Prunus domestica

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Prunus domestica
Plum on tree.jpg
Prunus domestica plum
Probably a round plum or egg plum cultivar
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Prunus subg. Prunus
Section: Prunus sect. Prunus
Species:
P. domestica
Binomial name
Prunus domestica
Synonyms[1]

Prunus domestica (sometimes referred to as Prunus × domestica), the European plum is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae. A deciduous tree, it includes many varieties of the fruit trees known as plums in English, though not all plums belong to this species. The greengages and damsons also belong to subspecies of P. domestica.

Its hybrid parentage was believed to be Prunus spinosa and Prunus cerasifera.;[2][3] however recent cytogenetic evidence seem to implicate 2x, 4x, 6x P. cerasifera as the sole wild stock from which the cultivated 6x Prunus domestica could have evolved.[4] This is the most commonly grown plum at least in Europe, and most prunes (dried plums) are made from fruits of this species.

Characteristics[edit]

A Prunus domestica with its first flowers, here at the end of February

Typically it forms a large shrub or a small tree. It may be somewhat thorny, with white blossom, borne in early spring. The oval or spherical fruit varies in size, but can be up to 8 cm across. The edible pulp[5] is usually sweet (dessert plum), though some varieties are sour and require cooking with sugar to make them palatable. Like all Prunus fruits, it contains a single large seed, usually called a stone, which is discarded when eating.[6]

Plums are grown commercially in orchards, but modern rootstocks, together with self-fertile strains, training and pruning methods, allow single plums to be grown in relatively small spaces. Their early flowering and fruiting means that they require a sheltered spot away from frosts and cold winds.[6]

Cultivars[edit]

Various cultivars of plums with number labels - Imperial Gage (1), Damson (2), Lombard (3), Maynard (4) and Yellow Egg (5)

Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use. The following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

Subspecies[edit]

Greengages
Mirabelle plum

Cullen et al. (1995) recognises three subspecies, though scientific studies favor a more fine-grained separation:

The subspecies cross easily, so that numerous intermediate forms can be found: their sweetness and tartness may vary, their colors varying from bluish-purple to red, orange, yellow or light green.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved January 27, 2014.
  2. ^ Crane, M. B. (1947). THE GENETICS OF GARDEN PLANTS (PDF). MACMILLAN & Co. LTD. p. 233. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  3. ^ Khanizadeh, S.; Cousineau, J. (2000). Our Plums/Les Pruniers de chez nous. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/Agriculteur et Agroalimentaire Canada. ISBN 978-0-660-61568-4.
  4. ^ Zohary, Daniel (1992-03-01). "Is the European plum, Prunus domestica L., a P. cerasifera EHRH. x P. spinosa L. allo-polyploid?". Euphytica. 60 (1): 75–77. doi:10.1007/BF00022260 (inactive 2020-09-27). ISSN 0014-2336.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of September 2020 (link)
  5. ^ Little, Elbert L. (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region. New York: Knopf. p. 498. ISBN 0-394-50760-6.
  6. ^ a b Klein, Carol (2009). Grow your own fruit. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845334345.
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Blue Rock'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Blue Tit'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Czar'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Imperial Gage'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Jefferson'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  12. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Laxton's Delight'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Mallard'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Marjory's Seedling'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Opal'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Oullins Gage'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  17. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Pershore'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  18. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Prunus domestica 'Victoria'". Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.

External links[edit]