A patent attorney is an attorney who has the specialized qualifications necessary for representing clients in obtaining patents and acting in all matters and procedures relating to patent law and practice, such as filing an opposition. The term is used differently in different countries, and thus may or may not require the same legal qualifications as a general legal practitioner.
The titles patent agent and patent lawyer are also used in some jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions the terms are interchangeable, while in others the latter is used only if the person qualified as a lawyer.
- 1 Qualification regimes
- 2 Notable patent attorneys and agents
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
In Europe, requirements for practising as patent attorney before national patent offices should be distinguished from those needed for practising before the European Patent Office (EPO) or the Eurasian Patent Office (EAPO). On the national level, the requirements are not harmonized, although across the 28 Member States of the European Union respective professional qualifications are mutually recognised to some degree.
Registration as a patent attorney in Australia is administered by the Professional Standards Board for Patents and Trade Marks Attorneys (the "PSB").
To apply to become an Australian patent attorney, one must:
- pass the nine topics set out in Schedule 5 to the Patent Regulations 1991.
- hold a suitable tertiary educational qualification in a field of technology that contains potentially patentable subject matter.
- be a resident in Australia
- have been employed in a position or positions, for at least 2 continuous years or a total of 2 years within 5 continuous years, that provide the applicant experience in the following skills:
- searching patent records;
- preparation filing and prosecution of patent applications in Australia and with other countries;
- drafting of patent specifications;
- and provision of advice on interpretation, infringement and validity.
- be of good fame, integrity or character, and not have been convicted within the past five years of offences against Patents, Trade Marks and Designs legislation.
Until the late 1990s, topics were mainly taught and examined by members of the patent attorney profession under the oversight of the PSB, but this process has now been brought into the university system within Australia.
Once registered, a Patent and Trademark Attorney may be elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Patent and Trade Mark Attorneys of Australia.
To become a registered patent agent in Canada one must complete a series of four qualifying exams over four days. As of May 1, 2014, a patent agent trainee can sit the exams if the trainee is a resident in Canada and has worked in Canada in the area of Canadian patent law and practice, including the preparation and prosecution of applications, for a period of at least 24 months. Up to 12 months of practical experience will also be recognized for those entitled to practice before the patent office of another country. One may also qualify to sit for the exams if the individual is a resident of Canada and has been employed for at least 24 months on the examining staff at the Canadian patent office.
Each of the four exams (also referred to individually as Paper A, B, C, and D) is four hours in length. Paper A relates to the drafting of a patent application. Paper B relates to the validity of a patent. Paper C relates to the preparation of a response to an Official Action. Paper D relates to the infringement of a patent. Unlike the US system, the Canadian examination format is paper based with a variety of essay-type and short answer questions and is offered at least once a year, typically in April. Results are typically known within 5 months.
With a first-time passing rate near 1% and an overall passing rate of 7% in 2012 and trending downwards, the exam is notoriously challenging and most applicants attempt the exam over several years. To pass, candidates must score a minimum of 50 out of 100 on each paper, with a minimum aggregate mark of 240 on all four papers. Recent amendments to the pass requirements enable candidates to carry forward marks for a paper (if greater than 60 out of 100) if the minimum aggregate mark is not achieved or if the candidate failed one of the papers.
Review courses are held each summer and fall by IPIC (Intellectual Property Institute of Canada). The summer course tends to be more general in scope than the fall course, where drafting practice examinations is emphasised.
Once certified, a registered patent agent is given powers under the Canadian Patent Act to represent applicants applying to the Canadian Intellectual Property Office to obtain patent protection. Canadian registered patent agents with a suitable education background may apply for U.S. patent agent status in order to act on behalf of Canadian resident applicants before the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
European Patent Organisation
The task of the European Patent Office (EPO), which is the main organ of the European Patent Organisation, is to grant European patents (and also to hear and determine third-party challenges to the validity of European patents, in opposition proceedings). The EPO exists by virtue of the European Patent Convention (EPC), and is not legally bound to the European Union.
To legally represent clients (generally patent applicants, proprietors and opponents) before the EPO, a patent attorney must first be registered to act in that capacity as a professional representative. To be registered, an individual must qualify as a European patent attorney and, to that end, must pass a written examination, the European Qualifying Examination (EQE). The EQE consists of four papers sat over three days, each day lasting between 5 hours and six and a half hours. Those who enroll for the examination must have an engineering or scientific degree (though long experience in a scientific domain can be sufficient under certain limited conditions), and the candidate must also have practiced under supervision for at least three years in the domain of national or European patent law.
