Lamiales

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lamiales
Temporal range: Ypresian-Recent[1]
Galeopsis speciosa (Zellwald).jpg
Galeopsis speciosa
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Clade: Lamiids
Order: Lamiales
Bromhead[2]

The order Lamiales (also known as the mint order) are an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants.[4][5] It includes about 23,810 species, 1,059 genera, and is divided into about 25 families.[4] These families include Acanthaceae, Bignoniaceae, Byblidaceae, Calceolariaceae,Carlemanniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Lamiaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Linderniaceae, Martyniaceae, Mazaceae, Oleaceae, Orobanchaceae, Paulowniaceae, Pedaliaceae, Peltantheraceae, Phrymaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plocospermataceae, Schlegeliaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Stilbaceae, Tetrachondraceae, Thomandersiaceae, Verbenaceae.[4]

Being one of the largest orders of flowering plants, Lamiales have representatives found all over the world. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary.[6]

Description[edit]

Example of Lamiales characteristics (shown on species Lavandula angustifolia)

Plant species within the order Lamiales are eudicots and are herbaceous or have woody stems.[5] Zygomorphic flowers are common in Lamiales, having five petals with an upper lip of two petals and lower lip of three petals, however actinomorphic flowers are also seen.[5] [7] Plant species within the order Lamiales potentially have five stamens, but these are typically reduced to two or four.[5][7] Lamiales also produce a single style attached to an ovary typically containing two carpels.[8] The ovary in the Lamiales order is mostly observed to be superior.[9]  Lamiales inflorescence is typically seen as cyme, raceme or spike.[6]  Fruit type in Lamiales order is usually dehiscent capsules.[10]  Glandular hairs are present in Lamiales.[5]

Habitat[edit]

The Lamiales order can be found in almost all kinds of habitats world-wide.[11] These habitats include forests, valleys, grasslands, rocky terrain, rainforests, the tropics, temperate regions, marshes, coastlines, and even frozen areas.[9][11][12]

Carnivore plants[edit]

Carnivorous plant in the order Lamiales; Utricularia aurea

A number of species of carnivorous plants are found in the Lamiales, in the families Lentibulariaceae and Byblidaceae.[6] Protocarnivorous plant species have also been found in the order Lamiales, specifically in the families Martyniaceae.[6]

Parasitic plants[edit]

Parasitic plant in the order Lamiales; Cordylanthus rigidus

Parasitic plant species are found in the order Lamiales, belonging to the family Orobanchaceae.[6] These parasitic plants can either be hemi-parasites or holoparasites.[6]

Uses[edit]

The order Lamiales has a variety of species with anthropogenic uses, the most popular belonging to the Lamiaceae and Acanthaceae families.[12] Many of these species in the order Lamiales produce medicinal properties from alkaloids and saponins to help a variety of infections and diseases.[12] These alkaloids and saponins may help with digestion, the common cold or flu, asthma, liver infections, pulmonary infections and contain antioxidant properties.[12]

Plant species within the order Lamiales are also known to have properties to repel insects and help control harmful diseases from insects, such as Malaria from mosquitos.[13][12] The plant family Acanthaceae within the Lamiales order have bioactive secondary metabolites within their mature leaves, which have been found to be toxic to insect larvae.[13] Botanical derived insecticides are a good alternate for chemical or synthetic insecticides as it is inexpensive, abundant and safe for other plants, non-target organisms and the environment.[13]

Many species within the order Lamiales are also used as decorations, flavouring agents, cosmetics and fragrances.[12] Natural dyes can also be extracted from plant species within Lamiales.[12][14] For example, in Sardinia culture, the most common Lamiales plant species used for natural dyes is Lavandula stoechas, where a light-green dye is extracted from the stem [14]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Lamiales previously had a restricted circumscription (e.g., by Arthur Cronquist) that included the major families Lamiaceae (Labiatae), Verbenaceae, and Boraginaceae, plus a few smaller families. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Lamiales were in the superorder Lamiiflorae (also called Lamianae). Recent phylogenetic work has shown the Lamiales are polyphyletic with respect to order Scrophulariales and the two groups are now usually combined in a single order that also includes the former orders Hippuridales and Plantaginales. Lamiales has become the preferred name for this much larger combined group. The placement of the Boraginaceae is unclear, but phylogenetic work shows this family does not belong in Lamiales.[citation needed]

