Pluots, apriums, apriplums, plumcots or pluclots are some of the hybrids between different Prunus species that are also called interspecific plums. Whereas plumcots and apriplums are first-generation hybrids between a plum parent (P. salicina) and an apricot (P. armeniaca), pluots and apriums are later-generations. Both names "plumcot" and "apriplum" have been used for trees derived from a plum seed parent, and are therefore equivalent.
Plumcots and apriplums
Natural plumcots (also called apriplums) have been known for hundreds of years from regions of the world that grow both plums and apricots from seed. The name plumcot was coined by Luther Burbank. The plumcot tree can reproduce asexually by budding whereas the apriplum tree resulted from hybridized seedlings and cannot reproduce.
Pluots // are later generations of complex hybrid between the Japanese plum, Prunus salicina (providing the greater amount of parentage), and the apricot, Prunus armeniaca. The fruit's exterior has smooth skin closely resembling that of a plum. Pluots were developed in the late 20th century by Floyd Zaiger.
Floyd Zaiger created the aprium, a hybrid cross between apricots and plums but more similar to apricots. Apriums are complex plum-apricot hybrids that show primarily apricot traits and flavor. Apriums resemble apricots on the outside. The flesh is usually dense and notable for its sweet taste due to a high content of fructose and other sugars. Apriums are usually only available early in the fruit season, like apricots and unlike pluots, which include some very late-ripening varieties. Aprium trees grow quickly and are smaller compared to other common home-grown apricots. The fruit is gold, with red coloration. Semi-mature fruit is hard and does not ripen if picked before completely mature.
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Plumcot varieties include:
- Flavorosa: very sweet, medium-sized, flat round dark-purple fruit with red flesh, early ripening
- Flavor Royal: very sweet, medium-sized, dark purple with crimson flesh, early ripening
- Eagle Egg: very sweet, medium-sized, dark red with crimson flesh, early mid season
- Amigo: rosy plum flavors with a hint of berry, red skin with red bleeding to yellow flesh, early mid season
- Tropical Plumana: sugary tropical punch flavor, medium-sized, red over greenish yellow background with yellow flesh, early mid season
- Crimson Sweet: sweet flavor, medium-sized, crimson skin with pinkish flesh, mid season
- Dapple Jack: medium size with mottled pale green, red-spotted skin, red juicy flesh, late mid season
- Sweet Treat: super sweet with hints of Thompson grape flavor, green, golden skin with yellow juicy flesh, late mid season
- Flavor Queen: medium to large size, very juicy flesh, very sweet, golden yellow when fully ripe, late season
- Flavor Grenade: large size, oblong shape with red blush on green background, crisp, refreshing pineapple and juicy apple flavor, late season
- Summer Punch: medium to large size, very juicy flesh, very sweet with berry and melon undertones, late season
- Tropical Sunrise: Yellow to orange color skin with red blush and orange flesh, sweet plum and apricot flavors
- Flavor King: fruit punch flavor, medium size, with burgundy skin and red, super sweet, juicy flesh, late season
- King Kong: very large size with black skin, plum-like flavor with hints of almond
- Flavor Fall: large size, average flavor, red skin with yellow flesh, very late season
Pluot varieties include:
- Dapple Dandy: large size with mottled pale green to yellow, red-spotted skin, red or pink juicy flesh, firm flesh, moderately late ripening.
- 'Dinosaur egg' is a trademarked name for Dapple Dandy variety.
- Early Dapple: good flavor, medium-sized, mottled green over red skin with pink flesh, early ripening
- Emerald Drop: medium to large size, green skin and yellow-orange flesh, moderately late ripening
- Flavor Delight: medium-sized, fuchsia-honey colored skin with pink flesh, early ripening
- Flavor Fall: large size, average flavor, red skin with yellow flesh, late ripening
- Flavor Finale: medium to large size, purple-red skin with amber-red flesh, exceptional complex flavor, late ripening
- Flavor Grenade: large size, oblong shape with red blush on green background, yellow juicy flesh, moderately late ripening
- Flavor Heart: very large, black with a heart shape, and yellow flesh
- Flavor Jewel: sweet flavor, heart shaped, red over yellow skin with yellow flesh
- Flavor King: Fruit punch flavor, medium size, with burgundy skin and red super sweet juicy flesh, moderately late ripening, flesh is hard until fully ripe
- Flavor Prince: large round and purple, with red flesh
- Flavor Penguin: medium size, early ripening grown in a humid climate
- Flavor Queen: medium to large size, very juicy flesh, very sweet, golden yellow when fully ripe, midseason
- Flavor Rich: medium-sweet, large black round fruit with orange flesh
- Flavor Royal: very sweet, medium-sized, dark purple with crimson flesh, very early ripening
- Flavor Supreme: medium or large, greenish purple skin, juicy red flesh
- Flavorich: large size, dark purple skin and firm, sweet, yellow-orange flesh, moderately late ripening
- Flavorosa: very sweet, medium-sized, flat, round, dark-purple fruit with red flesh, very early ripening
- Geo Pride: medium size, red-skin and yellow flesh, balanced acid-sugar, predominately sweet with unique plum/apricot flavor, moderately late ripening
- Raspberry Jewel: medium, dark red skin, brilliant red, honey-sweet flesh
- Red Ray: medium, bright red with dense, sweet orange flesh
- Splash: small to medium red-orange fruit, with very sweet orange flesh, midseason
Aprium varieties include:
- Cot-N-Candy : harvests in early to mid June, flesh is extra sweet and juicy, with a plummy aftertaste, size is 2.0 to 2.5 inches in radius on average, self-fruitful
- Flavor Delight : resembles an apricot, but with a distinctive flavor and texture all its own, pleasant, lingering aftertaste, bigger crops if pollinized by any apricot
- Tasty Rich Aprium: Very early harvests, in May. Light yellow-orange, firm, freestone. Flavor predominantly apricot, with pleasant aftertaste
- Prunus brigantina, an apricot species with smooth-skinned fruit
- Prunus dasycarpa, an apricot hybrid known as "black apricot" or "purple apricot"
- "Zaiger Interspecifics". Dave Wilson Nursery. Retrieved 2021-02-20.
- Chip Brantley (2009). The perfect fruit: good breeding, bad seeds, and the hunt for the elusive pluot (snippet view). New York: Bloomsbury, USA. ISBN 9781608191994.
- Brantley, Chip (2009-08-19). "Plu-What? What's the difference between pluots and plumcots". Slate.
- Okie, W.R. 2005. Spring satin plumcot. Journal of American Pomological Society. 59(3):119-124.abstract
- J. Whitson; R. John; H.S. Williams, eds. (1914). "Chapter 7: How far can plant improvement go? The crossroads — where fact and theory seem to part". Luther Burbank: his methods and discoveries and their practical application. Vol. 1. Luther Burbank Press. pp. 211–244.
- "Pluot". Oxford University Press. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- Ingels, Chuck; et al. (2007). The Home Orchard: Growing Your Own Deciduous Fruit and Nut Trees. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. p. 33.
- "Okie, W.R. 2005. Spring satin plumcot. Journal of American Pomological Society. 59(3):119-124".
- Garcia, Janis (2018-05-25). "What are apriums and how do you eat them?". Daily Harvest Express. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
Who is the mad genius who originally bred the aprium? Floyd Zaiger from Modesto California.
- "Centers for Disease Control, Fruit of the month".
- "theproduceguide.com listing for Raspberry Jewel pluot".
- "aprium-facts from grownincalifornia.com".