The EPC sets out the circumstances under which an applicant for a European patent must be represented by a professional representative in proceedings before the EPO. Typically, a representative is required if the patent applicant (or all of them if more than one) does not have a place of business in an EPC contracting state.
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In France, patent attorneys must hold a degree in engineering or natural sciences, and take part in a legal training course at the CEIPI (French: Centre d'Études Internationales de la Propriété Intellectuelle). They also have to take an exam, generally referred to as "EQF" by the students, organized by the French Patent Office (INPI).
The exam involves a written and an oral part. The written exam is itself made of two parts, namely a so-called paper "A" consisting in drafting a French patent application on the basis of client instructions (those having passed the European qualifying examination are exempted from this paper) and a so-called paper "D" consisting in advising a client on a freedom-to-operate analysis. The oral exam involves a case study and answering questions of a jury.
In Germany, only Patentanwälte/patent attorneys (or Rechtsanwälte/attorneys-at-Law, who are per se entitled to represent clients in all fields of law) are entitled to represent clients from abroad before the German Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA). German patent attorneys have done their university degrees in engineering or natural sciences and practised in industry before being accepted for an additional three years' education, i. e. completing legal training of two years with an established German patent attorney, at the same time studies of German Law and afterwards a training in intellectual property and an examination at the DPMA. They are further entitled to represent their clients before the German federal court of patents (and trademarks) and in patent cases (nullity) before the German Supreme Court. However, independent from their nationality, any natural person or any legal person who does not domiciled in Germany or who has no place of business in Germany needs to be represented by a German patent attorney or attorney-at-law to participate in procedures and to claim any rights before the DPMA and the German federal court of patents (Bundespatentgericht, BPatG), however not before the German Supreme Court (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH), which is second instance for nullity proceedings in patents.
In Hong Kong, there is no regulation on the profession of patent attorneys or agents. The main reason is because Hong Kong does not have a standard patent (20 years) original grant system. Currently Hong Kong recognizes standard patents or patents for invention registered and granted in the People's Republic of China, European Patent Office (designated UK), or United Kingdom. These patents can be re-registered in Hong Kong without examination within a prescribed period. On October 4, 2011, the Hong Kong SAR Government published a Consultation Paper on Review of the Patent System in Hong Kong.
In India, a person registered to practice before Indian Patent Office is called a "Registered Patent Agent" or simply "Patent agent". The Indian Patent Law specifically does not mention the designation of "Patent Attorney". The Indian Patent Agent can thus be considered the counterpart of the Patent Attorney in Australia, EPO or Japan.
Indian Patent Office conducts a qualifying examination for patent agent registration yearly (earlier, it was twice a year). Indian Patent Law mandates a science or technical degree for person(s) to appear for the qualifying examination. Other criteria for eligibility include being an Indian Citizen, and 21 years of age. There are approximately 2000 registered patent agents in India as of April 1, 2010.
However, a decision on March 15, 2013 by the Madras High Court (Single Judge), stated that advocates, by possessing a law degree from a recognized university, have a right to file, appear and undertake all responsibilities of a patent agent. The single judge rejected the contention that to appear before the Patent Office, advocates required additional specific science/technical qualification such as B.Tech in Information Technology etc. According to this judgement, Advocates having degree in Engineering and Science are "Registered Patent Attorney" in India.
Under Section 107 of Ireland's Patents Act, 1992 entry in the Register of Patent Agents requires that the applicant resides and has a place in a member state of the European Union and possesses the prescribed educational and professional qualifications, which are:
- Leaving Certificate or equivalent: a C grade in at least two higher level subjects (or ordinary level B grade) and a D grade in at least three other subjects
- First-year university (or equivalent) education in engineering, chemistry, or physics
- Employment for at least 3 years in the office of a registered patent agent in an EU member state
- Success at the following examinations:
- Irish law and practice of patents (set by Irish Patents Office)
- Drafting of patent specifications (set by United Kingdom's JEB, Advanced Paper P3)
- Amendment of patent specifications (set by United Kingdom's JEB, Advanced Paper P4)
- Infringement and validity (set by United Kingdom's JEB, Advanced Paper P6)
As in the UK (see above), exemptions from the Drafting and Amendment papers can be obtained if the equivalent papers in the European Qualifying Examination have been passed.
