996), p. 219-231.
- Wayne Marshall (19 January 2006). "Rise of Reggaetón". The Phoenix. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2006.
- Sara Corbett (5 February 2006). "The King of Reggaetón". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
- Frances Negrón-Muntaner and Raquel Z. Rivera. "Reggaeton Nation". Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- Hilda Garcia and Gonzalo Salvador. "Reggaeton: The Emergence of a New Rhythm". Archived from the original on 15 January 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2007.
- John Marino, "Police Seize Recordings, Say Content Is Obscene", San Juan Star, 3 February 1995; Raquel Z. Rivera, "Policing Morality, Mano Dura Style: The Case of Underground Rap and Reggae in Puerto Rico in the Mid-1990s", in Reading Reggaeton.
- Matt Caputo. "Daddy Yankee: The Voice of His People". Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- "Amazon.com: Sentimiento: Music: Editorial Reviews". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- Giovannetti, Jorge L. (2003). Frances R. Aparicio and Cándida F. Jáquez (ed.). "Popular Music and Culture in Puerto Rico: Jamaican and Rap Music as Cross-Cultural Symbols" Musical Migrations: Transnationalism and Cultural Hybridity in the Americas. New York: Palgrave.
- "Q&A with DJ Blass". Rhythmtravels.com. 3 July 2014. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- "El Reggaeton". 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall and Deborah Pacini Hernandez. "Reggaeton". Duke University Press. 2009. pg. 143-144 Archived 24 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "Reggaeton Music News - Lyrics & Noticias de Musica Urbana". Latinrapper.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- Katie Hasty, "T-Pain Soars To No. 1 Ahead Of Rihanna, McCartney" Archived 26 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Billboard.com, 13 June 2007.
- Artist Chart History – Daddy Yankee – Billboard.com – Accessed 10 November 2008
- Billboard.com – Artist Chart History – Wisin & Yandel
- Ratner-Arias, Sigal (9 July 2017). "Daddy Yankee is #1 on Spotify; 1st Latin artist to do so". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- Calle, Tommy (9 July 2017). "Hace historia Daddy Yankee y es ahora oficialmente el primer latino número uno del mundo en Spotify" (in Spanish). hoylosangeles.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
- Pickens, Ashley (10 July 2017). "Daddy Yankee Breaks Barriers Becoming Top Streamed Artist On Spotify". Vibe. Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
- Wang, Evelyn (5 December 2017). "Rihanna and Ed Sheeran Were the Most-Streamed Artists on Spotify in 2017". W. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- Cobo, Leila (15 June 2017). "The Success of 'Despacito' Has Labels Looking to Latin". Billboard. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Lopez, Julyssa (24 August 2017). "What's next for Latin music after the summer of 'Despacito'?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- Ho, Stephanie (12 September 2017). "No Translation Necessary: Beyond "Despacito," The Latin Music Scene Is Booming". Genius. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- "Marshall, "Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton." Lied und populäre Kultur / Song and Popular Culture: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Volksliedarchivs 53 (2008): 131-51" (PDF). Wayneandwax.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Reggaeton. Rivera, Raquel Z., Wayne Marshall, and Deborah Pacini Hernandez, eds. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2009 and Marshall, Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Marshall, Wayne (2008). "Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton". Lied und Populäre Kultur / Song and Popular Culture. 53: 131–151. JSTOR 20685604.
- Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise and Fall of Reggaeton: From Daddy Yankee to Tego Calderón and Beyond" in Jiménez Román, Miriam, and Juan Flores, eds. The Afro-Latin@ reader: history and culture in the United States. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2010, p. 401.
- "ICM: Instituto Canario de la Mujer". 17 January 2007. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Ben-Yehuda, Ayala (31 March 2007). "Reggaetón Royalty – Ivy Queen Earns Her Crown As A Very Male Subgenre's Only Female Star". Billboard. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- "Reggaeton Nation". Upsidedownworld.com. 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- Fairley, Jan (2009). "How To Make Love With Your Clothes On: Dancing Regeton, Gender, and Sexuality in Cuba". In Rivera, Raquel Z.; Marshall, Wayne; Hernandez, Deborah Pacini (eds.). Reggaeton. Duke University Press. doi:10.1215/9780822392323-014.
- Hidalgo, Andrea (2 June 2005). "Perreo causes Controversy for Reggaeton". Reggaetonline.net. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Sullivan, Al (16 October 2016). "Trash truck worker competes for a Latin Grammy: Local Cuban exile fulfills dream as musician" Archived 22 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine. The Hudson Reporter.
- van Boeckel, Rik (19 September 2006). "Reggaeton a lo Cubano: From Cuba to the Rest of the World" Archived 22 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine. 'LA'Ritmo.com: Latin American Rhythm Magazine. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Bellaco, Daniel (11 March 2019). "Cuba prohíbe el reggaeton por sexista, machista y violento" Archived 30 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Digital Sevilla.
- "Reggaeton: como a batida certa e a mistura com funk e sertanejo fizeram do gênero um fenômeno". G1.globo.com. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise of Reggaeton". [Boston Phoenix], 19 January 2006.
- "Home - Reggaeton.co.uk". Reggaeton.co.uk. Archived from the original on 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "黃秋生開金口合體黃明志 MV一天將破百萬". 台灣大紀元. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- "黃明志邀黃秋生合唱 《中國痛》 - 帶有華人色彩的《Despacito》". 香港01. 24 January 2020.
- Yo Informativo, Aleks Syntek enojado arremete contra el reggaeton, retrieved 7 February 2019
- Soria, César García (4 June 2018). "Estos tíos también odian el reggaetón... perdón, estos artistas". Erizos.mx (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Reggaeton Is Not The Problem, Misogyny Is". The Gazelle. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- "Latin singer Flex leads "Romantic" evolution". Reuters.com. 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.