Peter von Scholten
|Peter von Scholten|
|Governor of St. Thomas, St. John|
1818 – June 1820
|Preceded by||Christian Ludvig von Holten|
|Succeeded by||Carl Gottlieb Fleischer|
|Governor-General of the Danish West Indies|
|Monarch||Frederick VI (until December 1839), Christian VIII|
|Preceded by||Christian Ludvig von Holten|
|Succeeded by||Frederik von Oxholm|
|Born||Peter Carl Frederik von Scholten
17 May 1784
|Died||26 January 1854
|Spouse(s)||Anne Elisabeth Thortsen (m. 1810)|
|Parents||Casimir Wilhelm von Scholten
Catharina Elisabeth de Moldrup
Early life and education
As a young man, he joined the Danish army and in 1803 he was appointed ensign in the West Indies unit. He was transported to Great Britain when this country occupied the Danish West Indies, likely in 1807. Peter von Scholten married the daughter of captain of the Danish army Johan Thortsen, Anne Elisabeth Thortsen, on October 31, 1810.
Later, he had a career as an officer in Copenhagen, first as second lieutenant for Sjællandske Jægerkorps in 1808, then as premier lieutenant in 1811, and finally as staff captain in 1813. This led to becoming adjutant for Frederick VI of Denmark's general adjudant Frants Cristopher Bülow. He served there until 1814 as British occupation of the Danish West Indies ended, and he got his first official position on St. Thomas, as customs toller.
In 1827, he became acting governor general of St. Thomas. From 1835 to 1848, he became governor general for all three islands, Saint Thomas, Saint Croix, and Saint John, giving him virtually absolute command of the islands. In this period he showed himself a patriarchal ruler trying to lighten the burden of the slaves and to cushion the racial tensions. He did this by creating schools for them, as well as permitting them private ownership.
Regardless, von Scholten was opposed to Christian VIII of Denmark's idea that every child born of an unfree woman should be free from birth, as he felt that such an arrangement could cause displeasure and envy with serious consequences. When this was brought into effect, he felt himself proven right as a slave rebellion broke out on St. Croix in 1848. Peter von Scholten responded by, on July 3, 1848, emancipating all slaves in the Danish West Indian Islands.
Late years in Denmark and Altona
Shortly thereafter, von Scholten was called back to Denmark. There, a humiliating and hard trial was brought against him, and he was at first denied his pension, although he was later cleared of the charges and acquitted shortly before his death. Von Scholten was the last governor general of the West Indies because of the beginning democratisation of the Danish state and colonial administration.
His fate has inspired several authors. A movie about his last years as a governor general was made in 1987.
During his early years on St. Thomas, von Scholten enjoyed a wealthy lifestyle due to his position as customs officer during the surge in trade under the state of war between the nearby Spanish islands and the South American colonial insurgents. He later gained promotion to the position of Governor based on St. Croix. At this time, Peter von Scholten lived with Anna Heegaard (1790–1859), a woman of color. Consensus among scholars today is that Anna Heegaard influenced von Scholten to a more humane treatment of the Blacks.[need quotation to verify][need quotation to verify] Von Scholten's brother Frederik also served on the West Indian Islands.
Peter von Scholten married Anna Elizabeth (Lise) Thortsen in Copenhagen in 1810. The couple had three daughters.
- C. F. Bricka (editor), Dansk biografisk Lexikon, first edition, 19 volumes, 1887–1905, Vol. XV. Online edition available: http://runeberg.org/dbl/15/ (pages 255 and 256. Numbered as 257 and 258 in the online edition).
- "Casimir Wilhelm von Scholten" (1752 - 1810) Personal Information at skeel.info
- Bricka, Biografisk, 257
- Bricka, Biografisk, 258
- IMDB: Peter von Scholten http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0089803/
- GORP - Christiansted National Historic Site in the U.S. Virgin Islands
- Anita Davis ::: Published Articles
- Caribbean Writer On Line BOOK REVIEW - The Governor-General's Lady
- Isaac Dookhan, History of the Virgin Islands, page 173. ISBN 978-976-8125-05-7
- Hall, Neville A. T. (1994) . Higman, Barry. W., ed. Slave Society in the Danish West Indies: St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. p. 175. ISBN 9789764100294. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
- "Bredgade 45a-c". indenforvoldene.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 13 March 2017.
another reference can also be the book by Thorkild Hansen about the danish slave trade, the third volume(Slavernes Öer)
- On the Danish abolition of slavery: 3 sources by Von Scholten translated to French by French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher in 1843.
Christian Ludvig von Holten
|Governor-General of the Danish West Indies
Frederik von Oxholm