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Under section 142 of the Israel Patent law, a person is eligible for a patent attorney license granted by the Israel Patent Office (ILPO) if he meets the following criteria:
- holds an academic degree in the field of science or engineering
- has undergone a 2-year internship under the supervision of a patent attorney who has at least 3 years of experience, in the ILPO, or in a patent department of a company
- has passed an oral and a written exam given by the ILPO
- is a citizen of Israel
- has paid a fee to the ILPO for the grant of the license
The written examination is given every half-year and the oral examination about two weeks later. The ILPO website has an open data base of past written examinations, but not of oral examinations, which are considered to be substantially more difficult due to the need to show knowledge in areas other than patents—such as designs, trade marks, copyright— and also due to inconsistency between one oral examination and another regarding the material being tested.
An Israel Patent Attorney does not have to be a lawyer (attorney-at-law / advocate) or have any legal education or experience. While an Israel Patent Attorney's work is similar to that of, for example, a US Patent Agent, section 155 of the Israel Patent law authorizes a patent attorney to represent a client in contested and uncontested proceedings before the ILPO and in the courts (provided in the latter case that the representation does not concern legal aspects of the dispute and that the client is also represented by an attorney-at-law who is present in court).
There are about 340 patent attorneys in Israel as of 2010.
Patent specialists in Japan are known as benrishi and must take a qualifying exam to receive the title. Benrishi are allowed to practice a variety of intellectual property law (patent, trademark, copyright, unfair competition and trade secret) and are given the power to represent clients in litigation and arbitration within the area specified by Patent Attorney Law in Japan. Barristers (bengoshi) are also qualified to work as patent attorneys in Article 3 of Practicing Attorney Law in Japan. A patent attorney shall automatically be admitted to the Japan Patent Attorneys Association (Patent Attorney Act Art. 60).
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To become registered as a Patent Attorney in New Zealand, one must:
- be a New Zealand citizen, Commonwealth citizen (British subject) or a citizen of the Republic of Ireland.
- be aged 21 (twenty one) years of age or over.
- have passed the New Zealand Patent Attorney Examinations.
- be of good character.
- have been employed for a period(s) of at least three years by a Patent Attorney in New Zealand, The Patent Office, or in a form of employment that offers substantially similar practical experience - see section 100 of the Patents Act 1953:
Registration as a Patent Attorney may then lead to election as a Fellow in the New Zealand Institute of Patent Attorneys.
Moreover, Australian Patent Attorneys are able to obtain registration to become New Zealand Patent Attorneys, and vice versa, as a result of a trans Tasman agreement between the two countries Consequently, a large number of Australian Patent Attorneys are also New Zealand Patent Attorneys.
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To become registered as a Patent Agent in Singapore, one must:
- be a resident in Singapore;
- hold a university degree or equivalent qualification approved by the Registrar;
- have passed the Graduate Certificate in IP Law Course jointly offered by the IP Academy, Singapore and the Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore.;
- have passed the 4 patent examinations; and
- has completed internship in patent agency work under the supervision of a registered patent agent, or an individual registered as a patent agent or its equivalent in a country or territory, or by a patent office, specified in the Fourth Schedule, for a continuous period of at least 12 months; or a total period of at least 12 months within a continuous period of 24 months.
Patent attorneys in South Africa are qualified attorneys – see Attorneys in South Africa – who have additionally specialised through the South African Institute of Intellectual Property Law. This requires:
- a technical or scientific diploma or degree from a university or technikon, involving at least a three-year course of study;
- six months' practical training in the office of a registered practicing patent attorney;
- sitting the Patent Board Examination.
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Taiwan is a technology-intensive industrialized developed country, and receives more than 80,000 patent applications a year (2006~2008). However, for political reasons, Taiwan is not a member state of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). To become a registered patent attorney in Taiwan, one must pass the Patent Attorney's Examination administered by the Examination Yuan, complete the required pre-practice training course (60 hours) with Taiwan Intellectual Property Office, and join the Taiwan Patent Attorney's Association.
