In 1144, Oberscheidweiler had its first documentary mention as Scheida. Since the 17th century, the name Oberscheidweiler has been customary. Beginning in 1794, Oberscheidweiler lay under French rule. In 1814 it was assigned to the Kingdom of Prussia at the Congress of Vienna. Since 1947, it has been part of the then newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The municipality’s arms might be described thus: Tierced in mantle, dexter argent a cross gules, sinister argent a fleur-de-lis of the second, and in base azure a post horn Or, the bell to sinister.
The cross on the dexter (armsbearer’s right, viewer’s left) side refers to Oberscheidweiler’s centuries-long allegiance to the Electorate of Trier. The lily on the sinister (armsbearer’s left, viewer’s right) side stands for Springiersbach Abbey, for which Emperor Henry IV issued a certificate of confirmation. This led to, among many other things, Oberscheidweiler’s mention in 1193 as Scheitwilre. The post horn appears as a charge for a more straightforward reason: Oberscheidweiler lay on the old postal route from Trier to Koblenz, known to have been run by the Princely house of Thurn und Taxis in 1840.
Oberscheidweiler was granted the right to bear its own arms on 7 January 1993.