Also, the circumscription of family Scrophulariaceae, formerly a paraphyletic group defined primarily by plesiomorphic characters and from within which numerous other families of the Lamiales were derived, has been radically altered to create a number of smaller, better-defined, and putatively monophyletic families.[15]

Dating[edit]

Much research has been conducted in recent years regarding the dating the Lamiales lineage, although there still remains some ambiguity. A 2004 study, on the molecular phylogenetic dating of asterid flowering plants, estimated 106 million years (MY) for the stem lineage of Lamiales.[16] A 2009 study on angiosperm diversification through time, concluded an inferred age of lower Eocene, ca. 50 MY, for Lamiales.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ M. E. J. Chandler. 1964. The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England. IV. A summary and survey of findings in the light of recent botanical observations.
  2. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
  3. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
  4. ^ a b c Allaby, Michael, ed. (2019). A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780198833338.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-883333-8.
  5. ^ a b c d e J. W. Kadereit, ed. (2004). Flowering plants, dicotyledons: Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-40593-3. OCLC 53375899.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Schäferhoff, Bastian; Fleischmann, Andreas; Fischer, Eberhard; Albach, Dirk C; Borsch, Thomas; Heubl, Günther; Müller, Kai F (2010). "Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10 (1): 352. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-352. ISSN 1471-2148.
  7. ^ a b Endress, Peter K (February 2001). "Evolution of floral symmetry". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 4 (1): 86–91. doi:10.1016/S1369-5266(00)00140-0.
  8. ^ Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine (2007-08-01). "Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?". Annals of Botany. 100 (2): 361–374. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm123. ISSN 1095-8290. PMC 2735325. PMID 17652341.
  9. ^ a b Zhang, Caifei; Zhang, Taikui; Luebert, Federico; Xiang, Yezi; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Hu, Yi; Rees, Mathew; Frohlich, Michael W; Qi, Ji; Weigend, Maximilian; Ma, Hong (2020-11-01). Saitou, Naruya (ed.). "Asterid Phylogenomics/Phylotranscriptomics Uncover Morphological Evolutionary Histories and Support Phylogenetic Placement for Numerous Whole-Genome Duplications". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 37 (11): 3188–3210. doi:10.1093/molbev/msaa160. ISSN 0737-4038.
  10. ^ McDade, L. A.; Daniel, T. F.; Kiel, C. A. (2008-09-01). "Toward a comprehensive understanding of phylogenetic relationships among lineages of Acanthaceae s.l. (Lamiales)". American Journal of Botany. 95 (9): 1136–1152. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800096. ISSN 0002-9122.
  11. ^ a b Fonseca, Luiz Henrique M. (November 2021). "Combining molecular and geographical data to infer the phylogeny of Lamiales and its dispersal patterns in and out of the tropics". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 164: 107287. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107287.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Sharma, Archna; Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Ashwini (2015). "Selected Medicinal Plants of Order Lamiales Used in Traditional Medicine". American Journal of Pharmacy and Health Research. 3 (1) – via ResearchGate.
  13. ^ a b c Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam (July 2014). "Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India". The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 140 (1): 102–108. ISSN 0975-9174. PMC 4181141. PMID 25222784.
  14. ^ a b Maxia, Andrea; Meli, Francesca; Gaviano, Carla; Picciau, Rosangela; De Martis, Bruno; Kasture, Sanjay; Kasture, Veene (2013). "Dye plants: Natural resources from traditional botanical knowledge of Sardinia Island, Italy". Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge: 651–656.
  15. ^ Schäferhoff, Bastian; Fleischmann, Andreas; Fischer, Eberhard; Albach, Dirk C; Borsch, Thomas; Heubl, Günther; Müller, Kai F (2010). "Towards resolving Lamiales relationships: insights from rapidly evolving chloroplast sequences". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10 (1): 352. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-352. ISSN 1471-2148.
  16. ^ Bremer, K.; Friis, E. M.; Bremer, B. (2004). "Molecular phylogenetic dating of asterid flowering plants shows early Cretaceous diversification". Systematic Biology. 53 (3): 496–505. doi:10.1080/10635150490445913. ISSN 1063-5157. PMID 15503676.

External links[edit]