- The Examination. Nationals of the Republic of China(Taiwan), who are graduates in science, engineering, medicine, agriculture, life sciences, intellectual property rights, design, law or information management of public or accredited private colleges or higher institutions, or of an overseas institution of equivalent grade that complies with Ministry of Education criteria, and who hold certificates to this effect, are eligible to apply to take the examination for patent attorneys. Foreign nationals, who possess the same qualifications are eligible to apply to take this examination. The following subjects are given in the Examination (each subject is worth 100 points and an average of 60 points is required to attain a passing grade):
- the Patent Act;
- the Administrative Procedure Act and Administrative Enforcement Act;
- Standards for Patent Review and Patent Applications and Practice;
- Calculus, General Physics and General Chemistry;
- Professional English or Professional Japanese (to be chosen at the discretion of the candidate);
- One of: Engineering Dynamics, Biotechnology, Electronics, Physical Chemistry, Basic Design or Computer Architecture (to be chosen at the discretion of the candidate).
- Pre-Practice Training. The training is held annually or biannually. It consists of 57 hours of course work and 3 hours of examination.
- Taiwan Patent Attorney's Association. Established on December 11, 2009, and registered with the Ministry of Internal Affairs on December 30, 2009.
Currently,[when?] attorneys-at-law in Taiwan who have only passed the lawyer bar examination are allowed to represent applicants before Taiwan Intellectual Property Office for patent matters. However, these attorneys-at-law normally do not have a scientific or technical degree.
To become a patent attorney in Ukraine, one must:
- be a citizen of Ukraine;
- to have a higher degree, and a higher degree in the IP protection sphere;
- to have not less than 5 years of an experience in the IP protection sphere;[clarification needed]
- to pass a qualification examinations, attestation and to receive a certificate on a right to act as a patent attorney ;
Currently in Ukraine there are above 300 registered patent attorneys (data on September 10, 2012). Their legal status is regulated by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Enactment "On affirmation of the Provision about the representatives in the sphere of intellectual property (patent attorneys)" № 545 on September 10, 1994. Examination and registration of patent attorneys are conducted by the State Intellectual Property Service of Ukraine.
Any person can act at the UK Patent Office, but the titles "Patent Agent", "Patent Attorney" and "Registered Patent Attorney" (which is synonymous with "Registered Patent Agent") are reserved for those duly qualified. The title "Patent Attorney" may also be used by solicitors provided that patents are within their competence, whereas the term "Patent Agent" relates to persons who have passed the relevant specialized examinations.
Qualification is achieved by passing the PEB patent foundation level papers (or gaining an exemption by passing certain university courses such as that organised by Queen Mary University in London) and then the PEB patent advanced level papers.
The PEB patent foundation papers are FC1 (formerly P1) - UK Patent Law and Procedures, FC2 (formerly "Law") - Basic English Law, FC3 (formerly P5) - International Patent Law, FC4 (formerly "D&C") - Designs & Copyright, FC5 (formerly P7) - Trade Mark Law.
The PEB patent advanced papers are FD1 (formerly P2) - Patent Practice, FD2 (formerly P3) - Drafting a Patent Application, FD3 (formerly P4) - Amending a Patent Application and FD4 (formerly P6) - Infringement and Validity of a Patent. Exemptions from FD2 and FD3 can be obtained by passing the corresponding European Qualifying Exams (Papers A & B respectively).
Membership of the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys as a Fellow gives the right to call oneself a Chartered Patent Agent or Chartered Patent Attorney. (To be elected as a Fellow, a person must have passed the UK Advanced Level exams, have accrued sufficient professional experience and be nominated by two existing Fellows).
In the United States, a practitioner may either be a patent attorney or patent agent. Both patent attorneys and patent agents have the same license to practice and represent clients before the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Both patent agents and patent attorneys may prepare, file, and prosecute patent applications. Patent agents and patent attorneys may also provide patentability opinions, as noted by the U.S. Supreme Court in Sperry v. Florida. However, the USPTO Rules of Ethics and Professionalism, effective as of September 15, 2008, specifically clarifies that patent agents may not provide an "opinion of validity of another party's patent when the client is contemplating litigation and not seeking reexamination" because such activity "could not be reasonably necessary and incident to the preparation and prosecution" of a client's patent.
