Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata
|Subspecies:||O. e. subsp. cuspidata|
|Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata
(Wall. ex G. Don) Cif.
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (syn. Olea chrysophylla) is a subspecies of olive previously described as Olea cuspidata and Olea africana. It has various common names, including African olive, wild olive, iron tree, brown olive, and Indian olive.
This much-branched evergreen tree varies in size from 2 to 15 metres (7 to 50 ft) high. The leaves have an opposite, decussate arrangement, and are entire, 3 to 7 centimetres (1.2 to 2.8 in) long and 8 to 25 millimetres (0.3 to 1 in) wide; the apex is acute with a small hook or point, and the base is attenuate to cuneate. Leaf margins are entire and recurved, the upper surface is grey-green and glossy, and the lower surface has a dense covering of silvery, golden or brown scales. Domatia are absent; venation is obvious on the upper surface and obscure on the lower surface; the petiole is up to 10 millimetres (0.4 in) long.
Fruit are borne in panicles or racmes 50 to 60 millimetres (2.0 to 2.4 in) long. The calyx is four-lobed, about 1 millimetre (0.04 in) long. The corolla is greenish-white or cream; the tube is 1 to 2 millimetres (0.039 to 0.079 in) long; lobes are about 3 millimetres (0.12 in) long and reflexed at the anthesis. The two stamens are fused near the top of the corolla tube, with bilobed stigma.
The globose to ellipsoid fruit is a drupe, 6 millimetres (0.24 in) in diameter and 15 to 25 millimetres (0.59 to 0.98 in) long; it is fleshy, glaucous to a dull shine when ripe, and purple-black. The tree usually flowers in spring.
An extensive native range from South Africa, through Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, India to China. Subtropical dry forests of Olea europaea cuspidata are found in the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests ecoregion. In areas where it is not native, such as Australia, it is classified as a noxious weed. It is spread mainly by birds eating the fruit.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "USDA GRIN entry for Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata". Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Media related to Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata at Wikimedia Commons