Patent attorneys must also be admitted to the practice of law in at least one state or territory of the U.S. or in the District of Columbia. In the time since the USPTO issued the first patent in 1790, approximately 73,000 citizens have passed the USPTO registration examination, allowing them to register to prosecute patent applications.[not in citation given] (This total does not include current patent examiners, who are not allowed to serve as patent attorneys or agents and thus do not appear on the list of enrolled practitioners.) Today, roughly 42,000 people are on the list of registered patent attorneys and agents, with about 31,000 of them also licensed to practice law. Of the states, California has the most patent attorneys (and agents), followed by New York and Texas. Per capita, Delaware has more patent attorneys (and agents) than any state (not including DC). Both Patent Attorneys and Patent Agents are generally required to have a technical degree (such as engineering, chemistry or physics) and must take and pass the USPTO registration examination (officially titled Examination for Registration to Practice in Patent Cases Before the United States Patent and Trademark Office). Since patent attorneys are admitted to practice law in a state or territory, they can additionally provide legal services outside the Patent Office if practicing within the jurisdiction they are admitted to practice or if the law of the jurisdiction otherwise permits them to practice although not admitted in that jurisdiction. These legal services include advising a client on matters relating to the licensing of the invention; whether to appeal a decision by the Patent Office to a court; whether to sue for infringement; whether someone is infringing upon the claims of a client's issued patent; and conversely, whether a client is infringing the claims of someone else's issued patent. Patent agents cannot provide legal services of this nature, nor can they represent clients before the Trademark Office part of the USPTO.
To register as a patent agent or patent attorney, one must pass the USPTO registration examination. This exam, commonly referred to as the "patent bar," tests a candidate's knowledge of patent law and USPTO policies and procedures as set forth in the Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (MPEP). The exam consists of 100 questions in multiple choice format, and is open-book with examinees permitted to use a PDF version of the MPEP. An unofficial score[notes 1] of 70% indicates a passing grade on the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, one will be labeled as a "patent attorney" if he/she has already been admitted to a state or territorial bar. However, engineers, scientists and any other science-based majors, as well as law students and law graduates who are not admitted to a bar, will be labeled as "patent agents" since they cannot give legal advice nor represent clients in court. The latest exam result statistics are from June 9, 2005 through October 17, 2006: during that time, 58.2% of the 4,165 candidates passed the exam, which was based upon MPEP, 8th Edition, Revision 2. The current exam is based on MPEP, 8th Edition, Revision 4, as of October 19, 2006. (No tests were given based upon MPEP, 8th Edition, Revision 3.) Applicants who are not United States citizens and do not reside in the U.S. are not eligible for registration except as permitted by 37 CFR § 11.6(c). None of the world's countries, except Canada reciprocates, giving U.S. citizens the right that the U.S. grants to their citizens. However, the Canadian Intellectual Property Office does not recognize U.S. patent agents or attorneys the same privilege as the USPTO grants Canadian patent agents.
A candidate must also have an adequate scientific and technical background or education to understand a client's invention. The educational requirement can be met by a bachelor's degree in a specifically enumerated major, such as biology, computer science, chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, physics, and biomedical, chemical, civil, electrical or mechanical engineering. This is known as Category A qualification. One can also meet the scientific and technical training requirement by qualifying under Category B or Category C. Category B provides four distinct qualification options, where each option sets a requisite number of semester hours in physics, biology, chemistry, computer science, and/or engineering. An applicant can qualify under Category C by showing that he or she has taken and passed the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) examination. Specific details of the ways one can qualify for the USPTO registration examination are outlined in the USPTO Registration Statement. Degrees in the social sciences, mathematics, or philosophy by themselves do not meet this requirement.
Notable patent attorneys and agents
See List of patent attorneys and agents, including fictional characters who are patent attorneys.
- European Patent Institute (epi)
- International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys (FICPI)
- Patent engineer
- Patent examiner
- Power of attorney
- Trademark attorney
- The score is "unofficial" in the sense that only ninety of the 100 questions are scored. "Accordingly, to pass the examination a candidate must correctly answer seventy percent (sixty-three) of the ninety scored questions."
- "Professional Standards Board - About". Psb.gov.au. 2004-11-10. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
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- "Institute of Patent and Trade Mark Attorneys of Australia". Ipta.com.au. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "Section 12.(1) of the Patent Rules". justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2013-07-26.
- "Amendments to the Patent Rules are coming into force on May 1, 2014". cipo.ic.gc.ca. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
- "Patent Agent Qualifying Examination - 2012 Report - Canadian Intellectual Property Office". Cipo.ic.gc.ca. 2013-02-28. Retrieved 2014-12-18.
- See Article 4(3) EPC and also EPC Part V from Article 99 EPC to Article 105 inclusive.
- European Patent Office web site, European qualifying examination, consulted on December 10, 2011.
- Article 133 EPC
- § 111 IV PatG
- "Intellectual Property Department - Patents". ipd.gov.hk. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- "香港特別行政區政府知識產權署 Intellectual Property Department". ipd.gov.hk. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
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- Agrawal, Anuj. "Madras High Court strikes down amendment to S.126 Patent Act; Says lawyers permitted to appear as Patent Agents as a matter of right". barandbench.com. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- "Japanese Attorney Act".
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- "The New Zealand Institute of Patent Attorneys, Inc". nzipa.org.nz.
- "Homepage - Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment". med.govt.nz.
- "Trans-Tasman Patent Attorney Regime". TuckeripLaw.com. 2014-07-02. Retrieved 2014-07-02.
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- Requirements For Becoming a Registered Patent Agent from the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore
- Graduate Certificate in IP Law Course information from the IP Academy
- Patent Agents Qualifying Examination from the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore
- "The Association of Singapore Patent Attorneys (ASPA)". aspa.org.sg.
- Career information, Patent Attorney, Sebenza. Consulted on July 16, 2010.
- "South African Institute of Intellectual Property Law". Saiipl.org.za. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- South African Institute of Intellectual Property Law, IP Firms who practise Patent law. Consulted on July 16, 2010.
- South African Institute of Intellectual Property Law, Guidelines for Intellectual Property Examinations Lectures. Consulted on July 16, 2010.
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- "Official web-portal of State Intellectual Property Service of Ukraine / Information resources". sips.gov.ua.
- Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, section 276
- Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys, http://www.cipa.org.uk/
- "Patent Examination Board". Patent Examination Board. 2015-04-19. Retrieved 2015-04-19.
- Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, section 275; Register of Patent Agents Rules 1990; Regulations for the Examinations for the Registration of Patent Agents & Trade Mark Agents 1991.
- "CIPA Membership Application Form including extract from Bye Laws" (PDF). Cipa.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- 373 U.S. 379 (1963).
- PTO Revises Rules of Ethics and Professionalism, PatentlyO blog, August 15, 2008
- "Patent Attorneys and Agents: Listings by Geographic Region". Oedci.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "Patent Attorney/Agent Search". Office of Enrollment and Discipline, United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- "Top Patent States". Averyindex.com. 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "Top Patent States (Per Capita)". Averyindex.com. 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "Microsoft Word - GRB _June 2007 edition Rev Feb 2011_v5 Changes acceptd_WJG_.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "How to Become Registered to Practice Before the USPTO in Patent Matters". USPTO. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
- "RESULTS OF THE REGISTRATION EXAMINATION BASED ON MPEP 8th EDITION, REVISION 2". uspto.gov.
- General Requirements Bulletin for Admission to the Examination for Registration to Practice in Patent Cases Before the United States Patent and Trademark Office, January 2008, "Eligibility of Aliens," p. 8
- The provision on Aliens, 37 C.F.R. 11.6(c)
- Canadian Intellectual Property Office. "Become a registered patent agent". ic.gc.ca.
- "Patent attorney, what is it? - Becoming A Lawyer". Becoming A Lawyer. 2016-09-30. Retrieved 2016-11-03.
- "Computer Science Eligibility". Taprecourse.com. 2008-10-17. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "Patent Bar Undergraduate Degrees". Taprecourse.com. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- "Patent Bar Qualifications: Category B". Ipwatchdog.com. 2008-11-05. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- Institute of Professional Representatives before the European Patent Office or "European Patent Institute (epi)"
- The Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys (CIPA) - United Kingdom
- Deutsche Patentanwaltskammer - German Chamber of Patent Attorneys, in German
- APTMA - Irish Association of Patent & Trade Mark Attorneys
- Institut national de la propriété industrielle in French
- Compagnie nationale des Conseils en Propriété Industrielle in French
- Centre d'Etudes Internationales de la Propriété Industrielle in French
- North America
- New Zealand